How to Write a Comparative Essay

 

There are different forms of essays that a student can write in class. Depending on the type of essay that you are tackling, it is advisable to ensure that you follow the right structure and format provided. For instance, when you are writing a comparative essay, there are various key elements that you need to consider for you to come up with a quality essay. When you are writing a comparative essay about education theories, ensure that you identify different education theories that you will compare in your essay. The following writing tips will help you to have a well-researched article.

Analyze the Question

When you are writing a comparative essay, make sure that you understand the question. Even if you may have a great idea for a paper in your essay, you may later notice that it does not match the prompt. You need to understand that most of these essays will signal their purpose by using different words such as differences, similarities, contrast, and compare. Make sure that you read the instructions and know some of the words that you should not use often. In other words, by going through the question, you will develop the essay content.

Understand the Type of Comparison Essay

When you want to write an essay, you need to ensure that you have all the info that is required by the professor. As mentioned earlier, there are a lot of different types of comparison essays. It is critical to understand the right kind that you are asked to write before you start your research. In this process, if you are writing one about education theories, make sure that you begin with a framework and create an argument depending on your comparison.

Conduct Thorough Research

After you have identified the type of comparative essay that you will write, it is about time to research. You can use a college writing service to gather all the info that you want. Some of these writing companies can either help you with the information you wish to or write an essay for you.

When you are researching, you can decide to use professional writing sites to get up-to-date information. However, if you choose to write it, ensure that you study your subjects of comparison that feature the education theories. With enough information, you will end up producing well-researched content.

Outline Your Comparisons

If you have completed researching your subject comparisons, make sure that you outline them. In simpler words, ensure that you plan your organization strategy to have orderly work. It is one of the unique features of comparative essays that you need to include. Without this feature or step, then your article is incomplete. You can research and find different examples of comparative essays that will suit the question offered.

Write the Essay

Before you start writing, ensure that you have a thesis statement that will guide you to produce a quality essay. There are various methods or options that you can use when writing your essay. For some individuals, they start with the body first, the conclusion second, and the introduction part last. Therefore, depending on your way of writing, ensure that you arrange your essay as required or stated in the instructions. After writing your essay, make sure that you proofread it to ensure that it reads out well. In doing this, you will pass your exams and attain your academic objectives.

Conclusion

Writing a comparative essay is not an easy task. However, when you are writing it, make sure that you take your time to research and identify all the points that you will include in it. With perfect writing tips, it will be easy to write the required essay.

handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education

AbeBooks.com: Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education: Special order direct from the distributor

handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education

Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education
About this title
The first of its kind, this handbook synthesizes major advances in the sociology of education over the past several decades. It incorporates both a systematic review of significant theoretical and empirical work and challenging original contributions by distinguished American, English, and French sociologists. In his introduction, John G. Richardson traces the development of the sociology of education and reviews the important classical European works in which this discipline is grounded. Each chapter, devoted to a major topic in the field, provides both a review of the literature and an exposition of an original thesis. The inclusion of subjects outside traditional sociological concern–such as the historical foundations of education and the sociology of special education–gives an interdisciplinary scope that enhances the volume’s usefulness.

The broader theoretical frameworks of both Bourdieu (and his concepts of habitus, field, doxa, collusio and capital) and Bernstein (and his concepts of classification, framing and ritual) provide a deeper understanding of the distinctiveness of Catholic schooling. This article presents a model for theorising Catholic schooling in which levels of action can be seen to be at work in Catholic schools whereby the habitus of the participants can be closely aligned with the framing of a school’s values through consensual rituals and other leadership practices. The stronger the alignment between these levels generates an experience of collusio and the greater the extent that agents within a Catholic school generate practices towards preserving Catholic spiritual capital, the more strongly that school is classified from other types of schools with its own distinct voice and identity. We conclude by demonstrating how this model was applied in researching Catholic schooling in Ireland.
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author.

