mismatch theory education

At this point, any frequent consumer of higher education news is well aware of the controversial remarks Justice Antonin Scalia made during oral arguments

mismatch theory education

Justice Scalia’s comments were grounded in a critique of affirmative action called “mismatch theory.” This theory posits that preferential admissions hinders the progress of those it aims to assist by placing them into institutions for which they are not academically prepared. Those who believe that the theory has validity have pointed to academic research by scholars like Richard Sander of UCLA and Peter Arcidiacono of Duke, who argue that preferentially admitted minority students would increase their chances of success by attending less selective schools. Critics of mismatch theory, like Matt Chingos of the Urban Institute, have convincingly argued that the concept lacks strong evidence. Chingos cites studies that show that, if two students with similar academic credentials go to differentially selective colleges, the student that enrolls at the more selective institution has a better chance of graduating. This parity holds true for students of all backgrounds, including underrepresented minorities.
One thing that seems missing—or at least problematically implicit—in recent debates about mismatch theory is the role of the institution in helping underprepared students succeed. In his advocacy of mismatch theory, Reihan Salam refers to a proverbial “pecking order” of students at selective institutions, in which preferentially admitted students are at the bottom. His language, which evokes a “survival of the fittest” hierarchy, is directly at odds with what institutions should be—and increasingly are—doing to support struggling students: designing interventions to help these students succeed. Too often, proponents of mismatch theory, like Salam, imagine the institution, faculty, support staff, and other stakeholders as relatively powerless in determining outcomes—especially for at-risk students. An approach that truly embraces increased access and opportunity would ask what institutions can do to help more qualified but underprepared students graduate and succeed, especially at selective schools and in difficult majors.

Mismatch theory education
In interaction, they can magnify effects of recessions and technological changes.
Pipeline reinforcing effect can result in abundant educated workforce.

Mismatch theory education
If Scalia sometimes shows more talent for provocation than rigor, the press ought to understand how amplifying and denouncing his least careful words misleads readers, who are owed a careful exposition of the actual arguments to which he alluded. At Vox , Libby Nelson at least explained to readers, “Scalia wasn’t making up his objection from the bench. He was drawing from a frequent conservative argument against affirmative action: Students with lesser academic qualifications don’t benefit from being admitted to a more competitive college.”
I suspect information of that sort would’ve better prepared me for the calculus course I struggled through as a Pomona College sophomore admitted with an SAT score that put me well above average in verbal skills and decidedly below it in math. It seems as though it would’ve benefitted Afi-Odelia Scruggs, whose powerful Washington Post op-ed about struggling at an elite college––and benefitting from going there anyway––serves as one powerful anecdotal retort to Scalia’s speculation. And the case for transparency dovetails with the demands of some student activists, who want more transparent data about how successfully institutions eager to recruit them to campus are serving them once they matriculate. Perhaps if lots of private institutions parted with such data, best practices would emerge.

Mismatch theory education
However, the situation changes when students from the lowest- and highest-income families attend the nation’s top colleges — the difference in their earnings drops to only 7.2 percentiles, or 76 percent less than what it is at the national level. Income gaps among graduates from lower-ranked colleges are also relatively small, the paper states.
“These differences in mobility rates raise the possibility that increasing low-income access to colleges with good student outcomes could increase the contribution of higher education to upward mobility,” the paper concludes.



flow theory in education

Distance Education Volume 27, 2006 – Issue 1 Original Articles A Flow Theory Perspective on Learner Motivation and Behavior in Distance Education Download citation

flow theory in education

Motivating learners to continue to study and enjoy learning is one of the critical factors in distance education. Flow theory is a useful framework for studying the individual experience of learning through using computers. In this study, I examine students’ emotional and cognitive responses to distance learning systems by constructing two models to test the students’ flow states. The first model examines the cause and effect of the flow experience when students use distance learning systems. The second model considers the impact of three types of interaction on the flow experience. A questionnaire‐based field survey is used to test the two models. Data from 253 distance learning students are examined under each of the two models. The results from Model 1 indicate that flow theory works well in a distance learning environment. The results from Model 2 point out that learner–instructor and learner–interface have a positive relationship with flow experience, whereas learner–learner interaction has not shown a significant relationship with flow experience.
An earlier version of the article was presented at the Fourth Annual Hawaii International Conference on Business, Hawaii, June 2004. The author acknowledges the helpful comments on that paper.

Flow theory in education
The Flow Theory In The Classroom: A Primer
You know that moment when you are in the zone, on the ball, completely focused? You become so absorbed by what you are doing that your forget what the time is, you forget to eat, you miss sleep. That’s essentially what flow is. According to Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, being in the flow is the ultimate in focused intrinsic motivation.

