higher education handbook of theory and research

This Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. It contains chapters on such diverse topics as policy and diversity.

higher education handbook of theory and research

MICHAEL B. PAULSEN is Professor of Higher Education & Student Affairs at The University of Iowa. His primary areas of scholarly expertise are: (a) economics, finance and policy in higher education; and (b) teaching, learning and curriculum in higher education. Prior to his faculty appointment at The University of Iowa, he was a professor of higher education at the Universities of Illinois, Alabama and New Orleans. He is Series Editor of the annual volumes of the scholarly books series, Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. He has also served for over twenty years on the editorial board of Research in Higher Education. He has over seventy publications—books, journal articles, and book chapters. In addition to his annual volumes of the Handbook, Professor Paulsen’s other books include Economics of Higher Education (w/R. Toutkoushian); The Finance of Higher Education (w/J. Smart); Applying Economics to Institutional Research (w/R. Toutkoushian); Taking Teaching Seriously (w/K. Feldman); Teaching and Learning in the College Classroom (w/K. Feldman); and College Choice. His work has been published in an array of professional journals, such as Journal of Higher Education, Research in Higher Education, Review of Higher Education, Journal of College Student Development, Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, Journal of Education Finance, Economics of Education Review, Higher Education, Teaching in Higher Education, Journal of Faculty Development, and College Teaching. In 2015, Dr. Paulsen received the RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENT AWARD from the Association for the Study of Higher Education.
Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. Each annual volume contains chapters on such diverse topics as research on college students and faculty, organization and administration, curriculum and instruction, policy, diversity issues, economics and finance, history and philosophy, community colleges, advances in research methodology and more. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world.

Higher education handbook of theory and research
The Series Editors:
Laura W. Perna, University of Pennsylvania, USA

N2 – Organizational learning is a conceptually rich construct that can inform understandings of a wide range of organizational phenomena. The field of higher education, however, lacks a sufficient body of empirical research on organizational learning in colleges and universities. Moreover, the limited set of organizational learning publications in higher education is weighted heavily toward the functionalist paradigm. This lack of paradigm diversity can be problematic in terms of how the organizational learning construct is applied to practice. In the context of the corporatization of higher education, where the authority of central management has been strengthened, functionalist approaches to organizational learning can reinforce top-down power dynamics and exacerbate tensions between faculty and administrators. This chapter calls for higher education researchers not only to conduct more studies of organizational learning, but to do so from the vantage point of multiple research paradigms. First, the chapter discusses how organizational learning is relevant to the unique contexts of higher education institutions. Second, the chapter examines the wide variety of definitions used in the organizational learning literature, and highlights some of the paradigm debates that have emerged among scholars in this field. Next, the chapter explains and critiques some of the prominent functionalist theories that have guided the study of organizational learning. To complement these long-standing functionalist perspectives, the chapter introduces several organizational learning theories that have emerged in other paradigms. Finally, the chapter concludes with a proposed research agenda for studying organizational learning in colleges and universities.
Higher education: handbook of theory and research. ed. / Michael B. Paulsen. Cham/Heidelberg/New York : Springer, 2016. p. 275-348 (Higher education: handbook of theory and research; No. 31).

Higher education handbook of theory and research
As an Associate Professor of Higher Education, Dr. Kimball teaches courses related to student development theory; student affairs practice; research design; and qualitative research methods. He also serves as the instructor for a first year seminar course, FYS197 Disability in American Civic Life, that utilizes participatory action research methods to help undergraduate students produce new empirical information about how stigma related to disability shapes postsecondary learning environments. Prior to joining the faculty at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Dr. Kimball worked as an administrator at Curry College, Maine College of Art, and PSL STRIVE / STRIVE U, where much of his work focused on supporting students with disabilities.
Dr. Ezekiel Kimball is Associate Dean for Operations and Planning, an Associate Professor of Higher Education, and the Associate Director of the Center for Student Success Research at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. An expert on the postsecondary success trajectories of students with disabilities, his publications have appeared in the Journal of College Student Development, Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, the Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, and New Directions in Institutional Research. In recognition of his scholarly achievements, Dr. Kimball has been named an ACPA Emerging Scholar by ACPA: College Educators International, a Family Research Scholar by the Center for Research on Families, and a Public Engagement Fellow by the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Higher education handbook of theory and research
Dental Phobias (G. Kent).
Water Phobia (R. Menzies).