Part VI Benefits of education and returns to education
22. Returns to Adult Education and Inequality – A Life Course Perspective
Felix Weiss
Presenting original contributions from the key experts in the field, the Research Handbook on the Sociology of Education explores the major theoretical, methodological, empirical and political challenges and pressing social questions facing education in current times.

Dunlop, Ted. 2004. “Lessons from Down Under: Quality Assurance, Accreditation, and Legitimization of the Applied Degree.” Monograph 4, Association
of Canadian Community Colleges. Retrieved March 2, 2012 ( www .accc.ca/ ftp/pubs/monographs/Dunlopmonograph. pdf).
Ruck, Martin D. and Scot Wortley. 2002. “Racial and Ethnic Minority High School Students’ Perceptions of School Disciplinary Practices: A Look at Some Canadian Findings.” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 31(3):185–195. doi:10.1023/A:1015081102189.

Bowles, Samuel, and Herbert Gintis . 2002. “Social Capital and Community Governance.” The Economic Journal 112:F419-F436.
Sampson, Robert J., Jeffrey D. Morenoff , and Felton Earls. 1999. “Beyond Social Capital: Spatial Dynamics of Collective Efficacy for Children.” American Sociological Review 64(5) 633-660.

Resources:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19422539.2017.1286908?src=recsys
http://www.e-elgar.com/shop/usd/research-handbook-on-the-sociology-of-education-9781788110419.html
http://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/robsonsoced/back-matter/__unknown__-2/
http://faculty.washington.edu/matsueda/courses/590/web590.htm
http://www.verywellmind.com/lev-vygotsky-biography-2795533

lev vygotsky education theory

Get a short biography of Lev Vygotsky, a seminal thinker who had a powerful influence on psychology and education.

lev vygotsky education theory

Lev vygotsky education theory
Parents and teachers can foster learning by providing educational opportunities that lie within a child’s zone of proximal development. Kids can also learn a great deal from their peers. Teachers can foster this process by pairing less skilled children with more knowledgeable classmates.
The “zone” is the gap between what a child knows and what they do not yet know.

Lev vygotsky education theory
Vygotsky’s Views on Cognitive Development
2: Vygotsky placed more emphasis on the social factors that contribute to cognitive development

Vygotsky was also influenced by the philosophy of Karl Marx, whose focus on the connections between the material world and human thought were highly influential to Vygotsky, particularly early in his career.
Perhaps Vygotsky’s most dramatic and far-ranging ideas centred on the role of language’s relation to thought and consciousness.

Lev vygotsky education theory
A second aspect of Vygotsky’s theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the “zone of proximal development” (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.
This is a general theory of cognitive development. Most of the original work was done in the context of language learning in children (Vygotsky, 1962), although later applications of the framework have been broader (see Wertsch, 1985).

Lev vygotsky education theory
Vygotsky’s work has not received the same level of intense scrutiny that Piaget’s has, partly due to the time-consuming process of translating Vygotsky’s work from Russian. Also, Vygotsky’s sociocultural perspective does not provide as many specific hypotheses to test as did Piaget’s theory, making refutation difficult, if not impossible.
This contradicts Piaget’s view of universal stages and content of development (Vygotsky does not refer to stages in the way that Piaget does).

Resources:

http://sites.google.com/a/nau.edu/learning-theories-etc547-spring-2011/theorist/lev-vygotsky
http://teacherofsci.com/vygotsky/
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/social-development/
http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html
http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319489827

education policy as an act of white supremacy: whiteness, critical race theory and education reform

Journal of Education Policy Volume 20, 2005 – Issue 4 Original Articles Education policy as an act of white supremacy: whiteness, critical race theory and education reform

education policy as an act of white supremacy: whiteness, critical race theory and education reform