Flow theory in education
As a learner, flow is when I am focused on my task, to the point that I do not care about the time because I am having so much fun doing what I am doing. As a teacher, the following questions come to mind:
Mihaly (2014) emphasizes that the role of the educator should be to direct students’ energy towards productive goals. By putting ourselves in the shoes of the students, the learners, we can become better equipped to make our students see why something is important. He suggests the following characteristics that all teachers should keep in mind to facilitate flow:

Flow theory in education
But you are the architect that can build the systems that make flow a reality in your classroom. If you’re interested in this, check out the free Flow Theory Blueprint and Toolbox at the bottom of this post.
One of the key ideas in flow theory is that the challenge has to match a student’s perceived ability level. Too often, kids give up because what they are doing is way too difficult and there is a sense that they will never learn it. Other times, students are bored and the excessive scaffolding becomes a hurdle they have to climb over.

Flow theory in education
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radical education theory

Radical Liberalism and Radical Education A Synthesis and Critical Evaluation of Illich, Freire, and Dewey Peter M. Lischtenstein, Ph.D., is professor of economics at Boise State University.

radical education theory

Radical education theory
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I’m trying to write something about radical education or critical pedagogy at the moment. I’m particularly interested in how it can inform the development of career guidance practice which seeks to enhance social justice.
2) Offering participants an opportunity for democratic participation in and co-production of education. Radical education provides us with opportunities to experience the power and compromise that characterise democracy. It offers up the curriculum and the outcomes of learning as a site for democratic decision making.

According to Henry, education often reflects underlying philosophical ideas. For instance, systems which assume that children are bad engage in extensive practices to eradicate badness (EE 136-7). For Henry, furthermore, education does not necessarily teach primarily its conscious content. In the case of values, for instance, the results of education may not reflect the values being taught, and a school might also teach several contradictory values (EE 91-2). Also, education may have unintended consequences, such as “covert meta-responses” (i.e. responses to the system in general) which are the opposite of, or indifferent to, declared goals (EE 171), and effects on people’s self-conceptions which occur even if teachers try to avoid altering such beliefs (EE 173-4). Western education, he feels, is often contradictory. For instance, American culture emphasises teaching people how (rather than what) to think. But in five years of observation Henry found little evidence of such teaching (EE 93).
* Goodman’s idea of “scholarly” and “unscholarly” groups sounds a little elitist.
* In common with the other “deschoolers”, Goodman is a little naive about the role of business in society.

Radical education theory
Anyon points to a range of progressive economic policies as the way to fight poverty: minimum wage legislation, a progressive tax code, anti-poverty and jobs programs, affordable housing and public transportation and more union-friendly labor laws. Yet Anyon argues that in order to win these reforms we should draw on Marx’s vision of political struggle. She draws on the social movements of the past in order to provide a vision for how education reform is won:
This analysis seems to stem from a misinterpretation of Marx’s theory of the working class, which she characterizes as “the industrial proletariat.” But Anyon goes even further conceding, “’Revolution’ itself appears an old fashion concept.” These formulations seem particularly misguided at a time when revolutions are spreading through the Middle East and North Africa with the working class playing a crucial role.

What is radical educational policy? Why is this method needed?
Traditional, rational or managerial policy development approaches are generally linear, staged and state controlled or state centered. A radical policy approach, in contrast, recognizes both the complexity and the value of having a broad and diverse group of stakeholders or policy actors acting at many different levels. The use of the metaphor of a policy web 53 helps to understand how the policy process is shaped by circulating discourses. Using this metaphor, policy is designed as an ensemble of multiple discourses that interact in a complex web of relationships that enable or constrains social relations. It is a fluid arrangement of discourses existing at a given moment in time, emerging out of the struggle between multiple discourses from multiple voices in a given context. The discourses circulate in different policy actors such as government, education officials, NGOs, CNAL, teachers, artists, parents, students and arts advocates who participate in disseminating and creating discourses. As such, while this definition recognizes the important role of the state, it highlights that the state is not the only player as multiple actors can participate in the policy process.
I would argue that a radical policy approach, which builds on the work done by the NSAE, utilizes critical democratic principles and includes the active participation of a much broader and diverse set of policy actors, has the potential to create an exciting future in educational reform and gives hope for a re-focusing of the goals of education from an economic focus to a focus on democracy and social justice. As Anyon 54 and Freire 55 have argued, the success of many social reforms in the past have stressed the importance of the involvement from the grass-roots level (community participation). The teachers who will be delivering this curriculum, are incredibly important policy actors, as are the youth their parents and other stakeholders. Their voices need to be heard through the dialogues, debates, policy development process and to continue to ask the critical questions of: Why?; For what purpose/goal?; and In whose interest? 56
Support and challenges at the local, provincial, -national and international levels
Despite limitations and barriers imposed by a neoliberal educational agenda, policy approaches and initiatives are beginning to appear locally, nationally and internationally which support and encourage critical democratic pedagogy through the arts. In 2006, UNESCO organized the First World Conference on Arts Education in Lisbon and is planning to host another in 2010. One of the significant impacts of this conference was the impetus for the creation of the World Alliance for Arts Education. Through this Alliance, the International Drama/Theatre and Education Association (IDEA), International Society for Education through Art (INSEA), and International Society for Music Education (ISME) united to define an integrated strategy that responds to what they saw as “a critical moment in human history: social fragmentation, a dominant global culture of competition, endemic urban and ecological violence, and the marginalization of key educational and cultural languages of transformation” 39 . The WAAE hope to collaborate with governments, networks, educational institutions, communities and individuals who share their vision to accelerate the implementation of arts education policies internationally. This international leadership, particularly in its challenge to UNESCO to join with them to make arts education central to a world agenda for sustainable human development and social transformation, is a significant positive step forward.
At the national level, the impetus for the development of a set of Policy Guidelines for Arts Education in Canadian Schools began in 1997 at the First National Symposium for Arts Education in Cape Breton. Over the next seven years, through a combination of annual symposia and the work of teachers, educational administrators, artists and arts organizations from across Canada, the final Guidelines were developed and presented to the Canadian Conference for the Arts in 2003. Although little work has been done in terms of moving these guidelines forward since 2003, there appears to have been a resurgence in both interest and organization in Canada since 2006, with the revival of national Arts and Learning Symposia and the creation of the Canadian Network for Arts and Learning (CNAL). Additionally, the CNAL has been working together with the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, Canada Council and the Canadian Conference for the Arts to bring together a wide range of stakeholders in a collaboration aimed at “raising awareness of the advantages of arts and learning, informing cultural and educational policy, improving the quality of arts education programs and fostering research and exemplary practices” 40 .