deficit theory in education

Scores of books, blogs, and articles have challenged the deficit theory, which was defined by Collins in 1988 as a belief that the poor are poor because of their own moral and intellectual deficiencies. Of course, that hasn’t stopped a far greater number of people from continuing to believe in the myth of the undeserving…

deficit theory in education

Deficit theory in education
Kendra LaRoche is a Rowland Fellow of the 2011 cohort, and currently teaches at Burr and Burton Academy in Manchester, VT.
Most educators have good intentions. Many educators also reflect on their own practices. Some educators even go so far as to recognize their own biases. Even these top educators, who are already going above and beyond many of their peers to thoughtfully reflect, are left to flounder when it comes to how to combat their own stereotypes. While many have challenged the myths of a ‘poverty mindset’, few have offered solutions. Teachers and administrators feel powerless to address access to education, since it often falls outside of the scope of traditional schools.

In the 1960’s Cultural Deficit Theorists such as Hess, Shipman, Engelmann, Bereiter and Deutsch, began to gain more credence over the Genetic Theorists. Their studies, especially, began to focus on the idea of “nurture” versus “nature” (Erickson, 1987).” Most cultural deficit studies blamed the child’s social, cultural or economic environment as being “depraved and deprived” of the elements necessary to “achieve the behavior rules (role requirements)” needed to academically succeed (Hess & Shipman, 1965). Engelmann and Bereiter, further emphasized how “cultural deprivation” theories supported the idea that social and emotional deficiencies affected student performance within the academic system. Until dealt with, these differences, would make it “impossible for” culturally deprived students “to progress in academic areas” (1966). Although these same studies did testify that they could modify the behavior of disadvantaged children, they made little progress towards student knowledge acquisition. As the study states, there were “virtually no inroads against the children’s lacks in verbal learning” (1966:41). TOP
C ontexts for Understanding: Educational Learning Theories

According to Otto, numerous researchers have studied language differences between economically privileged children and children who live in poverty. These researchers have described differences in terms of dialect, ways in which children use language to describe aspects of their lives and communicative patterns in the families of these children. The researchers noted that children from economically deprived communities did not succeed in school as well as the children from middle- and upper-class environments.
The “deficit theory” of education posits that students who differ from the norm in a significant way should be considered deficient, and that the educational process must correct these deficiencies.

Deficit theory in education
Put like that, it’s obvious: many studies have shown that children from deprived backgrounds have a more limited vocabulary than others — sometimes extremely so. In advanced countries, where there is a large ‘underclass’ of unemployable people, children often lack role models of responsible adults.
The Deficit Theory attempts to explain why certain disadvantaged students show a high failure rate in school. These students coming from socio-economically disadvantaged homes, show a lack of verbal stimulation and entered school without the necessary linguistic resources for success.

Deficit theory in education
Their voice and participation in the planning for success have a huge impact on their motivation to participate.
The GIT and the instructional roundtables that follow are the most important ownership interventions. Each student, as well as his or her parents, is integral to the roundtable where solutions are decided with the student’s input. They have to own the solution:



john locke theory on education

John Locke was an English philosopher and physician in the 17th century who is known as the “Father of Classical Liberalism.” He was also one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. Locke is well-known for his tabula rasa view of the human mind, his social contract theory, and his belief that knowledge is derived through…

john locke theory on education

John locke theory on education
25 Friday Oct 2013
John Locke was an English philosopher and physician in the 17 th century who is known as the “Father of Classical Liberalism.” He was also one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. Locke is well-known for his tabula rasa view of the human mind, his social contract theory, and his belief that knowledge is derived through experience of the senses. His political theories influenced the writings of other philosophers and the key ideas behind the United States’ Declaration of Independence. Locke is famous for three works: A Letter Concerning Toleration, The Second Treatise on Civil Government, and Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Locke has also been labeled “the father of modern education in England” (Locke, 205).

