human capital theory education

Human Capital Theory Related terms: Download as PDF About this page Entrepreneurship, Psychology of 4 Human Capital Human capital theory is concerned with knowledge and

human capital theory education

Human capital theory education
Alongside intermittent labor force attachment, several studies show a wage penalty for women associated with the presence of children. In a regression model utilizing data from 1968–88, Waldfogel ( 1997 , p. 212) identifies a penalty in hourly wages associated with having a child, and a larger penalty for two or more children, even after controlling for actual employment experience and factors such as education. The effects of family and domestic labor responsibilities are thus likely to be cumulative, lowering women’s earnings through reducing employment experience and the capacity to retain career paths. While some may interpret such findings as evidence that a proportion of the gender pay gap is non-discriminatory and simply due to individual choices, others may observe that women’s disproportionate responsibility for family care affects the range of choices available (see Motherhood: Economic Aspects ).
The empirical study of education-related earnings differentials was developed in tandem with human capital theory (see inter alia Becker, 1964 ); the idea is that educational attainment has a casual impact on labor market outcomes through improved productivity. Of course, the fact that more educated workers tend be more productive does not prove that education is the cause of their higher productivity. Indeed, many commentators have noted that interpretation of positive earnings differentials for the more educated as a causal impact of education may not be correct due to differential selection into HE by more able individuals and those from higher-income families. As such, it may be that higher-ability/income people select into education more so that the positive coefficient on education in a wage equation is actually upward biased. The existence of ability bias of this form has been studied in detail, from the highly influential work of Griliches (1977) onward, and confirmed in research since. Empirically, it is the case that the education coefficient falls once ability proxies are included (this is because ability is positively correlated with both earnings and education).

There is a widening gap between the Caribbean and both developed and emerging economies. In the Caribbean and Latin America, higher education is enduring a prolonged crisis where universities lack critical resources, technology and even intellectual capability to effectively prepare employees to compete in the global economy. The region has approximately 26% of the eligible individuals enrolled for post-secondary education. Many academicians and even politicians firmly believe that without a quality education, employees would not be able to produce at levels needed to compete in the global market and as such, there is an immediate need for focusing on education as a growth strategy. Compared with curriculum in developed nations, there is also a need to focus on what is relevant in the business, cultural, political, and social environments. Business, political, and religious leaders also play a critical role in ensuring that children are staying in school. In many parts of the Caribbean, young children are spending all day at farms, fishing, or just staying at home versus going to school. These are the same individuals who companies will be hiring as employees and who are supposed to produce goods and services to customers around the world. It is plainly a system that fails to educate the population, hence a workforce that lacks the education, knowledge, and skills necessary to perform effectively. It is for these very reasons that education is one of the pillars of proactive social policy aimed at the implementation of the universal principles enshrined in the human rights declaration and United Nation�s World Summit (United Nations, 2002).
Psacharopoulos, G. & Woodhall, M. (1997). Education for Development: An Analysis of Investment Choice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Human capital theory education
Encyclopedia of educational philosophy and theory.. ed. / Michael Peters. Berlin : Springer Science + Business Media, 2015.
T1 – Human capital theory in education

Also according to the theory, other benefits of education may be realised in terms of greater productivity and less need to incur costs. An example of educational benefit that improves production possibilities is the greater labour market productivity of those with additional schooling. And the lesser dependency on subsidies in educated communities is an example of benefit that reduces costs for tax-payers (Vila, 2000). In addition, a large body of literature in macroeconomics has underscored that productivity spillovers are important determinants of economic growth and that an increase in aggregate human capital will have an effect on aggregate productivity [3] which is as a results of an increase in an individual’s education on productivity (Moretti, 2005).
Introduction
This essay is a critical reflection on the Human Capital Theory (HTC), focusing on its principles, critiques and current thinking. According to Psacharopoulos et al. (2004a), the HTC has roots in the works of classical authors such as Adams Smith (1776) and Alfred Marshall (1890). The former concluded that ‘a man educated at the expense of much labour and time may be compared to one of those expensive machines… and the work he learns to perform should replace to him the whole expense of his education’. The latter referred to industrial training as ‘a national investment’. Much later authors such as Mincer (1958), Schultz (1961) and Backer (1975) gave ‘meat’ to this theory when they affirmed that time and money spent on education builds human capital hence one should be able to estimate the rate of return (RoR) on such investment, in a way similar to investment in physical capital. In short, the H TC states that a person’s education is an investment (involves costs, in terms of direct spending on education and the opportunity costs of student time) in her/his human capital (akin to investment by a firm in physical capital), which makes the individual more productive and accrue him/her a future stream of benefits (superior productivity, higher wages and other non-monetary benefits to the individual and the society).