critical social theory in education

Critical Social Theory Related terms: Download as PDF About this page Setting the context Theoretical perspectives underpinning social inclusion Although government imperatives

critical social theory in education

Soja was more avowedly a postmodernist, insisting that a much deeper restructuring of Marxism was necessary to engage effectively with contemporary geographical realities. He called for a radical rethinking of two fundamental or ontological premises embedded in Marxism, one relating the social and the spatial dimensions of capitalist societies and the other linking time and space, history and geography. Following Lefebvre, Soja argued that there was a more balanced and mutually causal relation between society and space, a sociospatial dialectic that had been submerged in Marxism’s overemphasis on social relations of production and aspatial class analysis. Similarly, he saw a persistent privileging of history over geography, the temporal over the spatial, in a particular form of historicism that severely constrained the development of a balanced and mutually interactive historical and geographical materialism. He called instead for a more balanced and three-sided ontology and epistemology that dynamically related the spatial, social, and historical dimensions of human existence (spatiality, sociality, and historicality), with no one of the three inherently privileged over the others (Soja 1996 ).
The interpretive and critical social theory paradigms in scientific thought ( Foley, 2000 ; Soltis, 1992 ) provide substantial support for encouraging social inclusion in education:

Limitations of traditional educational approaches for people with epilepsy
Freire’s distinctive features of critical social theory

Colin Griffin, Hillcroft College
It is easy to see how this kind of social theory could make a humanistic and liberal appeal, with its stress on individuality, creativity, emancipation, the pervasiveness of ideology and so on, and it seems a long way from the deterministic categories of some varieties of Marxist thinking. But it would be a mistake to confuse humanistic Marxism with humanistic psychology, and Gibson and others have argued that too much can be made of the individualism of critical theory and its conception of the relative autonomy of culture: in fact, the critical theorists remain ‘wedded to the original theory’ and operated overwhelmingly at the structural level of analysis 7 .

The module will be assessed by one 3000 word assignment OR a 3 hour exam
Ball, S. (1990) Foucault and Education: disciplines and knowledge (Abingdon: Routledge).
Ball, S. (ed.) (2003) Routledge Falmer Reader in Sociology of Education (London: Routledge).
Blacker, D. (2013) The Falling Rate of Learning and the Neoliberal Endgame (Alresford, Hants: Zero).
Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. (1976) Schooling in Capitalist America: educational reform and the contradictions of economic life (NY: Basic).
Butler, J. (2006) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (Abingdon: Routledge).
Dixson, A. & Rousseau, C. (eds) (2006) Critical Race Theory in Education: All God’s Children Got a Song, New York, Routledge.
Flint, J. and Peim, M. (2012) Rethinking the Education Improvement Agenda: a critical philosophical approach (London: Continuum).
Grenfell, M. and James, D. (1998) Bourdieu and Education: acts of practical theory (London: Routledge).
Leonardo, Z. (2009) Race, Whiteness, and Education (London: Routledge).
Moore, R. (2004) Education and society: issues and explanations in the sociology of education (Cambridge: Polity).
Morrow, R. and Torres, C. (1995) Social Theory and Education: A critique of theories of social and cultural reproduction (New York: SUNY).
Reay, D. (2006) The zombie stalking English schools: social class and educational inequality, British Journal of Educational Studies, 54(3): 88 –307.
Scruton, R. (2015) Fools, Frauds and Firebrands: thinkers of the new left (London: Bloomsbury).
Skelton, C. and Francis, B. (2008) Feminism and ‘The Schooling Scandal’ (Abingdon: Routledge).
Warmington, P. (2015) Dystopian social theory and education, Educational Theory, 65 (3): 265-281.
Willis, P. (2000) Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs (Farnham: Ashgate).

