theory of development model of early childhood education

2, Understand evidence-based approaches to child development. 2.1 Explain how babies and children learn and develop. Babies and young children are learning from the moment they are born, and this

theory of development model of early childhood education

Having an evidence-based approach to inform own practice is about having the integration of research and legislation, adapting it to suit the individual needs of the children in the setting, by mixing evidence of research with practitioner expertise and values of legislations settings can ensure they are creating the best possible learning environment and consistency for the children in the setting. Bronfenbrenner identified the importance of studying children in multiple environments. It is very important that practitioners keep their professional knowledge up to date and ensure they are aware of any current research if it could affect their practice, this will ensure practitioners are aware any new findings around children’s development. By attending regular training sessions and attending any network meetings practitioners can ensure they are made aware of any changes in practice or legislation that could influence the outcomes for children. Any relevant updates in practice or legislation should be implemented as soon as possible and continued to be reviewed when necessary to ensure consistency and effectiveness in the relevant areas. Practitioners need to take the responsibility to do their own research around the relevant subjects, especially if they are lone workers such as childminders or stay at home parents who are home schooling. Through continuous interaction with children, parents, carers and other agencies, whilst also evaluating own practice, practitioners can ensure they are providing the best quality care and education possible for them.
2.4 Evaluate how evidence-based approaches can inform own practice.

Theory of development model of early childhood education
Multi -aged Grouping, based on Periods of Development : Children are grouped in three or six-year spans and have the same teacher for this period. The first group is called the “Nido” and consists of children in necessary daycare for working parents. This is age 0-1, or “until walking”. The second group is known as the “Infant Community” and is from around one year to age 2-3. The third group is the “casa dei bambini” and is from 2.5-6 or 3-6, depending on the training of the teacher. The forth group is from 6-12, a larger age span because the children for this 6 years exhibit the same tendencies and learning habits. The emotional and physical growth is steady and the intellectual work strong. The 6 year old learns from and is inspired by children much older, and the teaching is done by older to younger as well as younger to older. This large age span helps to avoid the tendency of some teachers to over-schedule and over-direct students who need ever more freedom of time-planning and research. Sometimes this age group is divided into 6-9 ad 9-12, but this is a new development and still questioned by many. The next group is the 12-15 which is, at least in the West, a more emotional time with less ability to focus on intellectual work. Dr. Montessori called this time the Erdkinder CHildren, and proposed a farm school with real work close to the earth. The high school years are, as in traditional schools, a time of much more intellectual work, but with a different kind of child who has been through years of critical thinking, caring for the earth and other people, and independent research.
Jean Piaget’s stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget’s view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations.

Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory is commonly relied upon today across many industries and professions. This theory states that while much child learning and development does come from direct experience, much also comes from modeling and simple observations. Bandura himself is another important and very pioneering figure in psychology who is currently the Professor Emeritus at Stanford University.
John Bowlby was another groundbreaking psychologist and theorist in matters of development. He also crafted one of the earliest known child development theories which still sees prominent use and citation today. In Bowlby’s Attachment Theory, he asserted that much of child development is based on the innate need of children to form attachments. These attachments may involve any number of people, places, or things and ultimately have a substantial effect on onward development patterns throughout life.

Theory of development model of early childhood education
Another psychologist named Lev Vygotsky proposed a seminal learning theory that has gone on to become very influential, especially in the field of education. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children learn actively and through hands-on experiences.  
Today, contemporary psychologists often draw on a variety of theories and perspectives in order to understand how kids grow, behave, and think. These theories represent just a few of the different ways of thinking about child development.

Theory of development model of early childhood education
Behaviorism is a perspective on learning that focuses on changes in individuals’ observable behaviors— changes in what people say or do. At some point we all use this perspective, whether we call it “behaviorism” or something else. The first time that I drove a car, for example, I was concerned primarily with whether I could actually do the driving, not with whether I could describe or explain how to drive. For another example: when I reached the point in life where I began cooking meals for myself, I was more focused on whether I could actually produce edible food in a kitchen than with whether I could explain my recipes and cooking procedures to others. And still another example—one often relevant to new teachers: when I began my first year of teaching, I was more focused on doing the job of teaching—on day-to-day survival—than on pausing to reflect on what I was doing.
Social constructivism sees abstract thinking emerging from dialogue between a relative novice (a child or youth) and a more experienced expert (a parent or teacher). From this point of view, the more such dialogue occurs, then the more the child can acquire facility with it. The dialogue must, of course, honor a child’s need for intellectual scaffolding or a zone of proximal development. A teacher’s responsibility can therefore include engaging the child in dialogue that uses potentially abstract reasoning, but without expecting the child to understand the abstractions fully at first. Young children, for example, can not only engage in science experiments like creating a “volcano” out of baking soda and water, but also discuss and speculate about their observations of the experiment. They may not understand the experiment as an adult would, but the discussion can begin moving them toward adult-like understandings.