An organization is often said to only be as good as its people. Directors, employees, and leaders who make up an organization’s human capital are critical to its success.
The theory of human capital has received a lot of criticism from many people who work in education and training. In the 1960s, the theory was attacked primarily because it legitimized bourgeois individualism, which was seen as selfish and exploitative. The bourgeois class of people included those of the middle class who were believed to exploit those of the working class.

Resources:

http://www.open.uwi.edu/sites/default/files/bnccde/belize/conference/papers2010/almendarez.html
http://research-portal.uws.ac.uk/en/publications/human-capital-theory-in-education
http://humancapitaltheoryineducation.blogspot.com/2012/06/human-capital-theory-in-education.html?m=1
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/h/humancapital.asp
http://www.gnomon.edu/academics/foundation-in-art-&-design

what is social learning theory in education

Learn about how Albert Bandura's social learning theory suggests that people can learn though observation.

what is social learning theory in education

What is social learning theory in education
Because learning is so complex, there are many different psychological theories to explain how and why people learn. A psychologist named Albert Bandura proposed a social learning theory which suggests that observation and modeling play a primary role in this process.  
Bandura’s theory moves beyond behavioral theories, which suggest that all behaviors are learned through conditioning, and cognitive theories, which take into account psychological influences such as attention and memory.

Imitation through Real Plays
The final way to incorporate social learning into the classroom is through simulation and gamification. Gamification has been a growing trend, and when combined with simulation, can really bring social learning theory to life. The ultimate goal of classroom training, and social learning, is learning. However, observation does not necessarily equate to behavior change or learning. Yet, there is a higher likelihood for learning and behavior change when participants see a person taking an action and being rewarded for that action (or conversely, punished for an inappropriate action or inaction). This is the basis of simulation, and more specifically what is often called “best practice” computer-based simulation. Place learners in teams and have them collectively take on a role in a computer simulation. As they make decisions, they follow a decision-tree where they experience the outcome of their decisions – good or bad – in terms of reactions of other characters in the simulation, future events, and on their scores.

What is social learning theory in education
Social learning theories, however, are not limited to differential association. Rather, more contemporary social learning theories have expanded upon Sutherland’s work, spawning many variations. One of the more often cited social learning theories, from Burgess and Akers in 1966, includes more societal level concepts to explain how society as a whole contributes to delinquency and criminality as well. 8 For example, differential reinforcement explains how potential rewards and punishments that follow crimes can influence the potential offender and recidivists.
C. Esposito-Smythers, . D.B. Goldston, in Encyclopedia of Adolescence , 2011

In order to learn there are a series of processes that should occur as the learner sees a model and creates representations in their mind. The first process is simple enough. People must pay attention to the behavior being modeled. The chance that a person will learn increases when they pay a higher degree of attention to the behavior that is being modeled. Attention is impacted by the degree to which a person can perceive the details of an action, think on that action, and judge the success of that action based on past performance. As such, attention requires a high degree of engagement on the part of the learner. The event itself may cause people to pay greater attention to an action based on a number of factors. How novel the behavior is or how relevant it is to them, for example, may impact whether a person pays greater attention or not.
The third principle underlying the theory was the importance of observation, which was highly linked to the second principle. When observing, learners do observe the outcomes of an action, including whether it is rewarded or punished. However, they also identify other strands of information. Learners also observe the process that goes into the action so that they can repeat it themselves.

What is social learning theory in education
If students see other students paying attention, they are more likely to pay attention. So teachers utilize reward systems and punishments to help students learn from the examples of others. Social learning theory also has a great root in encouraging self-efficacy by using constructive feedback. Students who get positive reinforcement have more confidence in themselves and their abilities—this stands out in their mind and they want to repeat this behavior.
Reproduction. We reproduce our previously learned behavior or knowledge when it’s required. Practicing our response in our head or in actions can improve the way we respond.