John locke theory on education
[1] [1] Bird T. Baldwin, “John Locke’s Contribution to Education”, 1913
Introduction to the Understanding Why Schools Are the Way They Are Series

Of course, fancy must be tempered by reality. The book simultaneously calls for encouraging self-control, implementing a love of reason, instilling virtue, and utilizing disgrace, as well as praise, as a motivator. A friend to traditionalists as well as to progressives, Locke extols the importance of example and the power of habit. Some Thoughts Concerning Education appealed to parents and teachers because Locke was concrete, practical, moderate, and balanced.
In his book, Locke acknowledges that he does not have all the answers, such as how to motivate the listless student or how to extirpate “sauntering” (17th-century parlance for “hanging out”). There is little mention of art and music. Living in a patriarchal, aristocratic society, he has little advice for women and poor people. He could not envision the importance of a public school in a democracy.

John locke theory on education
Locke attacked ordinary method of teaching – manners learned by example, latin learned by speaking (cranston p. 16)
VIII. THEORY OF CONSENSUS Why do people disagree? How is the consensus achieved? Whose opinion takes precedence?

17In eastern Europe, or the western parts of Asia, the barbarian proves that Greek is not a necessary possession, because his achievement has nothing to do, apparently, with his knowledge of the language and culture. And yet this reference to the Scythian as “Philosopher” is arguably the only positive mention of philosophy in the Thoughts. Most of the word’s other occurrences have to do with movements Locke denigrates: scholasticism, metaphysics or the speculative but impracticable science of “Natural Philosophy” (§190). Yet the reader can only feel that Locke’s thoughts are philosophical, rather than medical, pedagogical in the strict sense or political.
29Education is impossible in this standard view, without social qualification: “Leisure, Books, and Languages” especially. Men are otherwise like animals, and far from representing a new opportunity for the family or the mind, their children are just a further hindrance to their own intellectual development. But beginning with the body, Some Thoughts opens channels of connection between higher and lower classes, so long as the latter are capable of a certain degree of honesty and substance, or “Breeding.” The clearest symptom of the change underway is the long discussion of the tutor (§92-94). Before Locke cuts the discussion short, one may begin to suspect that he has changed subjects, concerning himself not with the creation of a young gentleman’s character but with the tutor’s.



student involvement a developmental theory for higher education

Student Involvement: A Developmental Theory for Higher Education Big Idea Update (if you would care to skip to lightning round it is bolded below): To preface this week’s lightning round

student involvement a developmental theory for higher education

5. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice is directly related to the capacity of that policy or practice to increase student involvement.”

“4. The amount of student learning and personal development associated with any educational program is directly proportional to the quality and quantity of student involvement in that program.

Bean, J. P. (1980). Dropouts and turnover: The synthesis and test of a causal model of student attrition. Research in Higher Education12: 155-187.
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

“… problem with this approach is its focus on the mere accumulation of resources with little attention given to the use or deployment of such resources.” (p 521)

[Heading:”Place of residence”]

Rutgers University Student Involvement offers a wide variety of opportunities to develop, explore, challenge and test your leadership potential. These outside-of-the-classroom experiences give our students a competitive edge in the internship, graduate school and career application processes.
A Job Outlook Survey conducted by the National Association of College Employers (NACE), identified the top five personal qualities/skills employers seek in hiring college graduates: verbal and written communications skills; strong work ethic; teamwork skills; initiative; and interpersonal skills.