social theory in education

Social theory in education Lev Vygotsky and Social Learning Theories Social learning theories help us to understand how people learn in social contexts (learn from each other) and informs

social theory in education

Social theory in education
Social learning theories help us to understand how people learn in social contexts (learn from each other) and informs us on how we, as teachers, construct active learning communities. Lev Vygotsky (1962), a Russian teacher and psychologist, first stated that we learn through our interactions and communications with others. Vygotsky (1962) examined how our social environments influence the learning process. He suggested that learning takes place through the interactions students have with their peers, teachers, and other experts. Consequently, teachers can create a learning environment that maximizes the learner’s ability to interact with each other through discussion, collaboration, and feedback. Moreover, Vygotsky (1962) argues that culture is the primary determining factor for knowledge construction. We learn through this cultural lens by interacting with others and following the rules, skills, and abilities shaped by our culture.

Vygotsky argued, “that language is the main tool that promotes thinking, develops reasoning, and supports cultural activities like reading and writing” (Vygotsky 1978). As a result, instructional strategies that promote literacy across the curriculum play a significant role in knowledge construction as well as the combination of whole class leadership, individual and group coaching, and independent learning. Moreover, teachers need to provide the opportunity to students for a managed discussion about their learning. Discussion that has a purpose with substantive comments that build off each other and there is a meaningful exchange between students that results in questions that promote deeper understanding. Discussion-based classroom using socratic dialogue where the instructor manages the discourse can lead each student to feel like their contributions are valued resulting in increased student motivation.

The teacher, or local topic expert, plays the important role of facilitator, creating the environment where directed and guided interactions can occur. Many other educational theorists adopted Vygotsky’s social process ideas and proposed st rategies that foster deeper knowledge construction, facilitate socratic student discussions, and build active learning communities through small group based instruction.

The BA (Hons) Education Studies aims to introduce its students to creative and forward-thinking approaches to understanding education, based on critical analysis. However, coverage of contemporary education research and debates often assumes a knowledge of critical social theory and concepts of social and cultural reproduction. This module enables students to explore the interplay between theories of society and education. Students will examine how major theorists have sought to analyse the role that educational institutions play within complex societies. The module will focus on the historical development of a range of dynamic and flexible approaches to understanding social and cultural reproduction in education.
The module will consist of 10 3 hour interactive seminars to a total of 30 contact hours.

Social theory in education
The field is interdisciplinary, drawing ideas from a range of contributing disciplines but particularly from politics, philosophy and sociology. Social theory aims to develop concepts and ontologies that can provide social research with conceptual and methodological tools for analytical and interpretational work.
Blog post 18 Mar 2020

Social theory in education
The cycle of rewarding those who possess cultural capital is found in formal educational curricula as well as in the hidden curriculum, which refers to the type of nonacademic knowledge that students learn through informal learning and cultural transmission. This hidden curriculum reinforces the positions of those with higher cultural capital and serves to bestow status unequally.
Lauen, Douglas Lee and Karolyn Tyson. 2008. “Perspectives from the Disciplines: Sociological Contribution to Education Policy Research and Debate.” AREA Handbook on Education Policy Research. Retrieved February 24, 2012.

Social theory in education
In ecological systems theory, the people and places with which individuals may not be directly involved but by which they are still impacted; for example, the effect a parent’s workplace may have on a child.
Many prominent education researchers have been influenced by the work of Freire, including Henry Giroux and Peter McLaren. Giroux is currently a professor of English and Cultural Studies at McMaster University and has published about 35 books and 300 scholarly articles. His most recent interests have focused on how the media represent youth and negatively influence current pedagogical practices (Giroux 2010; Giroux and Pollock 2010).


application of human capital theory in education

Human Capital Theory in Education Wednesday, June 6, 2012 The Human Capital Theory in Education: Principles, critiques and current thinking Godfrey Mulongo Introduction This

application of human capital theory in education

Also according to the theory, other benefits of education may be realised in terms of greater productivity and less need to incur costs. An example of educational benefit that improves production possibilities is the greater labour market productivity of those with additional schooling. And the lesser dependency on subsidies in educated communities is an example of benefit that reduces costs for tax-payers (Vila, 2000). In addition, a large body of literature in macroeconomics has underscored that productivity spillovers are important determinants of economic growth and that an increase in aggregate human capital will have an effect on aggregate productivity [3] which is as a results of an increase in an individual’s education on productivity (Moretti, 2005).
The significance of education and human capital has been brought out in many studies and arguments of economic growth and development. This can be classified into the micro and macro levels.

