applying the psychology of working theory for transformative career education:

Maureen Kenny is a professor in the department of Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology (CDEP) at the Lynch School of Education and Human Development and Human Development at Boston College.

applying the psychology of working theory for transformative career education:

Applying the psychology of working theory for transformative career education:
How can we cultivate academic and socioemotional development among children, adolescents, and families? Maureen E. Kenny seeks these answers, examining the individual and contextual factors that promote positive growth. Her expertise includes school and community-based interventions for marginalized youth, whole child education, student motivation, and how academic challenges evolve through shifts in technology, globalization, and workforce opportunities.
Professor, Counseling, Developmental & Educational Psychology

Work and nonwork experiences are often seamlessly experienced in the natural course of people’s lives. As noted earlier, psychological theory and practice has become increasingly insular, leading to artificial splits that are not consistent with the lived experience of people. As such, the relatively seamless nature of life ought to be captured in scholarship and practice about working. In contrast to the increasing compartmentalization of psychology, the psychology-of-working perspective strives to reduce or eliminate a priori categories that separate psychological discourses. The optimal discourse would be one that examines the lived experience of working, which is conveyed in the language of people talking about their lives. As conveyed in memoirs and narrative excerpts (e.g., Blustein, 2006; Bowe et al., 2000; Terkel, 1974), working is inextricably connected to the rest of our lives. We inhabit multiple roles in life and these roles intersect with each other in organized and random ways, creating a rich tapestry of life experiences (cf. Super, 1980).
Following the trend toward increasing specialization within psychology, working, as a context for human behavior, became increasingly compartmentalized throughout most of psychology, ultimately yielding a highly insular view of a portion of our lives that takes up a significant amount of time and energy. For example, with some notable exceptions (e.g., Axelrod, 1999; Lowman, 1993; Richardson, 2012; Socarides & Kramer, 1997), working is not a central part of most psychotherapy and personality theories. Furthermore, within North America (and in many other parts of the globe), psychological practice and scholarship on working increasingly has tended to focus on those with some degree of privilege and choice. These factors, when considered together, have led many scholars to critique existing discourses and to advocate for a more inclusive perspective of the role of work in one’s psychological well-being (e.g., Blustein, McWhirter, & Perry, 2005; Harmon & Farmer, 1983; Richardson, 1993).

Career construction theory defines vocational personality as the constellation of an individual’s career-related abilities, needs, values, and interests. The theory discusses personality using the nomenclature and framework of Holland’s RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional) types because it offers a widely used language for describing the personological results of an individual’s efforts at self-organization of his or her skills, interests, and abilities. While adopting Holland’s language to articulate accounts of personalities and occupations, career construction theory reminds counselors and researchers that the traits constituting RIASEC types are completely decontextualized and quite abstract. It is easy to forget that the traits, especially when denoted with nouns rather than verbs, are really just strategies for adapting. They are dynamic processes that present possibilities, and they should not be reified into realist tools for predicting the future.
Using social constructionism as a metatheory, construction theory views careers from a contextual perspective that sees people as self-organizing, self-regulating, and self-defining. Relying on its social constructionist epistemology, the theory reconceptualizes both vocational personality types and vocational tasks. It interprets personality types as processes that have possibilities, not realities that predict the future. It views developmental tasks as social expectations. Career construction theory then uses the concept of life themes to weave together its conceptualizations of vocational personality and career adaptability into a comprehensive theory of both vocational behavior and career counseling. Stated succinctly, the theory holds that individuals construct their careers by using life themes to integrate the self-organization of personality and the self-extension of career adaptation into a self-defining whole that animates work, directs occupational choice, and shapes vocational adjustment.

work boundary e.g. excessive time demands affecting relationships, leisure, fitness. Low respect/high control culture. No time off except sickness absence. Discipline for absence. Scapegoating weaker members by stressed team. Harassment or abuse by aggressive/stressed manager. Boss changes. Rigid agenda.