Resources:

http://trainingindustry.com/articles/content-development/how-to-incorporate-social-learning-into-the-classroom/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/social-learning-theory
http://www.educationcorner.com/social-learning-theory-guide.html
http://www.wgu.edu/blog/guide-social-learning-theory-education2005.html
http://schoolbag.info/pedagogy/early/89.html

rudolf steiner education theory

Find out what’s unique about the Steiner approach to education.

rudolf steiner education theory

Rudolf steiner education theory
The other dimensions involved in the philosophy behind the education help children to develop a healthy sense of awareness, concern for other people, respect for the world and their own sense of meaning and purpose. The spiritual aspect doesn’t sit right for everyone and, as there is a certain degree of spirituality involved in time at school, it needs to be something you’re comfortable with.
As far as education goes, he strongly believed in the idea of developing the whole person. Steiner first founded a school in 1919 and, as it was for the children of the Waldorf Astoria factory workers, the schools have continued to be known as Waldorf schools.

This developmental picture gives rise to Steiner’s pedagogical approach in practice. The key to preschool education is imitation, not intellectualization. In these years it is primarily through the imitative will that education occurs. The key to elementary education is learning through imagination–through story, myth, art, narrative, and biography–and doing. In these years, human feeling is the primary focus. And the time to exercise and challenge the intellectual intelligence, human thinking, is primarily in adolescence.
In 1900 he was asked by leaders of the Theosophical Society to speak on his own spiritual—scientific research. This led, in 1902, to his being asked to head the newly established German section of the International Theosophical Society. By 1912 it had become clear that the insights derived from Steiner’s spiritual—scientific research led in a different direction than those represented by the Theosophical Society. Early in 1913, those members who wished to follow the path described by Rudolf Steiner established the Anthroposophical Society. Steiner served as the new society’s adviser and mentor. His principal publications during this period were Theosophie (Theosophy) in 1904; Wie erlangt man Erkenntnisse der höheren Welten (How to attain knowledge of higher worlds) in 1904/1905; and Die Geheimwissenschaft im Umriss (An outline of occult science) in 1909.

The first Steiner school opened in Stuttgart in 1919 for children of workers at the Waldorf-Astoria cigarette factory. The school’s benefactor was managing director, Emil Molt, who asked Dr Rudolf Steiner to found and lead the school in its early stages.
Steiner schools are always co-educational, fully comprehensive and take pupils from 3 to ideally eighteen. They welcome children of all abilities from all faiths and backgrounds.

Rudolf steiner education theory
They believed that they had ascended through all the races.
First, I am not clear why Steiner Schools are not considered faith schools.

Yes, though I do give various introductory sessions on Steiner education in earlier years to help students make an informed choice at the end of their second year. I also teach on some mainstream papers like the second-year art paper.
Very much so, Kotahitanga – a picture of holistic development that embraces the spiritual aspect of the child – is fundamental to both.

Resources:

http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2453/Steiner-Rudolf-1861-1925.html
http://www.steinerwaldorf.org/steiner-education/what-is-steiner-education/
http://www.bbc.com/news/education-28646118
http://www.hekupu.ac.nz/article/rudolf-steiner-origins-philosophy-and-education
http://www.cleverism.com/trait-theory-of-leadership-guide/

conflict theory in education

Conflict theory in education The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack, 2012).

conflict theory in education

Conflict theory in education
The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack, 2012). Ballantine, J. H., & Hammack, F. M. (2012). The sociology of education: A systematic analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Table 11.1 “Theory Snapshot” summarizes what these approaches say.
Functional theory stresses the functions that education serves in fulfilling a society’s various needs. Perhaps the most important function of education is socialization. If children are to learn the norms, values, and skills they need to function in society, then education is a primary vehicle for such learning. Schools teach the three Rs (reading, ’riting, ’rithmetic), as we all know, but they also teach many of the society’s norms and values. In the United States, these norms and values include respect for authority, patriotism (remember the Pledge of Allegiance?), punctuality, and competition (for grades and sports victories).