Application of human capital theory in education
A context that affects immigrant earnings trajectories is the structure of the host-country’s labor market. One conceptualization is based in human capital theory . Another, introduced by the economists Averitt (1968) and Doeringer and Piore (1971) , postulates that two types of demand determine the characteristics of jobs in the economy. Jobs in the primary sector (responding to the stable component of demand) are “good jobs” characterized by security, responsibility, and career lines; jobs in the secondary sector (responding to demand that is highly variable) are dead-end jobs. The dual labor market theory contends that it is not so much the human capital of individuals that determines their earnings trajectories, but the characteristics of the job a person is in. Jobs are, to some extent, “parceled out” with some groups benefiting from the employment fruits of the primary sector while others, primarily poorly educated minorities and immigrants, are shunted off to the secondary sector.
Considerable research and policy efforts in the 1980s and 1990s focused on issues of postsecondary participation and inequality. Rallying calls such as “in a modern concept of education, the word terminal clearly has no place” ( Campbell, 1969 )—in other words, advocacy for learning and education over the life course—and “there is no such thing as an over-educated person” ( Watts, 1987 , p. 4) were countered by more sobering statements such as, “while we have dramatically increased the number of students attending postsecondary institutions, access to postsecondary education remains far from equal across all social and economic groups in Canada in many areas” ( Council of Ministers of Education, 1982 , p. 250). Numerous studies concluded that there was a strong relationship between the educational and income levels of parents and the likelihood of enrolling in postsecondary institutions, and in particular universities ( Fortin, 1987; Report of the Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada, 1983 ).

Education is an engine of growth and key to development in every society, based on its quality and quantity. In order to make a significant contribution to economic growth and development, high quality education is required. The twenty-first century paradigm is shifting towards the enhancement of knowledge as a priority. This has likely been a product of the resonation of states connecting their higher educational systems much more closely to their various economic development strategies.
Barro and Lee (2010) estimated that increasing average years of schooling by one year increases per capita GDP by 1.7% to 12.1 %, depending on specification; Cohen and Soto (2007) calculate returns to years of schooling at 12.3% to 22.1%. Testing the impacts of schooling quality on growth, it was found that a unit increase in a country�s average cognitive test scores increases per capita GDP growth rate by 1.2 to 2.0 percentage points. Moreover, increasing average math and science scores by one unit increases per capita GDP growth rates by 2.0 points, and by 2.3 points for low-income countries. Overall, studies found that education significantly and positively correlated with economic growth and argue that causation runs from education and growth in line with human capital growth models.

Application of human capital theory in education
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The theory of human capital has received a lot of criticism from many people who work in education and training. In the 1960s, the theory was attacked primarily because it legitimized bourgeois individualism, which was seen as selfish and exploitative. The bourgeois class of people included those of the middle class who were believed to exploit those of the working class.
Since human capital is based on the investment of employee skills and knowledge through education, these investments in human capital can be easily calculated. HR managers can calculate the total profits before and after any investments are made. Any return on investment (ROI) of human capital can be calculated by dividing the company’s total profits by its overall investments in human capital.


according to proponents of human capital theory education

Human Capital Theory Related terms: Download as PDF About this page Entrepreneurship, Psychology of 4 Human Capital Human capital theory is concerned with knowledge and

according to proponents of human capital theory education

According to proponents of human capital theory education
To explore potential differentiated returns across educational fields, Bahr (2014) conducted a highly differentiated analysis of the returns to credentials in 23 fields of study and course credits in 181 subfields. He found positive returns for those fields identified as career and technical education (CTE) and negative returns for non-CTE fields. He argued that signaling effects are less important than the skills students learn. He noted that some noncredentialed students had larger returns than credentialed students; the difference was the coursework taken by the student. Bahr thus emphasized that the returns to education are impacted by more than the awarding of a credential—what a student learns and then utilizes in the labor market also has a potential impact. He referenced the idea of “skills-builders,” or students whose goal is not completion, as one example. However, Bahr cited the health field as one exception; when controlling for a credential, credit accumulation does not impact earnings. Thus, the earnings benefit for this field is derived only after the receipt of an award. Such a finding likely indicates when a credential is required for job entry (e.g., in nursing positions). From Bahr’s analysis, it is clear that coursework and program type matter—which necessitates further study.
Figure 3 . Benefits and costs associated with alternative signals. Adapted from Spence, A. M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics 87, 355–374.