ANDREW FEENBERG. The most recent work in critical theory of technology adopts a fourth position and argues that technoscience always contains contradictory possibilities. This is so because there are many dimensions to technoscience, many of which traditional accounts fail to identify. For this reason Feenberg argues that technology should be reconceived of through instrumentalization theory. This theory distinguishes between the understanding of technology by technical experts and philosophers of technology, and the understanding of technology within a specific social context by those who use it and are affected by it. Users of technology often deploy it in unintended and often unanticipated but imaginative ways. These uses often challenge existing technological systems and social orders. By better understanding and developing these contradictory potentials, he argues, the critical theorist can further the goal of assisting the cause of human liberation. Feenberg continues the Frankfurt school interest in popular culture, but is more sensitive to the political complexity of contemporary culture, and thus to the ambipotent nature of technological change. His work engages not only theorists such as Habermas and Heidegger, but included empirically rich case studies of French communications technologies, Japanese conceptions of technology, science fiction, and film. Feenberg returns the tradition of critical social theory to its multi-disciplinary roots, and is active in empirical research on the development and uses of technology, especially educational technologies.
There is another strand of thinking about technoscience within critical theory, composed of those who reject the pessimism of Horkheimer and Adorno and who maintain that technoscience can be useful in fighting domination. As with critical theory as a whole, this tradition contains multiple particular positions, some of which are at odds with each other. All maintain, however, the method of immanent critique, and the commitment to a critical analysis of culture with the aim of aiding human liberation. The four strands of critical theory that identify liberatory possibilities in technoscience are:



the practice of health education is based upon a single theory. true false

The practice of health education is based upon a single theory. true false Practice Questions (True or False) for Exam 1 The scientific study of human development is the study of how and

the practice of health education is based upon a single theory. true false

Practice Questions (True or False) for Exam 1

  • Most developmentalists consider perception to be an automatic process that everyone experiences the same way
  • Only infants aged 9 months or older notice the difference between a solid surface and an apparent cliff
  • If a 5-month-old drops a rattle out of the crib, the baby will not look down to search for it
  • Infants younger than 6 months can categorize objects according to their angularity, shape, and destiny
  • Infant�s long-term memory is actually very good
  • Adults are generally unable to remember events that occurred before they were about 2 year of age
  • Children the world over follow the same sequence in early language development
  • Deaf babies begin to make babbling sounds several months later than hearing infants do
  • When they first begin combining words, infants tend to put them in reverse order, as in “juice more”
  • Most developmentalist believe that they “baby talk” adults use when conversing with infants actually hinders language development.
  • There are, however, 2 categories of speech for which the government might have authority to constrain or compel speech to promote the health and welfare of the community: commercial speech and professional speech. Commercial speech is a category of speech defined as speech that (1) identifies a product for sale, (2) is a form of advertising, and (3) confers economic benefits. 3 Courts can uphold regulation of commercial speech based on a 4-part test articulated in Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation v Public Service Commission of New York. 20 Historically, examples of the regulation of commercial speech include advertisements for tobacco, alcohol, and gambling. 1 However, since Central Hudson, courts have demonstrated increasing reluctance to regulate commercial speech, emphasizing the rights of speakers rather than the state’s interests in the health and welfare of community members. 4 We believe this places an increased burden on physicians to correct inaccurate or false health-related information that can be found in commercial sources, including on the internet.
    Medical professionals have a unique responsibility to confront false or misleading beliefs by virtue of their specialized knowledge and professional obligations. First, medical professionals are members of a community that possesses specialized knowledge about and training in health. Second, licensed professionals are the only people in our society who are allowed to practice medicine. The professional obligation to confront false health beliefs and information is more straightforward within a clinical setting: when patients express false or misinformed beliefs, it is professionally and ethically appropriate to attempt to correct and redirect the patients so that they can hopefully use evidence-based information to make an informed decision about their care. But outside an individual patient-clinician relationship, what is the obligation of a health care professional to the broader community to confront false beliefs and information?

    The practice of health education is based upon a single theory. true false
    A number of dimensions are involved in the coping process as it relates to substance abuse (Donovan, 1996; Hawkins, 1992; Lazarus, 1993; Shiffman, 1987; Wills and Hirky, 1996). The first is the general domain in which the coping response occurs. Coping responses can occur within the affective, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Litman identified a number of behavioral and cognitive strategies that are protective against relapse (Litman, 1986). There are two behavioral classes of coping behavior: (1) basic avoidance of situations that have been previously associated with substance abuse and (2) seeking social support when confronted with the temptation to drink or use drugs.
    A major component in cognitive-behavioral therapy is the development of appropriate coping skills. Deficits in coping skills among substance abusers may be the result of a number of possible factors (Carroll, 1998). They may have never developed these skills, possibly because the early onset of substance abuse impaired the development of age-sensitive skills. Previously developed coping skills may have been compromised by an increased reliance on substances use as a primary means of coping. Some clients continue to use skills that are appropriate at an earlier age but are no longer appropriate or effective. Others have appropriate coping skills available to them but are inhibited from using them. Whatever the origin of the deficits, a primary goal of CBT is to help the individual develop and employ coping skills that effectively deal with the demands of high-risk situations without having to resort to substances as an alternative response.