Conflict theory in education
The fulfillment of one’s education is closely linked to social class. Students of low socioeconomic status are generally not afforded the same opportunities as students of higher status, no matter how great their academic ability or desire to learn. Picture a student from a working-class home who wants to do well in school. On a Monday, he’s assigned a paper that’s due Friday. Monday evening, he has to babysit his younger sister while his divorced mother works. Tuesday and Wednesday, he works stocking shelves after school until 10:00 p.m. By Thursday, the only day he might have available to work on that assignment, he’s so exhausted he can’t bring himself to start the paper. His mother, though she’d like to help him, is so tired herself that she isn’t able to give him the encouragement or support he needs. And since English is her second language, she has difficulty with some of his educational materials. They also lack a computer and printer at home, which most of his classmates have, so they have to rely on the public library or school system for access to technology. As this story shows, many students from working-class families have to contend with helping out at home, contributing financially to the family, poor study environments and a lack of support from their families. This is a difficult match with education systems that adhere to a traditional curriculum that is more easily understood and completed by students of higher social classes.
Conflict theorists see the education system as a means by which those in power stay in power. (Photo courtesy Thomas Ricker/flickr)

Conflict theory in education

  1. Are there any forms of cultural capital that can be acquired without economic capital? That is, can one cultivate habits of speech and appearance that suggest higher social status but which do not cost money? (or at least very much money?) What symbolic values are at work here?
  2. If prestigious brand-name products, such as the Louis Vuitton handbag, confer some sort of high status on those who possess and display them, then how does the “branding” of the self function in our 21st-Century economy? When individuals brand themselves through social media and other public platforms, whether as employees or “influencers” and such, what status or characteristics are they trying to claim? What do they hope to gain?
  3. The sociologist Charles Horton Cooley introduced the concept of the “looking glass self,” which says we develop our sense of self according to how we believe others perceive us. Can this idea help us understand how social status and economic class are related? To what extent are status and class a matter of self-conscious performance for the benefit of an imagined audience?

This video explains how cultural capital impacts a hypothetical student.

The struggle for power helps determine the structure and functioning of organizations and the hierarchy, which evolves as a result of power relations. The ‘haves’ often use coercive power and manipulation to hold society together, but change is seen as inevitable and sometimes rapid, as the conflict of interest leads to the overthrow of existing power structures.
IMPLICATION OF CONFLICT THEORY TO EDUCATION

Conflict theory in education
In a way this is similar to Durkheim’s view that education serves to teach people the norms and values of society, to preserve the value consensus, only for Althusser these norms and values are those that serve the interests of the ruling class and it is a capitalist consensus that prevents necessary social change.
Louis Althusser argued that the education system was part of what he called the ideological state apparatus.

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-conflict-theory-on-education/
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-introductiontosociology/chapter/conflict-theory-on-education/
http://learning.uonbi.ac.ke/courses/TFD301/scormPackages/path_2/2_conflict_theory.html
http://www.tutor2u.net/sociology/reference/conflict-theories-of-education-louis-althusser
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aehe.3640180107/pdf

latcrit theory in education

Equity & Excellence in Education Volume 42, 2009 – Issue 2 Original Articles Latcrit Educational Leadership and Advocacy: Struggling Over Whiteness as Property in Texas School Finance

latcrit theory in education

In this article, the author seeks to re-imagine the political and policy roles of educational leaders of color, offering an alternative method for educational leadership, advocacy, and policy analysis. The author uses critical race theory (CRT) and Latina/o critical (LatCrit) theory to problematize the way politically-active Mexican American educational leaders used personal and professional experiences to conceptualize racism and organize politically in the context of the debate over school finance equity in Texas. The findings suggest that a prevalent negation of critical raced leadership, analysis, and advocacy among the participants disadvantages Latina/o communities and de-legitimizes Latina/o political voices. The author envisions an alternative educational leadership framework centered on LatCrit theory’s call for contextualized, historical, and critical analysis.
1. I utilize Latina/o, Mexican, Mexican American, and Chicano interchangeably throughout this article.