  • Poor transition management – no support, no preparation for change, unrealistic time scales. No monitoring of key issues pre-crisis. No opportunity for fresh insights. Past achievements ignored or rubbished.
    • Economic insecurity – low income, debt, high financial commitments, fear of job loss, temporary, ambiguous or onerous employment contract
    • Emotional insecurity – no partner, few friends, dependent relatives, secret grief (lost lover or child), sense of guilt, unresolved issues or regrets, multiple transitions, anxiety over being diagnosed mentally ill
    • Health – chronic or undiagnosed conditions, low fitness, fatigue, lifestyle
    • Hostile work environment – work overload, unrealistic demands, insufficient resources, abuse of life

    University of Florence:
    Career guidance for social justice
    It is an on-going attempt by Tristram Hooley (Derby University), Rie Thomsen (Aarhus University) and Ronald G. Sultana (University of Malta) to bring sociological perspectives to bear on career guidance theory and practice, so as to further the social justice agenda. The project has led to two books – Career Guidance for Social Justice (2018) and Career Guidance for Emancipation (2019), both published by Routledge. The team is now trying to identify the ways in which career guidance practitioners attempt to enact social justice in their everyday work.

    Resources:

    http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199758791.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199758791-e-001
    http://psychology.iresearchnet.com/counseling-psychology/career-counseling/career-construction-theory/
    http://www.eoslifework.co.uk/transprac.htm
    http://wp.unil.ch/unitwin/research/
    http://www.vitalsource.com/products/comprehensive-multicultural-education-christine-i-bennett-v9780133522457

    bronfenbrenner theory in education

    Outline Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of development gives us ways on how to organize thinking about the complex relationships between …

    bronfenbrenner theory in education

    Microsystem is the inner system and most direct interaction between an individual with others in the closest environment that the child lives in. It is the smallest group yet it gives a huge influence such as family and then daycare centre and school as they grown up. Family is the closest person to be with since the child born. The child will observe and learn the behaviour of the family members. For an example, the way we speak and treat them. The voice’s tone and the use of words are vital when we are speaking with the child. Using insensitive and ruthless words can cause the child getting use to it which it bad for their development. They may build up a bad manner because of that. Apart from it, the ways of the parents take care of their child also play a huge role in the development of the child. Praising the child for their good achievement even it is a little accomplishment can encourage them to do more. If it is vice versa, the child stop themselves from doing the good deed since they do not receive any appreciation and support.
    Ecological Systems Theory was the primary theoretical by Bronfenbrenner. At first, he introduced four stages in the theory. He named it as the microsystem, the mesosytem, the exosystem, and the macrosystem. Then, he later added the fifth system, called the Chronosystem. Each of them contains functions, regulations and norms which can powerfully shape the development.

    Bronfenbrenner theory in education
    In 1910, when the Union of SA was founded, no uniform national education system existed and each province (exo level) had its own education system. At this exo level, fragmented education departments, the lack of support provision and the lack of education in the mother tongue resulted in the exclusion of learners and for learners with barriers to learning to an even greater extent (DOE 1997). According to the constitution of that time, the medium of instruction was Dutch, which was later replaced with Afrikaans and English. Education reached only few learners of the black population (Fataar 1997) and ignored the African culture (Mphahlele & Mminele 1997 cited in Steyn et al. 2017). Moreover, the social context of separate development and the exclusion of learners led to limited access to support and resources for many (Pillay & Di Terlizzi 2009), and also isolation, bringing about contextual disadvantage and multiple social problems (Donald et al. 2014; Dreyer 2015). This influenced the interactions between micro systems in the meso system within the South African educational system.
    Participation in processes develops the learner’s biological resources of ‘ability, motivation, knowledge and skills’ (Bronfenbrenner & Morris 2006) to participate in interactions with other persons in the school context. Within these supportive interactions, the learner builds independence (O’Toole, Hayes & Mhathúna 2014) and becomes a mediator and creator of his or her own development. However, in the absence of these resource characteristics, mediation does not take place, slowing down developmental outcomes (Bronfenbrenner & Morris 2006).

    Urie Bronfenbrenner developed the bioecological model of development, which recognizes that the social contexts in which one develops are ecosystems. This is because they are always in constant interaction as well as influencing each other (Woolfolk, 2010). Bronfenbrenner developed four different ecosystems in his theory: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem.
    Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development

    Bronfenbrenner theory in education
    Example: Bi-directional influences
    Figure 1 Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of individual development

    Resources:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057737/
    http://sites.google.com/site/northleyms/bronfenbrenner
    http://www.parenta.com/2018/09/01/bronfenbrenner-childrens-learning-in-a-wider-context/
    http://countercurrents.org/2018/09/platos-theory-of-education/

    bruner education theory

    Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner) A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their

    bruner education theory

    As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves. The instructor and student should engage in an active dialog (i.e., socratic learning). The task of the instructor is to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding. Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.
    A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to “go beyond the information given”.