6. For more detail on Herrnstein and Murray’s claims, and the racist pedigree of their sources (both intellectual and financial) see Lane ( 1999 Lane, C. 1999 . “ The tainted sources of The bell curve ”. In Race & IQ: expanded edition, Edited by: Montagu, A. 408 – 424 . New York : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ), Gillborn and Youdell ( 2000 Gillborn, D. and Youdell, D. 2000 . Rationing education: policy, practice, reform and equity, Buckingham : Open University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 231) and Apple ( 2004 Apple, M. W. 2004 . Ideology and curriculum, New York : RoutledgeFalmer . [Crossref] , [Google Scholar] , pp. 198–199).
4. See also David R. Roediger ( 1992 Roediger, D. R. 1992 . The wages of whiteness: race and the making of the American working class, New York : Verso . [Google Scholar] , 1994 Roediger, D. R. 1994 . Towards the abolition of whiteness: essays on race, politics, and working class history, New York : Verso . [Google Scholar] ).

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Education policy as an act of white supremacy: whiteness, critical race theory and education reform
Arguing across conference tables is useless. For those of us who are concerned with the social justice project in education, our work will be done on the frontline with communities committed to change … neither race nor class exists as static phenomena.
The focus on racism in CRT does not operate to the exclusion of other forms of social inequality. Indeed, a key aspect of CRT is a concern with “intersectionality,” that is, an attempt to analyze how racism operates within and across other axes of differentiation such as social class and gender (Crenshaw, 1995; Gillborn and Youdell, 2009; Tate, 1997).

Education policy as an act of white supremacy: whiteness, critical race theory and education reform
racism awareness day and of course only a few went. I feel that the
In addition to this, Sherry Marx’s paper entitled “Regarding Whiteness: Exploring and Intervening in the Effects of White Racism in Teacher Education” contains the following: “Through various means of data collection, it became apparent that the good intentions of the participants were consistently undermined by the whiteness and the racism that influenced their beliefs about and behaviors with the children. The researcher consequently decided to intervene in the study, sharing data with participants and encouraging them to see the ways that whiteness and racism influenced their tutoring experience.”

Rogers, P. (2014). Flagging dominance: Social geographies of colonial violence in a Canadian classroom. Critical Literacy: Theories & Practice, 8(1), 36-49.
Kelly, M. G. E. (2013). Foucault, subjectivity and & techniques of the self. In C. Falzon, T. O’Leary & J. Sawicki (Eds.), A companion to Foucault (1st Ed.) (pp. 510-525). Oxford: Wiley Blackwell Publishing.

Resources:

http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/10001654/
http://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9780203863701.ch3
http://medium.com/@djohnson1788/the-american-education-system-is-white-supremacy-legitimized-4a1c2a93e006
http://journals.library.brocku.ca/index.php/SSJ/article/view/1920
http://www.verywellmind.com/lev-vygotsky-biography-2795533

theory and research in social education

Theory and Research in Social Education Theory and Research in Social Education is designed to stimulate and communicate systematic research and thinking in social education. Its purpose is to

theory and research in social education

The length may vary from 500 to 3,500 words. The format for the top of the first page is as follows: Books: Author (last name first). Date of publication (in parentheses). Title (in italics). City of publication: Publisher, total number of pages, list price (for both hard and softcover, if available). ISBN number.
Manuscripts will be acknowledged by the editor upon receipt. Following preliminary editorial review, manuscripts will be sent to reviewers who have expertise in the subject of the article. The review process takes approximately three months. Authors should expect to hear from the editor within that time regarding the status of their manuscript. Theory and Research in Social Education uses the blind review system. The names of referees are published annually in the fall issue of the journal.

Our graduates go on to research and clinical faculty positions in colleges and universities, teacher leadership positions, and social studies positions in schools.
Just as there are a variety of disciplines within, and approaches to, social studies education, there are many possibilities available for doctoral study. Our faculty members borrow from various research methodologies (narrative inquiry, self-study, and discourse analysis) and a variety of theoretical perspectives (feminism, pragmatism, critical theory, psychoanalytic theory) to focus research in social studies education.