CRT, LatCrit, and Racist Nativism: An Intersectional Approach
The Need to Examine Undocumented Latina/o Educational Experiences

Connect with us
This chapter examines LatCrit, Tribal Crit, and Asian Crit theories in educational leadership. More specifically, the research question shows: How can LatCrit, Tribal Crit, and Asian Crit theories inform organizational theory and, in turn, how can these theories contribute to the leadership of socially just schools? LatCrit, Tribal Crit, and Asian Crit Theory offer theoretical implications beyond traditional organizational theories of leadership, change, and decision-making. These theoretical implications apply across leadership, change, and decision-making, and include considering how theories associated with individual identity at the micro-level can reflect back to organizations at the macro-level and the importance of pedagogy. E. Aleman analyzed school finance policy in Texas, relying on Critical Race Theory and LatCrit theory to inform critical policy analysis. A. E. Castagno’s Tribal Crit study reiterates the critical importance of culturally relevant pedagogy for preparing Indigenous educators and, in turn, for Indigenous educators to be proficient teachers of culturally relevant pedagogy for Indigenous students.

There is a limited but growing body of research on the experiences of undocumented Latina/o immigrant students in the U.S. (Abrego, 2002; Bastida et. al., 2007; De Leon, 2005; Fields, 2005; Gonzales, 2007; Guillen, 2004; Madera, et. al., 2008; Oliverez et. al., 2006; Olivas, 1995, 2004; Pabon Lopez, 2005; Perez Huber & Malagon, 2007; Rangel, 2001; Rincon, 2005; Seif, 2004). We know that thousands of undocumented students graduate high schools throughout the country each year, but most are in state of California (Oliverez et. al., 2006). We also know that most undocumented immigrants in the U.S. are from Latin American countries, but Mexico in particular (Passel, 2006). The historical and continued efforts of U.S. foreign policy to ensure Mexican economic dependence on the United States suggests economic conditions in Mexico will continue to leave many Mexican citizens with no choice but to emigrate (Gonzalez & Fernandez, 2002). This means, until the U.S. enacts comprehensive immigration reform that offers the U.S. undocumented population with a path to citizenship, the number of undocumented Latina/o students will continue to grow. Research focusing on this group of students lags far behind this demographic growth.
This article examines how a racist nativism framework can help understand the experiences of undocumented Chicana college students attending a public research university in California. First, this article will provide a brief description of how CRT and, in particular, LatCrit have allowed researchers to develop the frame of racist nativism. Second, the framework of racist nativism will be described, including how it is used in this study. Third, this article will describe the data collection strategies, methodological approach and analysis process used to gather and analyze 20 critical race testimonio interviews. Following this description, I will present the findings that demonstrate the ways racist nativism, class and gender have manifested in the educational trajectories of the undocumented Chicana college students.

Latcrit theory in education
Chapter 8. Tribal Critical Race Theory
Angela Jaime and Caskey Russell
Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education has put forth a challenge that requires all of our attentions. Not only does this work have important implications for teaching and learning in schools, it provides an epistemological and moral call for us to do justice work with a global framework that captures, reclaims, and restores our humanity.”
—From the Foreword by Tyrone C. Howard, Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, The University of California, Los Angeles

Resources:

http://go.gale.com/ps/anonymous?id=GALE%7CA227945959&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=10478248&p=AONE&sw=w&u=googlescholar&asid=cfa88e428956013504e221d2c42e6540&mg=true
http://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315818610/chapters/10.4324/9781315818610-8
http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-227945959/using-latina-o-critical-race-theory-latcrit-and
http://www.tcpress.com/critical-race-theory-in-teacher-education-9780807761373
http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/Education_Theory/Constructivism_and_Social_Constructivism

abraham maslow theory of education

Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs In Our Classrooms simple truth: Before expecting students to reach their potential, teachers need to meet students at their current levels. research

abraham maslow theory of education

Maslow’s final stage is Self-Actualization. In theory, if students have all of the previous stages met, they can achieve and create at their full potential. Do we automatically assume that all students should be achieving at their full potential once they enter the classroom? We know that this is not a reality, we just need to look at ourselves when we’re impacted by any of the characteristics noted above.
At times it can be confusing to apply theory into the practical realities of a classroom. So let’s talk specifics. We may have a limited influence on the home lives of our students. Though once they enter our school, we have the opportunity to assess student needs and then work to adapt our instruction to meet their needs. Below are the general stages in order and descriptions of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:

Abraham maslow theory of education
Start with students’ physiological needs — food, clothing and shelter — because it is impossible to advance to higher needs if students are hungry, don’t have warm enough clothes, or have to sleep on the street. Some schools apply this level of Maslow’s hierarchy by offering breakfast or lunch programs to ensure the basic nutrition needs of their students are being met. In the United States, schools have provided low-cost or free lunches since 1946, when President Truman signed the National School Lunch Act.
Applying Abraham Maslow’s theory of a pyramid-shaped hierarchy — physiological needs, personal safety, social affiliation, self-esteem and self-actualization — to education is an ideal way to assess lesson plans, courses and educational programs. Like the rungs of a ladder, each need has to be met before progressing to the next level. By asking themselves whether the five needs are being met in their school or classroom, educators can assess how well they are applying Maslow’s hierarchy to their teaching practice. Students may move back and forth on the hierarchy, so it is important to have ongoing assessments of how well their needs are being met.

Abraham maslow theory of education

(a) human beings are motivated by a hierarchy of needs.

(b) Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths;

Abraham maslow theory of education
November 2, 2017 by Denisha Jones
​I was immediately intrigued by the idea of applying Maslow’s theory to a school, especially if this new application would provide an additional way to measure school equity. So I created a new pyramid of hierarchy needs but identified how each need applied to schools. The needs remain the same, but instead of focusing on the individual, we now examine the school to determine if it is providing the environment and experiences that will allow children to successfully have their needs met. In many ways, this new view of a hierarchy of needs shifts from what could be a deficit view of children (i.e., the child lacks self-esteem and cannot learn). And moves to an emphasis on how the school culture can impact a child’s ability to thrive (i.e., the school values and respects all students).

Abraham maslow theory of education
Get the official Learning Theories in Plain English eBook, Vol 2 of 2. This eBook contains the second half of the guides and summaries.
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Resources:

http://classroom.synonym.com/apply-maslows-hierarchy-needs-education-7771899.html
http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html
http://dey.org/applying-maslow-to-schools-a-new-approach-to-school-equity/
http://www.learning-theories.com/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs.html
http://www.verywellmind.com/edward-thorndike-biography-1874-1949-2795525

“in the health education/promotion profession, “theory-based” refers to both theories and models.”

Polarwinco ”in the health education/promotion profession, \”theory-based\” refers to both theories and models.” What is ”in the health education/promotion profession,

“in the health education/promotion profession, “theory-based” refers to both theories and models.”


”in the health education/promotion profession, \”theory-based\” refers to both theories and models.” is considered completed, and its goal is achieved if the quantity and quality of educational material in the re-manufactured product of the student will meet the learning goal or make up the proper level (average, reference, possible) presented in the learning goal.
”in the health education/promotion profession, \”theory-based\” refers to both theories and models.” is a type of learning activity in which the quantity and quality of the pupils knowledge and skills are brought by the teacher to the proper level (intermediate, standard, possible) constituting the learning goal.


52) The purpose of a theory is to simplify understanding of complex concepts.
A) To assure the use of proper resources for each identified intervention

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Resources:

http://scholaron.com/homework-answers/51-which-of-the-following-statements-2042606
http://www.freecouponnow.net/theories-and-models-used-in-health-promotion/
http://libguides.du.edu/c.php?g=931280&p=7093674

behaviorist theory in education

Behaviorist Learning Theory Behaviorism is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental states. It is a form

behaviorist theory in education

Behaviorist theory in education
Skinner was influential in defining radical behaviorism, a philosophy codifying the basis of his school of research (named the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, or EAB.) While EAB differs from other approaches to behavioral research on numerous methodological and theoretical points, radical behaviorism departs from methodological behaviorism most notably in accepting treatment of feelings, states of mind and introspection as existent and scientifically treatable. This is done by identifying them as something non-dualistic, and here Skinner takes a divide-and-conquer approach, with some instances being identified with bodily conditions or behavior, and others getting a more extended ‘analysis’ in terms of behavior. However, radical behaviorism stops short of identifying feelings as causes of behavior. Among other points of difference were a rejection of the reflex as a model of all behavior and a defense of a science of behavior complementary to but independent of physiology.
Behaviorism is both a psychological movement and a philosophy. The basic premise of radical behaviorism is that the study of behavior should be a natural science, such as chemistry or physics, without any reference to hypothetical inner states of organisms. Other varieties, such as theoretical behaviorism, permit internal states, but do not require them to be mental or have any relation to subjective experience. Behaviorism takes a functional view of behavior.