Even a casual reading of the extensive literature on student development in higher education can create confusion and perplexity. One finds not only that the problems being studied are highly diverse but also that investigators who claim to be studying the same problem frequently do not look at the same variables or employ the same methodologies. And even when they are investigating the same variables, different investigators may use completely different terms to describe and discuss these variables. My own interest in articulating a theory of student development is partly practical—I would like to bring some order into the chaos of the literature—and partly self-protective. I and increasingly bewildered by the muddle of findings that have emerged from my own research in student development, research that I have been engaged in for more than 20 years. The theory of student involvement that I describe in this article appeals to me for several reasons. First, it is simple: I have not needed to draw a maze consisting of dozens of boxes interconnected by two-headed arrows to explain the basic elements of the theory to others. Second, the theory can explain most of the empirical knowledge about environmental influences on student development that researchers have gained over the years. Third, it is capable of embracing principles from such widely divergent sources as psychoanalysis and classical learning theory. Finally, this theory of student involvement can be used both by researchers to guide their investigation of student development—and by college administrators and faculty—to help them design more effective learning environments.



toward a critical race theory of education

Peabody Journal of Education Volume 93, 2018 – Issue 1 Original Articles Where are We? Critical Race Theory in Education 20 Years Later Download citation

toward a critical race theory of education

This article explores the territory that has been covered since the publication of Ladson-Billings and Tate’s 1995 article, “Toward a Critical Race Theory in Education.” We organize our review of the CRT literature is organized around what we are calling CRT “boundaries.” We identify six boundaries for CRT and education: 1) CRT in education argues that racial inequity in education is the logical outcome of a system of achievement presided on competition; 2) CRT in education examines the role of education policy and educational practices in the construction of racial inequity and the perpetuation of normative whiteness; 3) CRT in education rejects the dominant narrative about the inherent inferiority of people of color and the normative superiority of white people; 4) CRT in education rejects ahistoricism and examines the historical linkages between contemporary educational inequity and historical patterns of racial oppression; 5) CRT in education engages in intersectional analyses that recognize the ways that race is mediated by and interacts with other identity markers (i.e., gender, class, sexuality, linguistic background, and citizenship status); 6) CRT in education agitates and advocates for meaningful outcomes that redress racial inequity. CRT does not merely document disparities. We suggest that these core ideas provide a framework for analyzing the work that has been done in education in the past and a way to determine what might be left to do.
Adrienne D. Dixson, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Education Policy, Organization, and Leadership in the College of Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is a scholar of race and gender equity in urban educational contexts and an author of over 30 scholarly journal articles and book chapters and editor of five books on critical race theory and education, research and race and urban education.

Toward a critical race theory of education
Smedley (1993) points out that there is a deep paradox between the scientific notion of “no-race” and the “social parameters of race by which we conduct our lives and structure our institutions” (p. 19). Thus, while critical race theorists accept the scientific understanding of no-race or no genetic difference, we also accept the power of a social reality that allows for significant disparities in the life chances of people based on the categorical understanding of race.
Critical race theorists use storytelling as a way to illustrate and underscore broad legal principles regarding race and racial/social justice. The point of storytelling is not to vent or rant or be an exhibitionist regarding one’s own racial struggle. Unfortunately, far too many would-be critical race theorists in education use the narrative or counter-story in just that way. There is little or no principled argument to be made. The writer is mad because of an affront and the pen becomes a retaliatory weapon. The story does not advance larger concerns or help us understand how law or policy is operating.

Toward a critical race theory of education
2. The challenge to dominant ideology. In law and other arenas there is a belief that concepts like neutrality, objectivity, colorblindness, and meritocracy can be fully actualized. CRT says, “not so fast, how can one be truly neutral on issues of race when racism is baked into the fabric of America?” (Ummm, it can’t).
A friend of mine said that Freedom School is basically my way of bringing Critical Race Theory to the folks in my life. She’s was right! I know that Critical Race Theory sounds incredibly academic but I have a feeling many of you are already doing work based on CRT and just don’t know it, so I pulled together a little overview for y’all.