    Most (77.7%) were non-Hispanic whites, whereas 14.5% were African American, and 7.8% were Hispanics. Our study included slightly more men than women (50.5% vs 49.5%), and the mean age was 60.39 years. Typical of most case-control studies, most of the healthy control participants had a college degree or had completed at least some college education (72.9%). Approximately 77% of the non-Hispanic white participants, 66% of the African Americans, and 48% of the Hispanics had at least some college education or a college degree. A majority (51.1%) reported household incomes of $50,000 per year or more. Approximately 58% of the non-Hispanic white participants, 40% of the African Americans, and 44% of the Hispanics had a yearly household income of $50,000 or more. On average, most were former smokers (45%). Within each ethnic group, about 47% of the non-Hispanic white participants, 38% of the African Americans, and 43% of the Hispanics were former smokers.
    Participants were enrolled from July 1995 to March 2004 as healthy controls from a previously described molecular epidemiological case-control study designed to evaluate genetic susceptibility for lung cancer risk. 16 The control group was composed of people without a previous or current diagnosis of cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer), and controls were matched to cases by age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status (never, former, or current smoker). They were recruited from the Kelsey-Seybold Clinics, Houston’s largest, privately operated, multispecialty physician group. All subjects spoke English. To date, the overall response rate for the control participants has been approximately 75%, and the design is cross-sectional.

    The practice of health education is based upon a single theory. true false
    Brian A Couch, Joanna K Hubbard, Chad E Brassil, Multiple–True–False Questions Reveal the Limits of the Multiple–Choice Format for Detecting Students with Incomplete Understandings, BioScience, Volume 68, Issue 6, June 2018, Pages 455–463, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy037
    Apparent mastery was determined for the experimental MC × MTF questions appearing in either the MC or MTF formats. For the MC format, apparent mastery was calculated as the percentage of students who selected the correct option. For the MTF format, apparent mastery was calculated as the percentage of students who provided a fully correct answer in which they answered all four T–F statements correctly (i.e., they answered true for the one true statement and false for the three false statements). Apparent mastery rates were compared at the question level between the MC and MTF formats using a paired Student’s t-test.



    social cognitive theory education

    Social cognitive theory, developed by Albert Bandura, is a learning theory that focuses on observational learning, modeling, and self-efficacy.

    social cognitive theory education

    Social cognitive theory education
    These studies served as the basis for ideas about observational learning and modeling both in real-life and through the media. In particular, it spurred a debate over the ways media models can negatively influence children that continues today.
    Observational learning occurs through a sequence of four processes:

    Social Cognition and Social Learning Theories of Education and Technology
    [K]nowledge is not simply transmitted from teacher to student, but actively constructed by the mind of the learner. [. . .] learners are particularly likely to make new ideas when they are actively engaged in making some type of external artifact [. . .] which they can reflect upon and share with others. (Karai & Resnick, 1996 , p. 1)

    Social cognitive theory education
    Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) proposes that the environment, behavior, and personal and cognitive factors all interact as determinants of each other [5,14] . According to this theory, human functioning is described in terms of a number of basic capabilities: symbolizing capability, forethought capability, vicarious capability (ability to learn through observation/imitation/modeling others’ behaviors and attitude), self-regulatory capability, and self-reflective capability.
    Social cognitive theory and expectancy-value theory are two theories that address the development of human motivation. They share many similarities in their constructs and explanations. In addition, the two theories complement one another by each addressing certain processes in more depth than the other theory does.

    Social cognitive theory education
    Social learning theory is not a full explanat
    Some criticisms of social learning theory arise from their commitment to the environment as the chief influence on behavior. It is limiting to describe behavior solely in terms of either nature or nurture and attempts to do this underestimate the complexity of human behavior. It is more likely that behavior is due to an interaction between nature (biology) and nurture (environment).

    Social cognitive theory education
    Environments and social systems influence human behavior through psychological mechanisms of the self system. Hence, social cognitive theory posits that factors such as economic conditions, socioeconomic status, and educational and familial structures do not affect human behavior directly. Instead, they affect it to the degree that they influence people’s aspirations, self-efficacy beliefs, personal standards, emotional states, and other self-regulatory influences. In all, this social cognitive view of human and collective functioning, which marked a departure from the prevalent behaviorist and learning theories of the day, was to have a profound influence on psychological thinking and theorizing during the last two decades of the twentieth century and into the new millennium.
    Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performances: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240-261.



    the main reason why health education specialists should plan and use programs based upon theory is

    Using Competency-Based Curriculum Design to Create a Health Professions Education Certificate Program the Meets the Needs of Students, Administrators, Faculty, and Patients Abstract

    the main reason why health education specialists should plan and use programs based upon theory is

    Health Professions Education (HPE) programs emerged to train faculty in teaching and learning within the higher education context. HPE programs are motivated by the belief that faculty trained in teaching and learning will ultimately improve patient care through improved preparation of future practitioners and improved test scores that impact the careers of health professionals and the prestige of the institutions.
    We followed a modified Delphi method for data collection and analyzed data from two in-person focus groups with faculty who work within the health professions at SRU, a collaborative document where health professions faculty filled out information about class types within HPE, an intensive literature review of over 100 policy and research on health professions education needs and best practices, a review of existing health professions education certificate and graduate degree program curriculum, and a review of promotion and tenure handbooks for Dental, Medical, and Nursing faculty at SRU.