Bills, M., & Klenow, P. (2000). Does schooling cause growth? American Economic Review, 90(5), 1160-1183.
Trostel, P., Walker, I., & Woolley, P. (2002). Estimates of the economic return to schooling for 28 countries. Labour Economics, 9, 1-16.

According to proponents of human capital theory education
Schultz/Nelson-Phelps – ability to adapt. Human capital should be looked at from the ability to adapt. Can workers adapt to a changing labour market? A labour market which is shifting from full-time manual work in manufacturing to flexible work in the service sector.

“Although it is obvious that people acquire useful skills and knowledge, it is not obvious that these skills and knowledge are a form of capital, that this capital is in substantial part a product of deliberate investment”

Human-capital theory has attracted much criticism from sociologists of education and training. In the Marxist renaissance of the 1960s, it was attacked for legitimating so-called bourgeois individualism, especially in the United States where the theory originated and flourished. It was also accused of blaming individuals for the defects of the system, making pseudo-capitalists out of workers, and fudging the real conflict of interest between the two. However, even discounting these essentially political criticisms, human-capital theory can be regarded as a species of rational-exchange theory and open to a standard critique, by sociologists, of individualist explanations of economic phenomena.
Even in economics, critics of human-capital theory point to the difficulty of measuring key concepts, including future income and the central idea of human capital itself. Not all investments in education guarantee an advance in productivity as judged by employers or the market. In particular, there is the problem of measuring both worker productivity and the future income attached to career openings, except in near-tautological fashion by reference to actual earnings differences which the theory purports to explain. Empirical studies have suggested that, though some of the observed variation in earnings is likely to be due to skills learned, the proportion of unexplained variance is still high, and must be an attribute of the imperfect structure and functioning of the labour-market, rather than of the productivities of the individuals constituting the labour supply.

* This is an extended version of the keynote address to the annual conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education, Newport, Wales, UK, 9 December 2015. Thank you to Helen Perkins.
Human capital theory assumes that education determines the marginal productivity of labour and this determines earnings. Since the 1960s, it has dominated the economics, and policy and public understanding, of relations between education and work. It has become widely assumed that intellectual formation constitutes a mode of economic capital, higher education is preparation for work, and primarily education (not social background) determines graduate outcomes. However, human capital theory fails the test of realism, due to weaknesses of method: use of a single theoretical lens and closed system modelling, inappropriate application of mathematical tools, and multi-variate analysis of interdependent variables. Human capital theory imposes a single linear pathway on the complex passage between heterogeneous education and work. It cannot explain how education augments productivity, or why salaries have become more unequal, or the role of status. These limitations are discussed with reference to research on social stratification, work, earnings and education.


comprehensive multicultural education theory and practice audiobook

Comprehensive multicultural education theory and practice audiobook Comprehensive Multicultural Education: Theory and Practice, 4th ed. Christine I. Bennett (1999) Boston: Allyn and Bacon

comprehensive multicultural education theory and practice audiobook

Because cultural diversity affects us all in one way or another, educators are bound to find worthwhile information for their professional and personal development in Comprehensive Multicultural Education. It would also serve as a useful text in ESL teacher-training courses.
[1] For recent detailed accounts on Latinos, see for example:

Print ISBN: 9780134679020, 0134679024
By: Christine Bennett

Comprehensive multicultural education theory and practice audiobook
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Comprehensive multicultural education theory and practice audiobook
Incorporates practical classroom strategies that encourage pre-service teachers to think critically about the aspects of multicultural education

  • A comprehensive conceptual framework of multicultural teaching helps students focus their learning as they read and plan for teaching (Ch. 1).
  • NEW: The flexible four-part organization lets instructors assign reading in a way that matches their course.
  • UPDATED: A field-tested multicultural curriculum development model helps teachers implement a curriculum that aligns to school mission statements, social justice practices, and content standards (Ch. 15).
  • Case examples and real-world classroom vignettes in every chapter, as well as an appendix of lesson plans, help students connect theory with actual teaching practice.