Theory and research in social education
Social Studies allows joint concentrations with interdisciplinary programs that include social science faculty: generally, African and African American Studies, East Asian Studies, Environmental Science and Public Policy, Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Religion, South Asian Studies, Philosophy, and The Study of Women, Gender, and Sexuality, We do not allow joint concentrations with science or humanities departments or with social science departments that we share faculty with (anthropology, economics, government, history, or sociology).
For up-to-date information on advising in Social Studies, please go to www.socialstudies.fas.harvard.edu or visit the Advising Programs Office website .

The course aims to provide students with an understanding of and skills in research design and research process in the social sciences. More specifically, the following topics will be covered by the course: research approaches, applied philosophy of science in the social sciences, selection of a research topic, literature overview, contextualising the research topic, role of theories in research, formulation of research questions, research design, choice of methods, planning of research, research ethics, and reflexivity in the research process. The course will introduce these issues through theoretical discussions and practical exercises. Students will work both in groups and individually.
This course aims at providing a comprehensive understanding of different and mixed methods approaches in the Social Sciences, as well as providing you with necessary skills required for their application.

Theory and research in social education
Books, Articles and Other Amazing Resources
Books, Articles and Other Amazing Resources Continue reading →

Resources:

http://coe.uga.edu/academics/degrees/phd-social-studies-education
http://handbook.fas.harvard.edu/book/social-studies
http://www.graduateschool.sam.lu.se/academics/course-catalogue/courses-method-and-theory-science/social-scientific-research-design-and-process-simm51
http://visionsofed.com/
http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html

functionalist theory on education

Functionalist theory on education There are several major manifest functions associated with education. The first is socialization. Beginning in preschool and kindergarten, students are taught to

functionalist theory on education

Functionalist theory on education
The educational system, especially as experienced on university campuses, has traditionally provided a place for students to learn about various social issues. There is ample opportunity for social and political advocacy, as well as the ability to develop tolerance to the many views represented on campus. In 2011, the Occupy Wall Street movement swept across college campuses all over the United States, leading to demonstrations in which diverse groups of students were unified with the purpose of changing the political climate of the country. Social and political advocacy can take many forms, from joining established programs on international development to joining a particular party-affiliated group to supporting non-profit clubs at your school.
In the United States, schools also fill the role of preparing students for competition in life. Obviously, athletics foster a competitive ethos, but even in the classroom students compete against one another academically. Schools also aid in teaching patriotism. Students recite the Pledge of Allegiance each morning and take history classes where they learn about national heroes and the nation’s past. The practice of saying the Pledge of Allegiance has become controversial in recent years, with individuals arguing that requiring or even expecting children to pledge allegiance is unconstitutional and as such may face legal challenges to its validity. [1] [/footnote]

Functionalist theory on education
There are several major manifest functions associated with education. The first is socialization. Beginning in preschool and kindergarten, students are taught to practice various societal roles. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who established the academic discipline of sociology, characterized schools as “socialization agencies that teach children how to get along with others and prepare them for adult economic roles” (Durkheim 1898). Indeed, it seems that schools have taken on this responsibility in full.
School systems in the United States also transmit the core values of the nation through manifest functions like social control. One of the roles of schools is to teach students conformity to law and respect for authority. Obviously, such respect, given to teachers and administrators, will help a student navigate the school environment. This function also prepares students to enter the workplace and the world at large, where they will continue to be subject to people who have authority over them. Fulfillment of this function rests primarily with classroom teachers and instructors who are with students all day.