    Thinking is also based on the use of other mental images (icons), such as hearing, smell or touch.
    Bruner (1960) adopts a different view and believes a child (of any age) is capable of understanding complex information:

    The teacher resources used should be focused on that of encouragement, aiding and allowing the student to uncover the main principles on their own. Communication between the learner and teacher is the key concept. Socratic learning is suggested as the best method of communication in this theoretical framework, as it allows the teacher to actively note any study skills the learner verbalizes, their progression, their frustrations, and form a rubric of their current learning state based on the dialogue. Seeing as this theory takes known information and expounds upon it, any teacher lesson plans, teacher worksheets, or resources should in fact be constantly building the learner’s knowledge in a spiral manner.
    Bruner’s theory on constructivism encompasses the idea of learning as an active process wherein those learning are able to form new ideas based on what their current knowledge is as well as their past knowledge. A cognitive structure is defined as the mental processes which offer the learner the ability to organize experiences and derive meaning from them. These cognitive structures allow the learner to push past the given information in constructing their new concepts. The learner, often a child, will take pieces of their past knowledge and experiences and organize them to make sense of what they know, then base further concepts and solve additional problems based upon a combination of what they already processed and what they think should be processed next.

    Bruner education theory
    Details are better retained when placed within the contest of an ordered and structured pattern.
    4. Effective sequencing– no one sequencing will fit every learner, but in general, increasing difficulty. Sequencing, or lack of it, can make learning easier or more difficult.

    Bruner education theory
    As children gain in confidence and competence in a particular areas, teachers might place them in groups to extend each other’s learning further. It’s also important that teachers recognise when a child is at the point where they begin to learn independently, and decisions can be made to set them free from the scaffolding.
    In this post, we explore the work of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding of learning. This is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the original works.

    Resources:

    http://www.simplypsychology.org/bruner.html
    http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/bruner/
    http://sites.google.com/site/principlesonlearning/f-jerome-bruner
    http://www.teachthought.com/learning/learning-theories-jerome-bruner-scaffolding-learning/
    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10665680902744246

    social theory and education

    Modue outline for 2nd/3rd year module Social Theory and Education

    social theory and education

    The BA (Hons) Education Studies aims to introduce its students to creative and forward-thinking approaches to understanding education, based on critical analysis. However, coverage of contemporary education research and debates often assumes a knowledge of critical social theory and concepts of social and cultural reproduction. This module enables students to explore the interplay between theories of society and education. Students will examine how major theorists have sought to analyse the role that educational institutions play within complex societies. The module will focus on the historical development of a range of dynamic and flexible approaches to understanding social and cultural reproduction in education.
    Ball, S. (1990) Foucault and Education: disciplines and knowledge (Abingdon: Routledge).
    Ball, S. (ed.) (2003) Routledge Falmer Reader in Sociology of Education (London: Routledge).
    Blacker, D. (2013) The Falling Rate of Learning and the Neoliberal Endgame (Alresford, Hants: Zero).
    Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. (1976) Schooling in Capitalist America: educational reform and the contradictions of economic life (NY: Basic).
    Butler, J. (2006) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (Abingdon: Routledge).
    Dixson, A. & Rousseau, C. (eds) (2006) Critical Race Theory in Education: All God’s Children Got a Song, New York, Routledge.
    Flint, J. and Peim, M. (2012) Rethinking the Education Improvement Agenda: a critical philosophical approach (London: Continuum).
    Grenfell, M. and James, D. (1998) Bourdieu and Education: acts of practical theory (London: Routledge).
    Leonardo, Z. (2009) Race, Whiteness, and Education (London: Routledge).
    Moore, R. (2004) Education and society: issues and explanations in the sociology of education (Cambridge: Polity).
    Morrow, R. and Torres, C. (1995) Social Theory and Education: A critique of theories of social and cultural reproduction (New York: SUNY).
    Reay, D. (2006) The zombie stalking English schools: social class and educational inequality, British Journal of Educational Studies, 54(3): 88 –307.
    Scruton, R. (2015) Fools, Frauds and Firebrands: thinkers of the new left (London: Bloomsbury).
    Skelton, C. and Francis, B. (2008) Feminism and ‘The Schooling Scandal’ (Abingdon: Routledge).
    Warmington, P. (2015) Dystopian social theory and education, Educational Theory, 65 (3): 265-281.
    Willis, P. (2000) Learning to Labour: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs (Farnham: Ashgate).