Toward a critical race theory of education
With this mission, the annual Critical Race Studies in Education (CRSEA) conference brings together scholars, activists, educators, students and community members who use critical race studies as a tool to frame, examine, document, understand and transform racial inequalities in education and in the broader society.”
“The Critical Race Studies in Education Association (CRSEA) is an interdisciplinary consortium of experts who recognize global implications of race and education for minoritized people. Through scholarship, we identify and expose inequities for the ultimate eradication of white supremacy. As a community, we are committed to (1) countering and combating systemic and structural racism with scholarship and praxis, (2) recognizing the multiple locations of oppression and the myriad manifestations and effects of their intersections and (3) co-constructing liberating knowledge that facilitates collective agency to transform schools and communities.



big bang theory cast education

THE BIG BANG THEORY may follow some of the world’s smartest budding scientists in the form of Leonard, Howard, Raj and Sheldon, but what are the real-life educations of the actors?

big bang theory cast education

Big bang theory cast education
He received his BA from the University of Houston before landing his MFA at the University of San Diego.
Speaking to Time Out Chicago back in 2009, Galecki said: “Once long division came up in the third grade, I’d go to the bathroom for 45 minutes,

Big bang theory cast education

  1. Jim Parsons’ Muppet Counterpart
  1. Simon Helberg’s Black Belt

Nayyar landed his breakthrough role on “The Big Bang Theory” just a year after graduating from Temple University in Philadelphia. Since then, he’s lent his voice to animated series like “Sanjay and Craig” and Dr. Pakij in “Fantasy Hospital.” On the stage, Nayyar starred opposite Jesse Eisenberg in the play “The Spoils,” which transferred from off-Broadway to London’s West End in 2016. The actor also published a book about his career in 2015, titled “Yes, My Accent Is Real.” “When I travel all over the world and people come up to me and say how much [“The Big Bang Theory”] changed their lives — that’s amazing,” Nayyar says. “We get kids who come here and we make them laugh until their dying days and that’s enough credit. You show up, and you do your job, and you go home. I’m very lucky and I’ve had a very, very good life because of it.”
Bialik is the ultimate multitasker. After starring in the popular ’90s sitcom “Blossom,” she graduated from UCLA and went on to get her PhD in neuroscience, which she completed in 2007, the same year “The Big Bang Theory” premiered. During her stint on “Big Bang,” Bialik has also written four books on subjects such as attachment parenting and vegan cooking. Her next, “Boying Up: How to Be Brave, Bold, and Brilliant,” will be released this month. And she founded the lifestyle website GrokNation.com. “I don’t have any place I’d rather be — than working on ‘The Big Bang Theory,’” Bialik says. “For me, it is the dream of an actor’s lifetime, to be in this kind of situation. I write. I have my fourth book coming out in May. And I will continue to write. I have a website. I’m very dedicated to GrokNation, and I make videos for YouTube and I do charity work. I do a lot of other things.Mostly, I raise my kids. My life is about doing what I need to do to be the best mom I can be, no matter what my work is.”

Staten Island has brought the world many treasures — the Wu-Tang Clan, the Staten Island Ferry bar, Pete Davidson, and at least a quarter of the Jersey Shore cast. It also brought us Kevin Sussman, who embodies The Big Bang Theory’s loveable (and vaguely depressed) comic shop owner Stuart Bloom.
Bialik’s path to education was unconventional. In 2017, she told National Geographic that she was inspired by her junior high physics teacher, but left regular school in favor of on-set tutoring from ages 14 to 19 because she was starring on the hit sitcom Blossom. Even then, the actress knew she wanted to go to college.