Functionalist theory on education
Another Marxists called Bourdieu criticises the Functionalist view by saying that not all the pupils have an equal opportunity. He believes that the more upper class values and mannerisms a person has (their ‘cultural capital’) the better they are treated and viewed within education. This creates a divide in education as those who are seen to be upper class are treated better than the working classes and therefore receive a poorer standard of education. This creates unfairness as ‘cultural capital’ works in favour of the upper classes and against the working classes.
Feminists also believe that most educational textbooks are designed for male pupils. Kelly believes that textbooks often contain images of cars and football throughout. Stanworth also said that teachers are more likely to give their time and attention to male pupils. This creates a divide as females are left out in the classroom and could receive a poorer standard of education. She also said that girls often underestimate their ability and lack confidence in themselves.

Functionalist theory on education
4. Role Allocation and meritocracy
You might also like my brief vodcast on the same topic…

A functionalist’s perspective on education is to have a consensus perspective: examine society in terms of how it is maintained for the common good. A functionalist will put an emphasis on positive aspects of schools such as socialisation: the learning of skills and attitudes in school. Education helps maintain society by socialising young people into values of achievement, competition and equality of opportunity. Skills provision is also important: education teaches the skills for the economy. For example, literacy, numeracy and IT for particular occupations. Role allocation is all part of this: education allocates people to the most appropriate jobs for their talents, using examinations and qualifications.
Marxism believes that education teaches the values and norms of the bourgeoisie.

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-functionalist-theory-on-education/
http://www.podology.org.uk/functionalism-education/4560344140
http://revisesociology.com/2015/01/26/functionalist-perspective-education/
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/sociology/education-and-sociology/functionalism-and-education/
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1467-9752.1987.tb00169.x

which statement describes the conflict theory of education?

The conflict theory states that society is in a constant state of conflict due to competition for limited resources.

which statement describes the conflict theory of education?

Conflict theorists point to the financial crisis of 2008 and the subsequent bank bailouts as good examples of real-life conflict theory, according to authors Alan Sears and James Cairns in their book A Good Book, in Theory. They view the financial crisis as the inevitable outcome of the inequalities and instabilities of the global economic system, which enables the largest banks and institutions to avoid government oversight and take huge risks that only reward a select few.
Weber’s beliefs about conflict extend beyond Marx’s because they suggest that some forms of social interaction, including conflict, generate beliefs and solidarity between individuals and groups within a society. In this way, an individual’s reactions to inequality might be different depending on the groups with which they are associated; whether they perceive those in power to be legitimate; and so on.

Which statement describes the conflict theory of education?
Explanation:
The correct answer is option B

Which statement describes the conflict theory of education?
Such a situation leads to social class reproduction, extensively studied by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. He researched how cultural capital , or cultural knowledge that serves (metaphorically) as currency that helps us navigate a culture, alters the experiences and opportunities available to French students from different social classes. Members of the upper and middle classes have more cultural capital than do families of lower-class status. As a result, the educational system maintains a cycle in which the dominant culture’s values are rewarded. Instruction and tests cater to the dominant culture and leave others struggling to identify with values and competencies outside their social class. For example, there has been a great deal of discussion over what standardized tests such as the SAT truly measure. Many argue that the tests group students by cultural ability rather than by natural intelligence.
Conflict theorists do not believe that public schools reduce social inequality. Rather, they believe that the educational system reinforces and perpetuates social inequalities that arise from differences in class, gender, race, and ethnicity. Where functionalists see education as serving a beneficial role, conflict theorists view it more negatively. To them, educational systems preserve the status quo and push people of lower status into obedience.

Which statement describes the conflict theory of education?
credentialism the emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that a person has a certain skill, has attained a certain level of education, or has met certain job qualifications
16.1. Education around the World
Educational systems around the world have many differences, though the same factors—including resources and money—affect each of them. Educational distribution is a major issue in many nations, including in the United States, where the amount of money spent per student varies greatly by state. Education happens through both formal and informal systems; both foster cultural transmission. Universal access to education is a worldwide concern.

Which statement describes the conflict theory of education?
Table 11.1 Theory Snapshot
The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack, 2012). Ballantine, J. H., & Hammack, F. M. (2012). The sociology of education: A systematic analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Table 11.1 “Theory Snapshot” summarizes what these approaches say.