    Social theory and education
    This socialization also involves learning the rules and norms of the society as a whole. In the early days of compulsory education, students learned the dominant culture. Today, since the culture of the United States is increasingly diverse, students may learn a variety of cultural norms, not only that of the dominant culture.
    Indeed, as these examples show, labeling theory can significantly impact a student’s schooling. This is easily seen in the educational setting, as teachers and more powerful social groups within the school dole out labels that are adopted by the entire school population.

    Social theory and education
    Blog post 8 Jan 2020
    Education has been practised and conceptualised internationally in ways that demonstrate its increasing privatisation, enabled through a dependency on numerical data and an adherence to a social.

    Social theory and education
    The social structures that reproduce the social order of the ruling class in Althusser’s theory of ideology; the education system, along with religion, the law, the media are the forces within this apparatus.
    4. Define Marxism in terms of how it relates to the sociology of education. What is neo-Marxism? Who are some key neo-Marxists within the sociology of education and what are their contributions?

    Social theory and education
    Regardless of the reasons, it was the experimental design of Project STAR that enabled its findings to be attributed to class size rather than to other factors. Because small class size does seem to help in many ways, the United States should try to reduce class size in order to improve student performance and later life outcomes.

    • While in grades K–3, students in the smaller classes had higher average scores on standardized tests.
    • Students who had been in the smaller classes continued to have higher average test scores in grades 4–7.
    • Students who had been in the smaller classes were more likely to complete high school and also to attend college.
    • Students who had been in the smaller classes were less likely to be arrested during adolescence.
    • Students who had been in the smaller classes were more likely in their twenties to be married and to live in wealthier neighborhoods.
    • White girls who had been in the smaller classes were less likely to have a teenage birth than white girls who had been in the larger classes.

    Resources:

    http://courses.lumenlearning.com/sociology/chapter/theoretical-perspectives-on-education/
    http://www.bera.ac.uk/community/social-theory-and-education
    http://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/robsonsoced/chapter/__unknown__-2/
    http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01587910600653215

    environmental education theory

    US EPA Environmental education is a process that allows individuals to explore environmental issues, engage in problem solving, and take action to improve the environment. As a result,

    environmental education theory

    Environmental education theory

    • Awareness and sensitivity to the environment and environmental challenges
    • Knowledge and understanding of the environment and environmental challenges
    • Attitudes of concern for the environment and motivation to improve or maintain environmental quality
    • Skills to identify and help resolve environmental challenges
    • Participation in activities that lead to the resolution of environmental challenges

    Environmental education does not advocate a particular viewpoint or course of action. Rather, environmental education teaches individuals how to weigh various sides of an issue through critical thinking and it enhances their own problem-solving and decision-making skills.

    In an attempt to overcome simplistic and fragmented views of doing Environmental Education in both formal and informal settings, the collected authors from several countries/continents present a wealth of cultural, social, political, artistic, pedagogical, and ethical perspectives that enrich our vision on the theoretical and practical foundations of the field. A remarkable book that I suggest all environmental educators, teacher educators, policy and curricular writers read and present to their students in order to foster dialogue around innovative ways of experiencing an education about/in/for the environment.
    Rute Monteiro, Professor of Science Education, Universidade do Algarve/ University of Algarve (Portugal).