Big bang theory cast education
While you may have already guessed it due to her passion for animals and involvement with animal rights charities, Kaley Cuoco doesn’t eat meat.
Photography by Patrick Demarchelier.



health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf

The essential health behavior text, updated with the latest theories, research, and issues Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice provides a thorough introduction to understanding and changing health behavior, core tenets of the public health role. Covering theory, applications, and research, this comprehensive book has become the gold standard of health behavior texts. This new fifth edition has been updated to reflect the most recent changes in the public health field with a focus on health behavior, including coverage of the intersection of health and community, culture, and communication, with detailed explanations of both established and emerging theories. Offering perspective applicable at the individual, interpersonal, group, and community levels, this essential guide provides the most complete coverage of the field to give public health students and practitioners an authoritative reference for both the theoretical and practical aspects of health behavior. A deep understanding of human behaviors is essential for effective public health and health care management. This guide provides the most complete, up-to-date information in the field, to give you a real-world understanding and the background knowledge to apply it successfully. Learn how e-health and social media factor into health communication Explore the link between culture and health, and the importance of community Get up to date on emerging theories of health behavior and their applications Examine the push toward evidence-based interventions, and global applications Written and edited by the leading health and social behavior theorists and researchers, Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice provides the information and real-world perspective that builds a solid understanding of how to analyze and improve health behaviors and health.

health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf
Chapter 1 The Scope of Health Behavior 3
Chapter 12 Stress, Coping, and Health Behavior 223
Elaine Wethington, Karen Glanz, and Marc D. Schwartz

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf
The fourth edition of Health Behavior and Health Education once again updates and improves on the preceding edition. Its main purpose is the same: to advance the science and practice of health behavior and health education through the informed application of theories of health behavior. Likewise, this book serves as the definitive text for students, practitioners, and scientists in these areas and education in three ways: by analyzing the key components of theories of health behavior relevant to health education; by evaluating current applications of these theories in selected health promotion programs and interventions; and by identifying important future directions for research and practice in health promotion and health education.
* From the Preface

For example, change objectives for an intervention might be to increase adolescents’ self-efficacy beliefs to resist social pressure to use drugs. The accompanying belief would be, for example, ‘When I am at a party and a friend offers drugs, it is hard to resist’. Successfully changing this belief into: ‘When I am at a party and a friend offers drugs, I am confident that I can resist’, would increase adolescents’ self-efficacy (the overarching determinant) to refuse offered drugs. To achieve this change objective, theory-based methods might include modelling, guided practice with feedback, and reinforcement. One application for modelling in a school setting could be a videotaped step-by-step demonstration by adolescents of how to resist peer pressure in situations they commonly encounter. However, for a different population, such as low-income middle-aged migrants, a discussion session that incorporates a role playing session with a professional actor might be more appropriate. Thus, the same method can be translated into a myriad of possible applications depending on the specific population and context. Similarly, one application can be a manifestation of multiple methods, as illustrated in Table 15 in the supplementary materials or at http://osf.io/sqtuz (also see Figures 2 and 3 in Kok, 2014 ).
We define practical applications as specific translations of theory-based methods for practical use in ways that fit the intervention population and the context in which the intervention will be conducted (Bartholomew et al., 2011 ). Note that practical applications therefore have as one of their characteristics one or more mode(s) of delivery, such as ‘face to face’, ‘internet’, or ‘telephone’ (Hoffmann et al., 2014 ). For example, a group discussion is an example of a practical application, and can be held face to face or using the internet (i.e., with different modes of delivery). In addition, specifying the mode of delivery would not suffice to describe the application: the exact content of group discussion protocols or a recording are also part of the application. This is important because any thorough description of an application needs to make clear how satisfaction of the parameters of effectiveness of the embodied methods of behaviour change is secured. For example, group discussions can increase knowledge only if the correct schemata are activated in those discussions (see Table 2 in the supplementary materials or at http://osf.io/sqtuz). Therefore, a part of the application must be a system for ensuring that these schemata are addressed in the discussions, regardless of mode of delivery (e.g., face to face).