Resources:

http://brainly.com/question/12448719
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-conflict-theory-on-education/
http://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter16-education/
http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030034566

behaviorism theory education

Behaviorism Behaviorist teaching methods have proven most successful in areas where there is a “correct” response or easily memorized material. Background Methodological behaviorism began

behaviorism theory education

Behaviorists explain motivation in terms of schedules of positive and negative reinforcement. Just as receiving food pellets each time it pecks at a button teaches a pigeon to peck the button, pleasant experiences cause human learners to make the desired connections between specific stimuli and the appropriate responses. For example, a student who receives verbal praise and good grades for correct answers (positive reinforcement) is likely to learn those answers effectively; one who receives little or no positive feedback for the same answers (negative reinforcement) is less likely to learn them as effectively. Likewise, human learners tend to avoid responses that are associated with punishment or unpleasant consequences such as poor grades or adverse feedback.
From a behaviorist perspective, the transmission of information from teacher to learner is essentially the transmission of the response appropriate to a certain stimulus. Thus, the point of education is to present the student with the appropriate repertoire of behavioral responses to specific stimuli and to reinforce those responses through an effective reinforcement schedule (161). An effective reinforcement schedule requires consistent repetition of the material; small, progressive sequences of tasks; and continuous positive reinforcement. Without positive reinforcement, learned responses will quickly become extinct. This is because learners will continue to modify their behavior until they receive some positive reinforcement.

Behaviorism theory education
What was important for a behaviorist analysis of human behavior was not language acquisition so much as the interaction between language and overt behavior. In an essay republished in his 1969 book Contingencies of Reinforcement, Skinner took the view that humans could construct linguistic stimuli that would then acquire control over their behavior in the same way that external stimuli could. The possibility of such instructional control over behavior meant that contingencies of reinforcement would not always produce the same effects on human behavior as they reliably do in other animals. The focus of a radical behaviorist analysis of human behavior therefore shifted to an attempt to understand the interaction between instructional control and contingency control, and also to understand the behavioral processes that determine what instructions are constructed and what control they acquire over behavior. Important figures in this effort have been A. Charles Catania, C. Fergus Lowe, and Steven C. Hayes.
Skinner’s empirical work expanded on earlier research on trial-and-error learning by researchers such as Thorndike and Guthrie with both conceptual reformulations – Thorndike’s notion of a stimulus-response ‘association’ or ‘connection’ was abandoned – and methodological ones – the use of the ‘free operant’, so called because the animal was now permitted to respond at its own rate rather than in a series of trials determined by the experimenter procedures. With this method, Skinner carried out substantial experimental work on the effects of different schedules and rates of reinforcement on the rates of operant responses made by rats and pigeons. He achieved remarkable success in training animals to perform unexpected responses, and to emit large numbers of responses, and to demonstrate many empirical regularities at the purely behavioural level. This lent some credibility to his conceptual analysis.

The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist’s total scheme of investigation’.

Another important distinction between methodological and radical behaviorism concerns the extent to which environmental factors influence behavior. Watson’s (1913) methodological behaviorism asserts the mind is tabula rasa (a blank slate) at birth.

Behaviorism theory education
The classical conditioning process works by developing an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Simply put, the Premack Principle is a powerful method of cueing activities in a way that creates incentives for completing undesirable activities.
The clearest example of this is eating your vegetables before having your desert.

Resources:

http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/behaviorism.html
http://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html
http://www.verywellmind.com/behavioral-psychology-4157183
http://helpfulprofessor.com/behaviorism/
http://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Classroom_Management_Theorists_and_Theories/Burrhus_Frederic_Skinner

behaviorism theory in education

Behaviorist Approach The Behaviorist Approach By Saul McLeod, updated 2017 Behaviorism is a theory of learning which states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the

behaviorism theory in education

While behaviorists often accept the existence of cognitions and emotions, they prefer not to study them as only observable (i.e., external) behavior can be objectively and scientifically measured.
Behaviorism is a theory of learning which states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment through a process called conditioning. Thus, behavior is simply a response to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors, as they can be studied in a systematic and observable manner.