    The Department of Health Education and Behavior, with a foundation in the social and biological sciences, offers coursework focused on health information and theory application. Health Education and Behavior students learn techniques to promote healthy lifestyle choices in individual and group settings, with special attention given to diversity and culturally appropriate health education methodologies.
    The Bachelor of Science in Health Education degree program allows students maximum flexibility to choose department specialization coursework during the junior and senior years that relates to personal interests in the health field. Students can focus their coursework on interest areas in health education and health promotion in community, clinical or worksite settings or in health studies as they prepare for professional health occupations.

    The main reason why health education specialists should plan and use programs based upon theory is
    Programmes to decrease risks of these disorders are most effective when they include attention to lifestyle factors in addition to diet, as do programmes such as the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP, 1987) and the National High Blood Pressure Education Programme (NHBPEP, 1988). Innovative, experience-based teaching techniques are also needed. For example, Fletcher and Braner (1994) report that an effective way of teaching children about nutrition is for them to prepare their own foods and to instil awareness of ethnic and cultural influences on food choice.
    Plan field experiences to bring training to life

    The main reason why health education specialists should plan and use programs based upon theory is
    There is a lack of support for a number of previously held assumptions about health behavior change. Socio-demographic characteristics are poor predictors of persons’ likelihood to engage in health behavior change. 47 Imparting factual information alone often does not result in the maintenance of long-term behavior change. 8 , 12 , 45 , 59 , 60 Understanding and enhancing persons’ health beliefs (eg, Health Belief Model, 48 , 61 Health Promotion Model, 62 and Theory of Reasoned Action 63 , 64 ) seem to foster initiation but not long-term maintenance of a health behavior. 65 There is evidence that the trajectory of health behavior change seems to have a common pattern. For example, regardless of the behavior, the highest rate of relapse is seen very early after the change, and this has been seen across dieting, smoking cessation, increasing calcium intake, and others. 12 Social factors affect behavior, but social factors can have either a negative or a positive impact on initiation and maintenance of health behavior change. 12 , 62 , 66 , 67 It is not yet known whether adding a behavior (such as initiating an exercise program) differs from substitution (such as altering food choices), each of which could differ from extinction of a behavior (eg, smoking cessation). 12
    Once the woman has determined her goal(s), she is assisted in monitoring her current behaviors related to this goal. For example, when a woman chooses to increase her calcium intake, she is able to choose how frequently she wants to monitor her progress and which assessment tools she wants to use (choice of self-monitoring tool can be changed daily based on individual preference and eating habits). Over time, the woman is provided graphic feedback displaying the extent to which she is meeting her personal goal, comparing her previous behaviors to national recommendations (normative feedback) or to her current behaviors (ipsitative feedback). The computer assists women to reflect on their goals, specific plans, and relative success via journaling exercises. Progress is recognized and the computer program provides built-in suggestions to aid in managing common challenges faced when changing these specific behaviors. Women are encouraged to use the computer program at least 3 to 5 times per week over an 8-week period or until they are able to meet their goals regularly without engaging in the steps of the self-regulation process.

    Area VIII: Ethics and Professionalism
    8.1 Practice in accordance with established ethical principles.
    8.1.1 Apply professional codes of ethics and ethical principles throughout assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation and research, communication, consulting, and advocacy processes.
    8.1.2 Demonstrate ethical leadership, management, and behavior.
    8.1.3 Comply with legal standards and regulatory guidelines in assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation and research, advocacy, management, communication, and reporting processes.
    8.1.4 Promote health equity.
    8.1.5 Use evidence-informed theories, models, and strategies.
    8.1.6 Apply principles of cultural humility, inclusion, and diversity in all aspects of practice (e.g., Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) standards and culturally responsive pedagogy).
    8.2 Serve as an authoritative resource on health education and promotion.
    8.2.1 Evaluate personal and organizational capacity to provide consultation.
    8.2.2 Provide expert consultation, assistance, and guidance to individuals, groups, and organizations.
    8.2.3 Conduct peer reviews (e.g., manuscripts, abstracts, proposals, and tenure folios).