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf
A series of reports by Mittleman et al. (1993, 1995, 1996) explored family-based interventions for the elderly with dementia. They demonstrated that an intervention with multiple members of the patient’s family substantially improved caregiver well-being. The intervention also resulted in a significant delay in institutionalization of the demented elderly, compared with controls who received usual care. The intervention consisted of six psychoeducational sessions with individual families followed by long-term availability of the healthcare counselors to the family members. More studies on the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers are warranted.
Several school-based trials targeted dietary behaviors and found significant differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change between intervention and control schools. Two exemplary programs are the Class of 1989 Study as part of the Minnesota Heart Health Program for 6th-12th graders (Kelder et al., 1994) and CATCH for 3rd–5th graders (Luepker et al., 1996; Perry et al., 1992). Both studies involved school-based interventions with large samples assessed for a long duration. Both interventions had beneficial effects on diet and eating habits (Nader et al., 1999); however, CATCH did not produce effects on physiological measures related to cardiovascular disease. In a review of interventions to promote healthy dietary behavior in children and adolescents, Perry et al. (1997) concluded that school-based nutrition education programs have been effective in improving aspects of children’s eating behaviors, with positive effects also observed in physiological outcomes such as serum cholesterol.

This paper describes the rationale and design of a theory-informed patient education programme addressing cardiovascular disease for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to illustrate how theory can explicitly be translated into practice.
A steering group of rheumatologists and psychologists was convened to design the programme. The Common Sense Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Stages of Change Model were used to underpin the topics and activities in the programme. User involvement was sought. The programme was formatted into a manual and the reading age of the materials was calculated.



multiple intelligence theory in education

One of the most popular ideas in education is applied in ways that its creator never intended.

multiple intelligence theory in education

Multiple intelligence theory in education
One of the most popular ideas in education is applied in ways that its creator never intended.
It’s clear that children learn differently—teachers in Edutopia’s audience are adamant on that score—but research shows that when students process and retain information, there is no dominant biological style, and that when teachers try to match instruction to a perceived learning style, the benefits are nonexistent.

Multiple intelligence theory in education
Words, language, and writing
People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good at visualizing things. These individuals are often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos, and pictures.  

Multiple intelligence theory in education
Proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983, the theory of multiple intelligences has revolutionized how we understand intelligence. Learn more about the research behind his theory.
Many educators have had the experience of not being able to reach some students until presenting the information in a completely different way or providing new options for student expression. Perhaps it was a student who struggled with writing until the teacher provided the option to create a graphic story, which blossomed into a beautiful and complex narrative. Or maybe it was a student who just couldn’t seem to grasp fractions, until he created them by separating oranges into slices.

Multiple intelligence theory in education
Howard Gardner of Harvard University originally identified seven distinct intelligences. According to Gardner, this theory, which emerged from cognitive research, “documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways.”
The theory of multiple intelligences is so intriguing because it expands our horizon of available teaching and learning tools beyond the conventional linguistic and logical methods used in most schools (e.g. lecture, textbooks, writing assignments, formulas, etc.).

Multiple intelligence theory in education
Linguistic Intelligence is a part of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory that deals with sensitivity to the spoken and written language, ability to learn languages, and capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals.
Some responses to this criticism include that the Multiple Intelligences theory doesn’t dispute the existence of the “g” factor; it proposes that it is equal along with the other intelligences. Many critics overlook the inclusion criteria set forth by Gardner.



thorndike theory education

In the ever changing world of education, new theories are constantly being put to the test. Welcome to our efforts to introduce some of the theorists and theories that have an educational impact in our society.

thorndike theory education

Thorndike theory education
During his lifetime, Thorndike published several books on modern day educational psychology. Among his works are: Educational Psychology (1903), Animal Intelligence (1911), The Measurement of Intelligence (1926), and Human Nature and the Social Order (1940). Edward L. Thorndike died in August in 1949, and he is perhaps known best for his early work with animals and the subsequent law of effect.
Encyclopedia World Biography. (2005-2006). Edward Lee Thorndike Biography. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from Bookrags.com: http://www.bookrags.com/biography/edward-lee-thorndike/

Thorndike theory education
Edward Thorndike was an influential psychologist who is often referred to as the founder of modern educational psychology. He was perhaps best-known for his famous puzzle box experiments with cats which led to the development of his law of effect.
Edward Thorndike was the son of a Methodist minister and grew up in Massachusetts. While he was a very successful student, he initially disliked his first psychology course. Like many other psychologists of his time, Thorndike’s interest in psychology grew after reading the classic book The Principles of Psychology by William James.