Pavlov didn’t stop there. Next, he rung a bell every time the dog was about to eat to see whether the bell would also cause the dog to salivate.
References

Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. There are two different types of conditioning, each yielding a different behavioral pattern:

  • Behaviorism does not account for all kinds of learning, since it disregards the activities of the mind.
  • Behaviorism does not explain some learning–such as the recognition of new language patterns by young children–for which there is no reinforcement mechanism.
  • Research has shown that animals adapt their reinforced patterns to new information. For instance, a rat can shift its behavior to respond to changes in the layout of a maze it had previously mastered through reinforcements.

Behaviorist teaching methods tend to rely on so-called “skill and drill” exercises to provide the consistent repetition necessary for effective reinforcement of response patterns. Other methods include question (stimulus) and answer (response) frameworks in which questions are of gradually increasing difficulty; guided practice; and regular reviews of material. Behaviorist methods also typically rely heavily on the use of positive reinforcements such as verbal praise, good grades, and prizes. Behaviorists assess the degree of learning using methods that measure observable behavior such as exam performance. Behaviorist teaching methods have proven most successful in areas where there is a “correct” response or easily memorized material. For example, while behaviorist methods have proven to be successful in teaching structured material such as facts and formulae, scientific concepts, and foreign language vocabulary, their efficacy in teaching comprehension, composition, and analytical abilities is questionable.
Methodological behaviorism began as a reaction against the introspective psychology that dominated the late-19th and early-20th centuries. Introspective psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt maintained that the study of consciousness was the primary object of psychology. Their methodology was primarily introspective, relying heavily on first-person reports of sensations and the constituents of immediate experiences. Behaviorists such as J. B. Watson and B. F. Skinner rejected introspectionist methods as being subjective and unquantifiable. Instead, they focused on objectively observable, quantifiable events and behavior. They argued that since it is not possible to observe objectively or to quantify what occurs in the mind, scientific theories should take into account only observable indicators such as stimulus-response sequences. According to Skinner (1976, 23), “The mentalistic problem can be avoided by going directly to the prior physical causes while bypassing intermediate feelings or states of mind. The quickest way to do this is to … consider only those facts which can be objectively observed in the behavior of one person in its relation to his [or her] prior environmental history.” Radical behaviorists such as Skinner also made the ontological claim that facts about mental states are reducible to facts about behavioral dispositions.

Behaviorism theory in education
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Resources:

http://helpfulprofessor.com/behaviorism/
http://www.funderstanding.com/theory/behaviorism/
http://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/behaviorism/
http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html
http://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/behaviorism/

social cognitive theory in education

Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theory added emotions and cognitions to social learning theory such that an individual’s thoughts and feelings affect their own behavior, and their

social cognitive theory in education

Social cognitive theory in education
Self-efficacy has consistently been shown to influence behaviors in stroke survivors. 26 Social cognitive theory outlines four ways to improve self-efficacy: (1) mastery experiences, (2) vicarious experiences (i.e., social modeling), (3) social persuasion, and (4) states of emotions and physiology. 71 Healthcare providers can provide mastery experiences by encouraging patients to practice the behavior, ensuring that the patient has small successes in engaging in the behavior (i.e., start simple and progress in difficulty), and providing feedback on progress. Healthcare providers can facilitate vicarious experiences by encouraging patients to attend support groups, having them interact with other patients (e.g., group education), and describing success stories of patients engaging in the behavior. Social persuasion and states of emotions can both be addressed by providing education, for example, providing pamphlets on the benefits of exercising or medications, teaching the differences between fatigue felt after exercise and fatigue caused by the stroke, and addressing feelings of depression and/or anxiety. Table 20.1 provides details on implementing behavior strategies consistent with social cognitive theory.
Self-efficacy theory (SET) is a subset of Bandura’s ( 1986 ) social cognitive theory . According to this approach, the two key determinants of behavior are perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. The latter construct refers to the perceived positive and negative consequences of performing the behavior. See Schwarzer and Fuchs ( 1996 ) for a version of this model that incorporates risk perceptions and behavioral intention, as well as components of the action phase of behavior change. No meta-analysis of SET has been published, though there is substantial evidence for the predictive validity of self-efficacy (Schwarzer and Fuchs 1996 ).