    health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice

    The essential health behavior text, updated with the latest theories, research, and issues Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice provides a thorough introduction to understanding and changing health behavior, core tenets of the public health role. Covering theory, applications, and research, this comprehensive book has become the gold standard of health behavior texts. This new fifth edition has been updated to reflect the most recent changes in the public health field with a focus on health behavior, including coverage of the intersection of health and community, culture, and communication, with detailed explanations of both established and emerging theories. Offering perspective applicable at the individual, interpersonal, group, and community levels, this essential guide provides the most complete coverage of the field to give public health students and practitioners an authoritative reference for both the theoretical and practical aspects of health behavior. A deep understanding of human behaviors is essential for effective public health and health care management. This guide provides the most complete, up-to-date information in the field, to give you a real-world understanding and the background knowledge to apply it successfully. Learn how e-health and social media factor into health communication Explore the link between culture and health, and the importance of community Get up to date on emerging theories of health behavior and their applications Examine the push toward evidence-based interventions, and global applications Written and edited by the leading health and social behavior theorists and researchers, Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice provides the information and real-world perspective that builds a solid understanding of how to analyze and improve health behaviors and health.

    health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice

    Health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice
    Chapter 5 The Health Belief Model 75
    Celette Sugg Skinner, Jasmin Tiro, and Victoria L. Champion
    Chapter 1 The Scope of Health Behavior 3

    Health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice
    For the Fourth Edition of the book, we put together a comprehensive set of companion materials.
    Theory-driven health behavior change interventions and programs require an understanding of the components of health behavior theory, as well as the operational or practical forms of the theory. The first edition of Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, published in 1990, was the first text to provide an in-depth analysis of a variety of theories of health behavior relevant to health education in a single volume. It brought together dominant health behavior theories, research based on those theories, and examples of health education practice derived from theory that had been tested through evaluation and research. The second (1996) and third (2002) editions of Health Behavior and Health Education updated and improved upon the earlier volume. People around the world are using this book and it has been translated into multiple languages, including recent Japanese and Korean editions.

    Health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice
    Barbara K. Rimer is dean and Alumni Distinguished Professor of Health Behavior and Health Education in the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
    Resources for teaching and learning are posted at tinyurl.com/Glanz4e and www.med.upenn.edu/hbhe4.

    Health behavior and health education: theory, research and practice
    Within the study of health behavior, theories have been proposed at a variety of levels, including the individual, interpersonal, group, organizational and community levels. Further, theories vary in their focus on individual as compared to environmental determinants of behavior and cognitive as compared to affective determinants ( Glanz et al., 1997b; Crosby et al., 2002). The primary focus of HBT has been at the individual level [see ( Crosby et al., 2002)] and thus this article focuses on individual-level HBTs.

    Theory development is a dynamic process…as theories become less useful…they are modified or even discarded… As new theories are synthesized and embraced, they too are subject to empirical validation, and if they are found lacking, they are similarly discarded.

    Purpose. This article highlights the importance of health behavior change (HBC) theory, and its relevance to rehabilitation research and practice.
    Results. Three propositions are put forward: (1) HBC variables should regularly be used as outcome measures in evidence-based rehabilitation research; (2) there should be a better understanding of the role of the rehabilitation provider as a facilitator in eliciting healthy behaviors; and (3) there is a need to expand the HBC concept into a more comprehensive view encompassing a person’s functioning within the environmental context.



    attribution theory in education

    Attribution Theory: How Is It Used? 1 Andrew C. Thoron and J. C. Bunch 2 Introduction One of the most difficult tasks for any educator is learning how to motivate and engage the learners

    attribution theory in education

    The third causal dimension is the ability of the individual to control the outcome of the behavior (Weiner, 1979). Weiner stated that a behavior can be controllable or uncontrollable by the individual. If a behavior is controllable, then the individual has the capability to influence the outcome of a task or behavior, whereas if a behavior is uncontrollable, the individual has limited or no capability to influence the outcome of the task or behavior. The effect that the controllability of the behavior has is based upon the individual’s locus of control and the stability of the behavior (see Table 2).
    Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs 80(1, Whole No. 609).

    Attribution theory argues that humans interpret events as caused by the actions of an agent (e.g. themselves, others) and external and internal circumstances.
    External Factors?

    Attribution theory is closely associated with the concept of motivation. It also relates the work done on script theory and inferencing done by Schank.
    Attribution theory has been used to explain the difference in motivation between high and low achievers. According to attribution theory, high achievers will approach rather than avoid tasks related to succeeding because they believe success is due to high ability and effort which they are confident of. Failure is thought to be caused by bad luck or a poor exam, i.e. not their fault. Thus, failure doesn’t affect their self-esteem but success builds pride and confidence. On the other hand, low achievers avoid success-related chores because they tend to (a) doubt their ability and/or (b) assume success is related to luck or to “who you know” or to other factors beyond their control. Thus, even when successful, it isn’t as rewarding to the low achiever because he/she doesn’t feel responsible, i.e., it doesn’t increase his/her pride and confidence.

    Attribution theory in education
    Similarly, school leaders who take the credit for success, undermine teacher confidence and fail to recognise the hard work of their staff, risk nurturing learned helplessness in their workforce.
    A person holding a pessimistic attributional style will tend towards explaining negative outcomes in terms of internal and stable factors. A student who fails an exam, therefore, would attribute their failure to something about themselves and to something they couldn’t change (such as their level of intelligence). In the event of success they would attribute the outcome to something external and unstable such as luck.