    Environmental education theory
    For conservation outcomes, focusing on local issues, partnerships, and action is key.
    Effective environmental education represents more than a unidirectional transfer of information: rather, this suite of tools develops and enhances environmental attitudes, values, and knowledge, as well as builds skills that prepare individuals and communities to collaboratively undertake positive environmental action. Environmental education also facilitates connections between actionable research findings and on-the-ground practices, creating synergistic spaces where stakeholders collaborate to address dynamic environmental issues over time. Because of this commitment to application and iteration, environmental education can result in direct benefits to the environment and address conservation issues concretely. Yet, the path to achieving those tangible impacts can be winding, with robust data documenting changes challenging to produce. To better understand the research-implementation spaces where those environmental education outcomes occur, are measured, and are reported, we undertook a systematic review of research on environmental education’s contributions to conservation and environmental quality outcomes. Given the variation in research designs and data, we used a mixed-methods approach to the review; analysis of the 105 resulting studies documented strongly positive environmental education outcomes overall and highlighted productive research-implementation spaces. Chi-square analyses revealed that programs reporting direct outcomes, compared with those reporting indirect outcomes, differed on primary topic addressed. A narrative analysis indicated that environmental education programs documenting direct impacts included: a focus on localized issues or locally relevant dimensions of broader issues; collaboration with scientists, resource managers, and/or community organizations; integrated action elements; and intentional measurement/reporting structures. Those themes suggest program development and documentation ideas as well as further opportunities for productive research-implementation spaces.

    Environmental education is traditionally experiential, collaborative, and creative. In this course we will practice a variety of teaching and learning styles as we add to our toolbox of facilitation and communication skills. Additionally, our understanding will be deepened by weekly reading and writing assignments, several expert guest speakers, a professional conference* and one field trip. The course will culminate in partner projects that will creatively explore EE’s newest strand: climate change education.
    In this course we’ll be investigating the broad field of Environmental Education (EE). The term EE is used to describe a variety of disciplines, but how do we know authentic EE when we see it? We’ll investigate the historical and theoretical foundations of EE and the multiple strands that fit under the “umbrella” of EE, including nature study, experiential education, K-12 education, interpretation, and social marketing. We will also consider what makes EE effective (or not), who is “invited” to participate and lead, and where are the opportunities and challenges for implementing effective EE—both in general and in our current political and environmental reality.

    So if I step back one step from my reflective note above, I should be even more aware of what was going on for me in that class today. I would say that I wrote my critical reflection note about a teaching experience into which I put significant effort. I felt good about it when it was over. I avoided reflecting on the parts of the class that were not received as favorably. WOW! I like to talk about my positive experiences, but maybe I’m avoiding my growth area? Next time, I will reflect on a class that seemed to go badly for me.
    The second subcategory for this group of theories is called dynamic interaction theories, which is “. . .mainly affective consequences of these interactions on the individual. . . . The principle is quite simple: learning is deeply ‘affected’ by feelings, emotions, actions, and values generated by interactions within a small group, classroom, family, . . . etc.” (Bertrand, 2003, pp. 16–17). The essence of this approach is affective pedagogy and learning. The self-awareness developed in this form of teaching is important and obvious, as presented in this text.

    Resources:

    http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319677316
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320719307116
    http://www.evergreen.edu/catalog/offering/20619
    http://ebrary.net/1620/education/learning_environment_theories
    http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/Education_Theory

    maria montessori theory of early childhood education

    Montessori Theory The Montessori Theory is an approach to learning developed by Maria Montessori where the key principles are Independence, Observation, Following the Child, Correcting the

    maria montessori theory of early childhood education

    Maria montessori theory of early childhood education
    The Montessori Theory approach, concepts and foundation principles can be applied across all ages. It is within these concepts we find the reasoning behind why things are such in a Montessori environment.
    Follow the child, they will show you what they need to do, what they need to develop in themselves and what area they need to be challenged in. The aim of the children who persevere in their work with an object is certainly not to “learn”; they are drawn to it by the needs of their inner life, which must be recognized and developed by its means.” – Maria Montessori.

    Maria montessori theory of early childhood education
    Assimilation – The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schema’s is known as assimilation. The process is somewhat subjective, because we tend to modify experience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs. In the example above, seeing a dog and labeling it “dog” is an example of assimilating the animal into the child’s dog schema.

    The Prepared Environment: Since the child learns to glean information from many sources, instead of being handed it by the teacher, it is the role of the teacher to prepare and continue to adapt the environment, to link the child to it through well-thought-out lessons, and to facilitate the child’s exploration and creativity. The Prepared Environment is essential to the success of Montessori. There must be just the right amount of educational materials to allow for the work of the child. However, one thing that has become very obvious in our materialistic society in the west, is that TOO MUCH is worse than TOO LITTLE. The basic collection of didactic materials (such as that approved by the materials committee of AMI, The Association Montessori International) has been thoroughly tested over many years and has been shown to engage the children as much today as it has, as much in the USA as in other countries. Therefore it is very important to only supplement these materials with essential books and materials that are chosen only by an experienced teacher. The Michael Olaf Company is a well-known source for these tested supplementary books and materials. Instead of constantly adding to their collection of products offered, they continually refine and reduce their list, based on feedback from master teachers and Montessori teacher trainers. www.michaelolaf.net