One theory that draws on both cognitive and behavior influences and benefits from technology is that of social learning or the social cognitive theory. Learning continually occurs through social interactions and influences from the community, media and the Internet. People determine how these influences will affect them based on their inner thoughts. Through social interactions learning will occur and meaning will be constructed. There are numerous opportunities for people to enhance their learning through social interactions online. Global networking and creating/interacting with educational games as a group are a few resources to enhance social learning. Social learning is ever increasing with the continual advancements of technology and online communications.
Scherba de Valenzuela, J. (2002). Sociocultural Theory. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009, from http://www.unm.edu/%7Edevalenz/handouts/sociocult.html

Social cognitive theory in education
For Bandura (1986), the capability that is most “distinctly human” (p. 21) is that of self-reflection, hence it is a prominent feature of social cognitive theory. Through self-reflection, people make sense of their experiences, explore their own cognitions and self-beliefs, engage in self-evaluation, and alter their thinking and behavior accordingly.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.

An experiment by Schunk and Hanson, that studied grade 2 students who had previously experienced difficulty in learning subtraction, illustrates the type of research stimulated by social learning theory. One group of students observed a subtraction demonstration by a teacher and then participated in an instructional program on subtraction. A second group observed other grade 2 students performing the same subtraction procedures and then participated in the same instructional program. The students who observed peer models scored higher on a subtraction post-test and also reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that perceived similarity of the model to the learner increases self-efficacy, leading to more effective learning of modeled behavior. It is supposed that peer modeling is particularly effective for students who have low self-efficacy.
Social cognitive theory is a highly influential fusion of behavioral, cognitive and social elements that was initially developed by educational psychologist Albert Bandura. In its earlier, neo-behavioral incarnation called social learning theory, Bandura emphasized the process of observational learning in which a learner’s behavior changes as a result of observing others’ behavior and its consequences. The theory identified several factors that determine whether observing a model will affect behavioral or cognitive change. These factors include the learner’s developmental status, the perceived prestige and competence of the model, the consequences received by the model, the relevance of the model’s behaviors and consequences to the learner’s goals, and the learner’s self-efficacy. The concept of self-efficacy, which played an important role in later developments of the theory, refers to the learner’s belief in his or her ability to perform the modeled behavior.

Social cognitive theory in education
Such beliefs can impact personal growth and change. For example, research has shown that enhancing self-efficacy beliefs is more likely to result in the improvement of health habits than the use of fear-based communication. Belief in one’s self-efficacy can be the difference between whether or not an individual even considers making positive changes in their life.
Social cognitive theory is a learning theory developed by the renowned Stanford psychology professor Albert Bandura. The theory provides a framework for understanding how people actively shape and are shaped by their environment. In particular, the theory details the processes of observational learning and modeling, and the influence of self-efficacy on the production of behavior.

Resources:

http://sites.google.com/a/boisestate.edu/edtechtheories/social-cognition-and-social-learning-theories-of-education-and-technology
http://sites.education.uky.edu/motivation/social-cognitive-theory/
http://www.k12academics.com/educational-psychology/learning-cognition/social-cognitive-perspective
http://www.thoughtco.com/social-cognitive-theory-4174567
http://futuresinitiative.org/rethinkhighered/2017/11/13/student-involvement-a-developmental-theory-for-higher-education/