Behaviorists explain motivation in terms of schedules of positive and negative reinforcement. Just as receiving food pellets each time it pecks at a button teaches a pigeon to peck the button, pleasant experiences cause human learners to make the desired connections between specific stimuli and the appropriate responses. For example, a student who receives verbal praise and good grades for correct answers (positive reinforcement) is likely to learn those answers effectively; one who receives little or no positive feedback for the same answers (negative reinforcement) is less likely to learn them as effectively. Likewise, human learners tend to avoid responses that are associated with punishment or unpleasant consequences such as poor grades or adverse feedback.
Behaviorist teaching methods tend to rely on so-called “skill and drill” exercises to provide the consistent repetition necessary for effective reinforcement of response patterns. Other methods include question (stimulus) and answer (response) frameworks in which questions are of gradually increasing difficulty; guided practice; and regular reviews of material. Behaviorist methods also typically rely heavily on the use of positive reinforcements such as verbal praise, good grades, and prizes. Behaviorists assess the degree of learning using methods that measure observable behavior such as exam performance. Behaviorist teaching methods have proven most successful in areas where there is a “correct” response or easily memorized material. For example, while behaviorist methods have proven to be successful in teaching structured material such as facts and formulae, scientific concepts, and foreign language vocabulary, their efficacy in teaching comprehension, composition, and analytical abilities is questionable.

Therefore, internal events, such as thinking should be explained through behavioral terms (or eliminated altogether).
Cognitive psychology states that mediational processes occur between stimulus and response, such as memory, thinking, problem-solving, etc.

Duchesne, S., McMaugh, A., Bochner, S., & Krause, K. L. (2013). Educational psychology: For learning and teaching (4th ed.). South Melbourne, VIC: Cengage Learning.
The reason Skinner is so famous is that he really reinforced the fact that ‘reinforcements’ in the form of rewards and punishments lead to the outcomes that he desires.

Behaviorist theory in education
Summary
Three learning theories:

Resources:

http://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/behaviorism/
http://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html
http://helpfulprofessor.com/behaviorism/
http://thepeakperformancecenter.com/educational-learning/learning/theories/
http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_slavin_edpsych_8/0,11117,2547688-content,00.html

application of sigmund freud theory in education

Centre for Learning Excellence University of Bedfordshire University Square Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 3JU

application of sigmund freud theory in education

Though Freud describes his medical studies as ‘negligent’ and the completion of his degree as ‘belated’, it appears he maintained diligent work habits during this period (Ibid.). By most accounts, Freud had less interest in medicine per se than in research biology, the latter being his intended career path at the outset of his training (Rosen, 1972). After receiving his medical degree, however, rather than dedicating himself to research, financial necessity compelled Freud to take a hospital post, working first as a clinical assistant and then as a junior physician. Within the hospital’s psychiatric clinic he maintained his interest in research work, gravitating increasingly towards neurology, and securing a more academic position as Lecturer in Neuropathology in 1885. As he moved away from the hospital milieu and established a private practice as a doctor of nervous diseases (1886), Freud continued to develop academically, working with senior clinical practitioners, including Charcot — a Parisian psychiatrist specializing in hysteria — and Breuer — a Jewish-Viennese physician with whom Freud published the first psychoanalytic case studies (1895/1961).
It is reasonable to query: if teaching is impossible, then why bother? Yet, in my view, Freud is a key pedagogic thinker precisely because of the possibilities that this impossibility creates. Personally, I am also captivated by the intrinsic mystery that psychoanalytic theory reveals within the teaching process, the impossibility of ever fully anticipating the eventual results of our attempts to teach. Introducing a psychoanalytic theory of the unconscious into pedagogy makes teaching a very special thing. It suggests that the outcomes of our pedagogical efforts, though mysterious, may touch our students on a more profound level than we can imagine. This insight, along with the shift that Freud’s educational vision yields, calls into question the very purpose of our work. As Shoshana Felman writes, ‘it is precisely in giving us unprecedented insight into the impossibility of teaching, that psychoanalysis has opened up unprecedented teaching possibilities, renewing both the questions and the practice of education’ (Felman, 1982:22). The point, ultimately, is that as educators, we must learn to live with the uncertainty of our practice’s outcomes, though we are free to choose the personal, political, and social aims that underlie our work.