Helps readers understand how important topics in history and social science affect education today

  • The historical background of major ethnic groups in the U.S. helps readers understand how current issues are rooted in history—and how educators must address that history to help all children develop their potential (Part II and Ch. 15).
  • The complexities of racial and ethnic group identities are explored so that teachers understand the issues to consider to make culturally competent decisions (throughout, with additional focus in Chs. 2, 3, and 10).
  • UPDATED: Expanded discussions of race relations, White privilege, and anti-racism help teachers address racism, foster meaningful conversations, and incorporate key social justice practices in their own teaching (Ch. 3: “Talking about Racism and Social Justice,” “Anti-Racism and Teaching for Social Justice,” and Figure 3.4, “Teaching for Social Justice”).
  • NEW: Three new chapters delve deeper into topics of gender (Ch. 11), class (Ch. 12), and special education (Ch. 13).

Instructors, visit to register for your digital examination copy. Students, register for or purchase your eText at .

Stephen Preskill, University of New Mexico
“The editors and contributors are pioneers in the field of educational theory, policy, and philosophy. They are opening new areas of inquiry and educational reform in ways that promise to make this book in very short time into a classic. The practical applications and experiments included reveal the richness of grassroots initiatives already underway to bring educational theory and policy down to earth. While spanning the richest and deepest intellectual ideas and concepts, the stories told are the types that practitioners and teachers will be able to relate to in their daily undertakings.”


john amos comenius theory of education

Johann Comenius (1592–1670) Contributions, Works A prolific scholar on pedagogical, spiritual, and social reform, Johann Amos Comenius was born in the village of Nivnice in southeast Moravia

john amos comenius theory of education

In 1658, Comenius wrote another Latin textbook, The World in Pictures, one of the first reading books to incorporate illustrations. Enormously popular in Europe and America, it was printed in the United States until 1887. Again, reflecting Comenius’s belief that all learning began with the senses, The World in Pictures included numbered parts of illustrations, each of which corresponded to a word. It also presented a simplified vocabulary and specific examples to help students understand the relevant concept or rule. And like the Gate of Languages Unlocked, Comenius attempted to present lessons in a way that reflected the order of nature, although some scholars have noted that Comenius manipulated perspectives and exaggerated proportions to facilitate the lesson at hand. Some educators consider the World in Pictures a pivotal text in pedagogical innovation that opened the way for modern-day teaching instruments such as audiovisual aids and electronic media.
Comenius’s belief that knowledge and wisdom could be merged into a single pan-science drew the criticism of the French philosopher René Descartes, who sought to free science from theology in a quest to gain knowledge objectively. Indeed, Comenius’s pansophic ideas fell out of favor by the late seventeenth century, as they became incongruous with the prevailing epistemological sensibilities of the Enlightenment.

John amos comenius theory of education
04 Friday Oct 2013
Comenius is rightly called the father of modern education because of the wealth of reforms he advocated for public education. One educator remarked that even Christians should appreciate Comenius’ contributions, “especially his desire to make educational experiences developmental, holistic, experiential, natural, and enjoyable and his commitment to opening up these educational experiences to everyone” (Schwarz & Martin, 56). However, another critic stated that Comenius falsely believed that “men could be manufactured” by social regeneration in the schools (Laurie, 216). People still debate the question of applying Comenius’ ideas to modern schools.

John amos comenius theory of education
Comenius was one of the first to recognize the importance of educating very young children. He wrote a text for mothers entitled The School of Infancy, which was intended to guide them in exposing their young children at home to subjects they would encounter later in school. He also suggested school levels, which are universally accepted today: nursery school up to the age of 6 (kindergarten), vernacular school from ages 6 to 12 (primary school), Latin school for ages 12 to 18 (secondary school), and university education based on merit and achievement.
Believing that one day Protestants would eventually win and liberate Bohemia, he began to prepare for the possibility of rebuilding the society there through a reformed educational system. His early education as a young man had been in a Latin school, which was the classic system of the day. He called his early school setting as “the terror of boys and the slaughter-houses of minds; places where a hatred of literature and books is contracted, where ten or more years are spent in learning what might be acquired in one, where what ought to be poured in gently is violently forced in and beaten in.”3

John amos comenius theory of education
His ideas had both creative and practical perspective, which is one reason we were attracted to the name. During his life, he wrote more than 200 books on his educational system of rounded curriculum and human betterment.
As a theologian, Comenius was mystical, a believer in prophecies, dreams and revelations. He was greatly influenced by Boehme. He was also famous for his prophecies and the support he gave to visionaries.