    The Montessori Method is characterized by providing a prepared environment: tidy, pleasing in appearance, simple and real, where each element exists for a reason in order to help in the development of the child. A Montessori classroom integrates children of mixed ages that are grouped in periods of 3 years. This promotes socialization, respect and solidarity among them naturally.
    These materials allow children to investigate and explore in a personal and independent way. They make repetition possible, and this promotes concentration. They have the quality of “isolating the difficulties”, which means each one of these materials introduces a unique variable, only one new concept, isolating it and leaving the other concepts without modification. These materials have a “control of error”: the material itself will show the child if he/she used it correctly. This way, children know that errors are part of the learning process; they teach children to establish a positive attitude towards them, making children responsible for their own learning and helping them to develop self-confidence.

    Maria montessori theory of early childhood education
    Lilliard, Angeline Stoll. 2005. Montessori: The Science behind the Genius. New York: Oxford University Press.
    So…I hope that that gave you a better grasp of who Maria Montessori was and what she stood for. If you’re having a hard time with the whole “don’t do for a child what they can reasonably do for themselves” thing…I really encourage you to take a look at and download my Scripts for Managing Crazy-Making Behaviour…a lot of the content is built off that principle and I think you’ll find it very helpful to moving in that direction of helping your children begin to achieve more competence. It’s a totally free thing- you just have to click the link up in the description and you’ll get to download them instantly.

    Maria montessori theory of early childhood education
    Montessori further discovered that children’s innate power for learning worked best when they are in a safe, hands-on-learning environment. Given furniture, equipment, and supplies that they could access and work all by themselves, they were self-motivated to explore, experiment, and reach new understandings. She found self-correcting, or “auto-didactic”, puzzles and other equipment to be an essential component of independent learning and the child-friendly environment. What’s more, she found that if children were put into groups with other children with a small range in ages (such as 3-6, 6-9, 9-12, etc.), they would not only work together but also help teach each other. Older children would learn teaching and nurturing skills, and younger children would glimpse strategies for learning and playing that they had not considered yet.
    Montessori also found that children of all ages thrived when they were given the opportunity to experience mastery of real life skills and knowledge that was appropriate to their age and stage of life. Thus preschoolers thrilled at being allowed to assist in the kitchen and felt pride and increased self-esteem at being able to help set the table and use appropriate manners and verbal expressions. Meanwhile the self-confidence and joy of young teenagers was bolstered by mastering basic home economics, and by learning information about running a business, or building furniture or a home. These young teens also did best when the primary emphasis in their learning process was practical and action oriented, rather than purely intellectual. Montessori believed this was because this age group was under so much psychological and physiological pressure that the surging swings of emotion made it harder to focus on purely abstract studies.

    Resources:

    http://sites.google.com/site/tourosgottesman/theories-of-early-childhood
    http://www.fundacionmontessori.org/the-montessori-method.htm
    http://www.allanarobinson.com/mariamontessori/
    http://www.citygardenschool.org/about/strategic-framework/the-montessori-theory-of-development/
    http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/lsn/educator/edtech/learningtheorieswebsite/vygotsky.htm

    which education theory are you most attracted to why

    The Museum and the Needs of PeopleCECA (International Committee of Museum Educators) ConferenceJerusalem Israel, 15-22 October 1991Prof. George E. HeinLesley College. Massachusetts USA Introduction

    which education theory are you most attracted to why

    9 ”The object enters into dialog with the learner only after being transformed by him or her. In fact, it is the set of significant units organized by the learner and the relationships that he or she constructs between them that constitutes the cognitive object that, in turn, constitutes knowledge.” A Henriques. “Experiments in Teaching,” in E. Duckworth, J. Easley, D. Hawkins and A Henriques. Science Education: A Minds On Approach to the Elementary Years. Erlbaum, 1990.
    8. It takes time to learn: learning is not instantaneous. For significant learning we need to revisit ideas, ponder them try them out, play with them and use them. This cannot happen in the 5-10 minutes usually spent in a gallery (and certainly not in the few seconds usually spent contemplating a single museum object.) If you reflect on anything you have learned, you soon realize that it is the product of repeated exposure and thought. Even, or especially, moments of profound insight, can be traced back to longer periods of preparation.