In 1923 Freud described his constructs of the id, ego and the superego. The id is the most primitive part of our personality. It operates according to the pleasure principle and it simply seeks immediate gratification. Freud believed that every human had a life and death instinct. The life instinct is called eros while the death instinct is called thanatos. Both are integral parts of the id. And the energy for this mechanism is libido, a flowing, dynamic force. The ego is different from the id as it is extremely objective. It operates according to the “reality principle” and deals with the demands of the environment. It regulates the flow of libido and keeps the id in check, thus acting as a “control center” of the personality. It is the superego which represents the values and standards of an individual’s personality. It acts as an internal judge, it punishes the ego with feelings of guilt or it rewards, which lead to feelings of pride and heightened self-esteem.
An example of an anonymous psychoanalytic activity is the question and answer game.

One of the significant contributions, however, is the understanding that psychoanalysis has imparted of ‘mal-adjustments’ in children’s behaviour and delinquencies in adolescence. Emotional conflicts due to defective inter-personal relationships within the family, repression of the child’s between the unconscious needs and the demand or reality have been highlighted as important causes without minimising the significance of the inadequate environmental conditions such as the broken home, poor economic situations, bad neighbourhood, inadequate school programmes, lack of proper recreational facilities and others.
Psychoanalysis has laid stress on such psychological incentives as love, use of instincts, permissiveness and leniency and the child’s own will or interest. It has thrown light on and explained the variations that we find in the assimilation of various subjects among different children. This means that specific disabilities may be due to affective inhibition among other causes.

After Freud’s daughter Anna was arrested and interrogated by the Gestapo in 1938, Freud and his family emigrated to London on 4 July. They bought a house in Hampstead (20 Maresfield Gardens), the place where the “Freud Museum London” can be found today. One year after this dramatic change of residence, on September 23rd, Freud called for his physician Dr. Schur who gave him two centigrams of morphine to ease his pain, followed by another two centigrams twelve hours later.
I Theoretical Part
I.1 Short Biography of Sigmund Freud
I.2 Psychoanalysis according to Freud
I.2.1 The Unconscious
I.2.2 The Interpretation of Dreams
I.2.3 Pleasure- and Reality-Principle
I.2.4 Ego, Id and Super-Ego
I.2.5 The Stages of Psychosexual Development

Humanistic Models: Based on the work of psychologists and educators such as Abraham Maslow (1970), Carl Rogers (1951), and A.W. Combs (1982), the humanistic approach “to learning is largely constructivist and emphasizes cognitive and affective processes” (Schunk, 2012, p. 351). Humanists believe that education should be holistic and enhance the total development of the person, not only cognitively, but socially and emotionally as well. (Rothstein, 1990). Those who support this model, therefore, often incorporate teaching and learning strategies that integrate feelings, values, and social skills along with knowledge (Schunk, 2000). Humanists also believe that students learn best in warm, trusting classroom environments where they are given choices and allowed to express their creativity. Specific instructional approaches consistent with humanistic theory include not only discovery learning/constructivism (see description under cognitivism), but also nondirective instruction, cooperative learning, discussion-based learning, and holistic learning. These techniques are thoroughly described within our knowledge base, Goal IV, Instruction.
Combs, A. (1982). A personal approach to teaching: Beliefs that make a difference. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Resources:

http://studymoose.com/implications-for-education-using-frueds-theory-essay
http://www.psychologydiscussion.net/psychology/psychoanalysis/how-is-psychoanalysis-used-in-education-psychology/2647
http://m.grin.com/document/109953
http://www.csbsju.edu/education/our-approach/knowledge-base/kb-ii
http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html