As a young minister Comenius found life wholly satisfying, but the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War in 1618 and the emperor Ferdinand II’s determination to re-Catholicize Bohemia forced him and other Protestant leaders to flee. While in hiding, he wrote an allegory, The Labyrinth of the World and the Paradise of the Heart, in which he described both his early despair and his sources of consolation. With a band of Brethren he escaped to Poland and in 1628 settled in Leszno. Believing that the Protestants would eventually win and liberate Bohemia, he began to prepare for the day when it would be possible to rebuild society there through a reformed educational system. He wrote a “Brief Proposal” advocating full-time schooling for all the youth of the nation and maintaining that they should be taught both their native culture and the culture of Europe.

pansophy propoundeth to itself so to expand and lay open to the eyes of all the wholeness of things that everything might be pleasurable in itself and necessary for the expanding of the appetite.


constructivist theory education

Education Theory/Constructivism and Social Constructivism Education Theory Constructivism and Social Constructivism “Constructivism is the philosophical and scientific position that

constructivist theory education

Constructivist theory education
This process of interpretation, articulation, and re-evaluation is repeated until they can demonstrate their comprehension of the subject.
Students ‘construct’ their own meaning by building on their previous knowledge and experience. New ideas and experiences are matched against existing knowledge, and the learner constructs new or adapted rules to make sense of the world. In such an environment the teacher cannot be in charge of the students’ learning, since everyone’s view of reality will be so different and students will come to learning already possessing their own constructs of the world.

Constructivist theory education
Constructivism is the theory that says learners construct knowledge rather than just passively take in information. As people experience the world and reflect upon those experiences, they build their own representations and incorporate new information into their pre-existing knowledge (schemas).
There are several main components to include if you plan on adhering to constructivist principles in your classroom or when designing your lessons. The following are from Baviskar, Hartle & Whitney (2009):

GARDNER, HOWARD. 1999. The Disciplined Mind: What All Students Should Understand. New York: Simon and Schuster.
LAMPERT, MAGDELEINE. 1986. “Knowing, Doing, and Teaching Multiplication.” Cognition and Instruction 3:305–342.

5. Learning is a social activity: our learning is intimately associated with our connection with other human beings, our teachers, our peers, our family as well as casual acquaintances, including the people before us or next to us at the exhibit. We are more likely to be successful in our efforts to educate if we recognize this principle rather than try to avoid it. Much of traditional education, as Dewey pointed out, is directed towards isolating the learner from all social interaction, and towards seeing education as a one-on-one relationship between the learner and the objective material to be learned. In contrast, progressive education (to continue to use Dewey’s formulation) recognizes the social aspect of learning and uses conversation, interaction with others, and the application of knowledge as an integral aspect of learning. 11
It is important for exhibits to provide different kinds of entry points, using various sensory modes, different kinds of stimuli, to attract a wide range of learners. In teaching people to read, the use of different words which have powerful connections for individuals was dramatically described years ago by Sylvia Ashton-Warner18 and widely emulated since. Eurydice Retsila described a program in which children served as young ethnographers, developing individual projects of interest to them with the “assistance” of university students.

The constructivism learning theory argues that people produce knowledge and form meaning based upon their experiences. Two of the key concepts within the constructivism learning theory which create the construction of an individual’s new knowledge are accommodation and assimilation. Assimilating causes an individual to incorporate new experiences into the old experiences. This causes the individual to develop new outlooks, rethink what were once misunderstandings, and evaluate what is important, ultimately altering their perceptions. Accommodation, on the other hand, is reframing the world and new experiences into the mental capacity already present. Individuals conceive a particular fashion in which the world operates. When things do not operate within that context, they must accommodate and reframing the expectations with the outcomes.
The role of teachers is very important within the constructivism learning theory. Instead of giving a lecture the teachers in this theory function as facilitators whose role is to aid the student when it comes to their own understanding. This takes away focus from the teacher and lecture and puts it upon the student and their learning. The resources and lesson plans that must be initiated for this learning theory take a very different approach toward traditional learning as well. Instead of telling, the teacher must begin asking. Instead of answering questions that only align with their curriculum, the facilitator in this case must make it so that the student comes to the conclusions on their own instead of being told. Also, teachers are continually in conversation with the students, creating the learning experience that is open to new directions depending upon the needs of the student as the learning progresses. Teachers following Piaget’s theory of constructivism must challenge the student by making them effective critical thinkers and not being merely a “teacher” but also a mentor, a consultant, and a coach.


suicide education theory

The interpersonal-psychological theory proposes that an individual will not die by suicide unless s/he has both the desire to die by suicide and the ability.