    Attribution theory in education
    The current review provides an overview of published research on teachers’ causal attributions since 1970s in the context of theoretical assumptions outlined in Weiner’s (2010) attribution theory. Results across 79 studies are first examined with respect to the prevalence of teachers’ interpersonal causal attributions for student performance and misbehavior, as well as intrapersonal attributions for occupational stress. Second, findings showing significant relations between teachers’ attributions and their emotions and cognitions, as well as student outcomes, are discussed. Third, an overview of results showing the prevalence and implications of teachers’ causal attributions to be moderated by critical background variables is also provided. Finally, observed themes across study findings are highlighted with respect to the fundamental attribution error and the utility of Weiner’s attribution theory for understanding how teachers’ explanations for classroom stressors impact their instruction, well-being, and student development.
    Weiner’s (2001) attribution theory also differentiates between intrapersonal and interpersonal attributions for achievement outcomes. The intrapersonal perspective, as described above, refers to the attributions individuals make for their own performance, focusing on how expectations for personal success and responsibility can lead to self-directed feelings of pride, guilt, hope, or shame and, in turn, self-relevant educational outcomes (e.g., persistence). On the other hand, the interpersonal approach to Weiner’s theory concerns the attributions made for outcomes experienced by others and focuses primarily on how perceptions of another’s responsibility for an outcome contributes to other-directed emotions (e.g., sympathy, anger) and behaviors (e.g., punishment, assistance; Weiner, 2001, 2003). For example, although teachers may attribute their own instructional failures or occupational stress to specific factors (e.g., insufficient resources, lesson preparation), their attributions for students’ misbehaviors or poor performance may differ (e.g., insufficient student effort, parental support).



    what is social cognitive theory in education

    Behavioral Change Models The Social Cognitive Theory Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) started as the Social Learning Theory (SLT) in the 1960s by Albert Bandura. It developed into the SCT in

    what is social cognitive theory in education

    What is social cognitive theory in education
    Many theories of behavior used in health promotion do not consider maintenance of behavior, but rather focus on initiating behavior. This is unfortunate as maintenance of behavior, and not just initiation of behavior, is the true goal in public health. The goal of SCT is to explain how people regulate their behavior through control and reinforcement to achieve goal-directed behavior that can be maintained over time. The first five constructs were developed as part of the SLT; the construct of self-efficacy was added when the theory evolved into SCT.
    There are several limitations of SCT, which should be considered when using this theory in public health. Limitations of the model include the following:

    Observing behaviors or the effects of one’s own actions are types of social learning. Social psychology takes this one step further to explain how learning is influenced. “Social cognition has its roots in social psychology which attempts ‘to understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others’ (Allport, 1985, p.3)” (Huitt, 2006, para. 1). The presence of others has a great push in how people act, but in order to understand how great the social influence is, we must first examine the role of the ‘self.’
    Huitt, W. (2006). Social cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009, from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/soccog/soccog.html .

    What is social cognitive theory in education
    Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) proposes that the environment, behavior, and personal and cognitive factors all interact as determinants of each other [5,14] . According to this theory, human functioning is described in terms of a number of basic capabilities: symbolizing capability, forethought capability, vicarious capability (ability to learn through observation/imitation/modeling others’ behaviors and attitude), self-regulatory capability, and self-reflective capability.
    When examining the role of self-efficacy in drinking, researchers have most often studied the role of an individual’s belief in their ability to resist drinking (refusal self-efficacy). Refusal self-efficacy is an important predictor of drinking and intention to drink alcohol in children and adolescents. Longitudinal designs have been used to predict teenagers’ alcohol and drug use from cognitive and social variables, including refusal self-efficacy. Regardless of whether the participants had experience with alcohol use, refusal self-efficacy was predictive of alcohol use 9 months later. Research by Hasking and Oei has confirmed that in addition to demonstrated salience in clinical and adolescent samples, drinking refusal self-efficacy can discriminate problem and nonproblem drinkers and high- and low-risk drinkers in community samples.

    What is social cognitive theory in education
    The prosocial potential of media models has been demonstrated through serial dramas that were produced for developing communities on issues such as literacy, family planning, and the status of women. These dramas have been successful in bringing about positive social change, while demonstrating the relevance and applicability of social cognitive theory to media.
    In addition to the information models can convey during observational learning, models can also increase or decrease the observer’s belief in their self-efficacy to enact observed behaviors and bring about desired outcomes from those behaviors. When people see others like them succeed, they also believe they can be capable of succeeding. Thus, models are a source of motivation and inspiration.

    Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) describes the influence of individual experiences, the actions of others, and environmental factors on individual health behaviors. SCT provides opportunities for social support through instilling expectations, self-efficacy, and using observational learning and other reinforcements to achieve behavior change.
    Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means
    Examines social cognitive theory in the context of health promotion and disease prevention. Describes how health motivators and behaviors are influenced by the interaction of individual beliefs, environment, and behaviors.
    Authors(s): Bandura, A.
    Citation: Health Education & Behavior, 31(2), 143-164
    Date: 4/2004