Intellect and character are strengthened not by any subtle and easy metamorphosis, but by the establishment of particular ideas and acts under the law of habit …. The price of a disciplined intellect and will is eternal vigilance in the formation of habits ….Habit rules us but it also never fails us. The mind does not give us something for nothing, but it never cheats. (1906, pp. 247–248)

While such men as John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins influenced the philosophy of education, Thorndike and those whom he inspired wrote reading and arithmetic books for pupils, school dictionaries and spelling lists, tests, and pedagogical guidebooks and teachers’ manuals. Because, however, it is far more difficult to assess influence in the operations of many thousands of American classrooms than to analyze ideas in the words of educational theorists, Thorndike’s contributions are taken largely for granted.

Connectionism was meant to be a general theory of learning for animals and humans. Thorndike was especially interested in the application of his theory to education including mathematics (Thorndike, 1922), spelling and reading (Thorndike, 1921), measurement of intelligence (Thorndike et al., 1927) and adult learning (Thorndike at al., 1928).
The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology: Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or “habits” become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings. The paradigm for S-R theory was trial and error learning in which certain responses come to dominate others due to rewards. The hallmark of connectionism (like all behavioral theory) was that learning could be adequately explained without refering to any unobservable internal states.

Thorndike theory education
Thorndike (1905) introduced the concept of reinforcement and was the first to apply psychological principles to the area of learning. –>
His research led to many theories and laws of learning, such as operant conditioning. Skinner (1938), like Thorndike, put animals in boxes and observed them to see what they were able to learn.



purposes of nursing theory in education

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purposes of nursing theory in education

Purposes of nursing theory in education
Nursing has accepted theory as basic to its practice; however, the use and development of nursing theory is constrained by the approach used in nursing education. It is not appropriate or sufficient to isolate theory in one course. Moreover, confining nursing theory courses to graduate curricula, which is the custom in many schools of nursing, suggests that to focus on theory in the profession is esoteric. These curricular approaches inhibit socialization of students to the value of theory as essential to practice. It is imperative that nursing education engage students in theory-related content at all levels. This article presents a scheme to achieve systematic integration of theory-related content in curricula at all levels of nursing education from associate degree to doctorate. Through theory-based practice, nursing will come to realize its full potential as a discipline.
Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI.

  • Physiological needs cover areas relating to sleep, eating, dress and environment.
  • Psychological needs highlight communication, emotion, learning and handling fears.
  • Spiritual needs relate to faith and worship.
  • Social needs cover accomplishment and recreational activities.

Community – Through community, two or more people are able to discover the innate meaning of their actions by sharing ideas and experiences with one another.

Purposes of nursing theory in education
Nursing theories are the basis of nursing practice today. In many cases, nursing theory guides knowledge development and directs education, research, and practice. Historically, nursing was not recognized as an academic discipline or as a profession we view it today. Before nursing theories were developed, nursing was considered to be a task-oriented occupation. The training and function of nurses were under the direction and control of the medical profession. Let’s take a look at the importance of nursing theory and its significance to nursing practice:
A term given to describe an idea or responses about an event, a situation, a process, a group of events, or a group of situations. Phenomena may be temporary or permanent. Nursing theories focus on the phenomena of nursing.

Purposes of nursing theory in education
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Professor and Director, School of Nursing, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI.

Purposes of nursing theory in education
A grand theory is just what it sounds like: compared to middle-range and practical theories, grand theories offer a sweeping overview of the nature and goals of professional nursing.
Nursing theory is an essential component of any level of nursing education. For nurses advancing their education, the higher level of reading and analysis required by an MSN curriculum offers the opportunity to examine more complex concepts of nursing theory alongside the practical experience they have already gained. Those who aspire to become nurse educators can build on nursing theories to train students and have an impact on the future of nursing.