suicide education theory

Suicide education theory
Thomas Joiner grew up in Georgia, went to college at Princeton, and received his PhD in Clinical Psychology from the University of Texas at Austin. He is Distinguished Research Professor and The Bright-Burton Professor in the Department of Psychology at Florida State University. Dr. Joiner’s work is on the psychology, neurobiology, and treatment of suicidal behavior and related conditions. Author of over 385 peer-reviewed publications, Dr. Joiner was recently awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship, the Shneidman Award for excellence in suicide research from the American Association of Suicidology, and the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions from the American Psychological Association, as well as research grants from the National Institute of Mental Health and various foundations. Dr. Joiner is editor of the American Psychological Association’s Clinician’s Research Digest, editor of the Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, and Editor-in-Chief of the journal Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, and he has authored or edited fifteen books, including Why People Die By Suicide, published in 2005 by Harvard University Press. He runs a part-time clinical and consulting practice specializing in suicidal behavior, including legal consultation on suits involving death by suicide. He lives in Tallahassee, Florida, with his wife and two sons.
Joiner, T.E. (2005). Why people die by suicide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Two leading theories within the field of suicide prevention are the interpersonal psychological theory of suicidal behaviour (IPT) and the integrated motivational-volitional (IMV) model. The IPT posits that suicidal thoughts emerge from high levels of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. The IMV model is a multivariate framework that conceptualizes defeat and entrapment as key drivers of suicide ideation. We applied network analysis to cross-sectional data collected as part of the Scottish Wellbeing Study, in which a nationally representative sample of 3508 young adults (18–34 years) completed a battery of psychological measures. Network analysis can help us to understand how the different theoretical components interact and how they relate to suicide ideation. Within a network that included only the core factors from both models, internal entrapment and perceived burdensomeness were most strongly related to suicide ideation. The core constructs defeat, external entrapment and thwarted belonginess were mainly related to other factors than suicide ideation. Within the network of all available psychological factors, 12 of the 20 factors were uniquely related to suicide ideation, with perceived burdensomeness, internal entrapment, depressive symptoms and history of suicide ideation explaining the most variance. None of the factors was isolated, and we identified four larger clusters: mental wellbeing, interpersonal needs, personality, and suicide-related factors. Overall, the results suggest that relationships between suicide ideation and psychological risk factors are complex, with some factors contributing direct risk, and others having indirect impact.
12 of the 20 psychological factors were uniquely related to suicide ideation.

  • Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors (Promising)
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Mental Health (Promising)
  • Receipt of Mental Health and/or Substance Use Treatment (Ineffective)
  • Social Competence Related to Help-Seeking (specifically, seeking help when feeling depressed or suicidal) (Ineffective)

Designation as a “Program with Evidence of Effectiveness”

Suicide education theory
Using culturally competent approaches is another important key to success. One challenge is that many evidence-based programs for suicide prevention have not been assessed in diverse populations, so their effectiveness with these populations is not known. When implementing an evidence-based program that was evaluated with a population different from the one your program will be targeting, consider doing a small pilot test first.
Examples include: 2

j. Those in prison and police custody


john dewey theory on play in early childhood education

Dewey, John (1859-1952) – Early Childhood Education – to serve as a useful reference source on the period of early childhood and the field of early childhood education

john dewey theory on play in early childhood education

John Dewey had a significant influence upon today’s preschools. When the subprimary class at the University of Chicago Laboratory School opened in 1896, it was for children aged four to six years and based upon Friedrich Froebel’s original system. It was not called a kindergarten because many American kindergartens had adopted structured activities and abstract symbolism during the previous two decades. Dewey credited Froebel with recognizing that individuals are coordinated units from birth onward, taking in experiences from the outer world, organizing them, and relating them to their inner life. His vision of this laboratory class for young children was to test the validity of using activities related to home and community-oriented themes. He took an active role in the kindergarten and child study associations and was elected president of the National Kindergarten Association (1913-1914).
Dewey, John (1859-1952)

  • Starting each day by gathering children for a group meeting, where the development of language skills is an inevitable outcome.
  • Planning cooking activities in which children learn important math skills in the process.
  • Taking a nature walk for a hands-on exploration of important science concepts.

This article originally appeared in the October, 2000 issue of Early Childhood Today.

Thanks to Anglia Ruskin University Research and Innovation Development Office for a Research Funding Observatory bursary that enabled the author to attend the conference John Dewey’s ‘Democracy and Education’ 100 Years On: Past, Present, and Future Relevance at Homerton College and Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge.
In this article, the work of John Dewey is recontextualised and proposed as a basis for contemporary early childhood education for sustainability (ECEfS). Five key themes are explored: experiential learning; curiosity and critical thinking; children’s experiences in nature; democracy and participation and classroom as community. In each case, claims are made through aligning the work of Dewey with exemplars from current early childhood practice. The focus is reflection upon the educator as facilitator of dynamic interactions between the learner and her/his experiences, fostering individual growth, influencing social change and, thus, creating possibilities for implementation of ECEfS within early years classrooms.

John dewey theory on play in early childhood education

For Dewey, it’s not enough for something to be fun and to be interesting. It’s got to have a purpose, it’s got to stretch you mentally, and it has to leave you wanting more.

Today is all about John Dewey. If you’re pretty much every parent who has no previous knowledge of child development than this name rings zero bells. He is not like Montessori who we know about from hearing it in social settings. He was a contemporary of Montessori and Piaget and Vygotsky though. Unlike those three who we’ve already covered, he wasn’t so concerned about child development. He was more concerned with Education. So his work wasn’t aimed at parents at all. It was aimed at teachers, but as parents, we can still take a lot away from it.

Influential Educators and Education Program By Whitney Holley-Newport Stephen F. Austin State University John Dewey It is important to know where the ideas of the way children learn came from. One educator that had a significant influence on education and the way the world teaches and learns is John Dewey. He had different, interesting, and new ideas for the development of children and teaching children in a classroom. John Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist, and an
As a child, Dewey excelled as a student in public schools, then went on to study philosophy; graduating second in his class. While teaching at the universities, Dewey became fascinated with philosophical treatises and decided to expand focus in studying psychology and philosophy at John Hopkins. Although Dewey’s philosophical treatises were inspired by William James; George Sylvester Morris (American


transformative education theory

Teaching for Transformation: From Learning Theory to Teaching Strategies Transformative learning is in clear contrast to the more common process of assimilative learning, the type of learning

transformative education theory

Giving Students an Opportunity to Test a New Paradigm or Perspective
Cranton, Patricia. “Teaching for Transformation.” [ITAL:] New Directions of Adult and Continuing Education, 2002, no. 93, 63-71.

The Transformational Learning Theory originally developed by Jack Mezirow is described as being “constructivist, an orientation which holds that the way learners interpret and reinterpret their sense experience is, central to making meaning and hence learning” (Mezirow, 1991). The theory has two basic kinds of learning: instrumental and communicative learning. Instrumental learning focuses on learning through task-oriented problem solving and determination of cause and effect relationships. Communicative learning involves how individuals communicate their feelings, needs and desires
Meaning structures (perspectives and schemes) are a major component of the theory. Meaning perspectives are defined as “broad sets of predispositions resulting from psychocultural assumptions which determine the horizons of our expectations” (Mezirow, 1991). They are divided into 3 sets of codes: sociolinguistic codes, psychological codes, and epistemic codes. A meaning scheme is “the constellation of concept, belief, judgment, and feelings which shapes a particular interpretation” (Mezirow, 1994, 223).

Transformative education theory
The Transformative Learning Theory is difficult to execute, but it undoubtedly deserves more attention than it receives. In addition, its inclusion in your training does not need to be so critical. If it’s unfeasible to hinge your entire lesson on achieving a perspective transformation, then don’t do it. Instead, you can use Mezirow’s principles to augment your learning. Face the learner with a dilemma, provide them with a safe space, and give them room to reflect. Then, carry on with the lesson. If a learner didn’t get their epiphany, then they’ll still get a chance to learn the content in a more traditional way. However, those who do will retain that lesson indefinitely, and they can be your champions for training those that need additional help.
Eureka! Many remember 2001: A Space Odyssey for depicting one of the most famous epiphanies in cinema history. With bones splintering across the screen and kettle drums thundering in the background, a solitary ape invented a weapon in an electrifying moment of inspiration. It probably would have shouted, “Eureka!” too, if it could utter anything more than simple grunts.

Transformative education theory
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Transformative education theory
In the world of academia, there are many other theories that relate to adult learning. One that I thought would be of interest to you and that I wanted to explore in more depth is transformative or transformational learning. It is now one of the dominant theories in the world of adult learning even though it was introduced decades ago.
Many of the current theories on adult learning stem from the work of Jack Mezirow and, earlier, Paulo Friere. The later’s work with reading skills for illiterate adults informed many of the educators and educational psychologists that came after, including Stephen Brookfield. Mezirow posited all of the criteria above, and put particular emphasis on discourse/telling/teaching. His view was that adults not only learned more from relating their own experiences, they learned new ways of looking at those experiences through the act of sharing them. A great deal of research is available on transformational learning in online learning (as noted mostly at the academic level, where there are plenty of guinea pigs!), which is easily extrapolated to the corporate environment. Those interested in further readings on transformational and transformative learning should look into the work of Jack Mezirow. This article gives a good overview:’s%20Transformative%20Learning%20Theory.pdf