    Which education theory are you most attracted to why
    Psychologist Robert Sternberg proposed a triangular theory suggesting that there are three components of love:
    Three secondary styles:

    Which education theory are you most attracted to why
    Research shows that there may be a few things you can do to improve your chances of attracting the person you want most, although your results may vary.
    Go online and download the classic intimacy-boosting questionnaire, “The Experimental Generation of Interpersonal Closeness: A Procedure and Some Preliminary Findings.” Then invite the person you’re interested in to sit down and run through some of them with you.

    Which education theory are you most attracted to why
    Research has also shown numerous external characteristics are demonstrably more important for emotional evaluation and partner choice. These include youthfulness and health, especially the appearance of skin; gender-typical characteristics such as an angular chin or large eyes; and the absence of negatively perceived characteristics such as strong asymmetry or obesity. When, in a 2015 PLOS ONE study, researchers asked a group of 44 heterosexual males to rate the attractiveness of 266 female Spanish students based on their photos, they found that facial symmetry was deemed attractive. This metric has been found to be perceived as a measure of youthfulness and health, a potential signifier of fertility.
    An example is a study in which Scottish researcher David Perrett of the University of St. Andrews found that men often favor women who resemble their mother when choosing mates. Similarly, the study showed that women prefer male faces that resemble their fathers. These findings were later reported in a 2002 New Scientist magazine article titled “Like Father Like Husband.”

    Which education theory are you most attracted to why
    Attraction, to a social psychologist, is any force that draws people together. Social psychologists have traditionally used the term attraction to refer to the affinity that draws together friends and romantic partners. However, many current researchers believe there are important qualitative differences among the forces that draw people into different types of relationships.
    Perhaps the most influential model of interpersonal attraction was the reinforcement-affect model. According to this model, attraction between people follows simple principles of classical conditioning, or associative learning. A person will come to like anyone associated with positive feelings (e.g., the waitress in a favorite restaurant) and dislike anyone associated with negative feelings (the traffic cop who writes the person a ticket for taking an illegal left turn). A corollary of this model is that the higher the ratio of positive to negative associations one has in a relationship with another person, the more he or she will like that person. In other words, a person will like the person who has provided him or her with three rewards and one punishment (for a ratio of .75 rewards) more than the person who provides him or her with six rewards and four punishments (yielding a lower overall ratio of .60, despite the higher total number of rewards). This corollary was studied by exposing research participants to other people who varied in their attitudinal similarity (on the assumption that meeting others who agree with them is rewarding).

    Resources:

    http://www.verywellmind.com/theories-of-love-2795341
    http://www.psychologytoday.com/us/articles/201707/why-we-want-who-we-want
    http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/are-we-more-attracted-to-people-who-look-like-our-parents/
    http://psychology.iresearchnet.com/social-psychology/prosocial-behavior/attraction/

    piaget theory and education

    Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s theories have had a major impact on the theory and practice of education (Case, 1998). First,

    piaget theory and education

    Educational Implications of Piaget’s Theory
    Piaget’s theories have had a major impact on the theory and practice of education (Case, 1998). First, the theories focused attention on the idea of developmentally appropriate education—an education with environments, curriculum, materials, and instruction that are suitable for students in terms of their physical and cognitive abilities and their social and emotional needs (Elkind, 1989). In addition, several major approaches to curriculum and instruction are explicitly based on Piagetian theory (Berrueta-Clement, Schweinhart, Barnett, Epstein, & Weikart, 1984), and this theory has been influential in constructivist models of learning, which will be described in Chapter 8. Berk (2001) summarizes the main teaching implications drawn from Piaget as follows:

    1. A focus on the process of children’s thinking, not just its products. In addition to checking the correctness of children’s answers, teachers must understand the processes children use to get to the answer. Appropriate learning experiences build on children’s current level of cognitive functioning, and only when teachers appreciate children’s methods of arriving at particular conclusions are they in a position to provide such experiences.
    2. Recognition of the crucial role of children’s self-initiated, active involvement in learning activities. In a Piagetian classroom the presentation of ready-made knowledge is deemphasized, and children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment. Therefore, instead of teaching didactically, teachers provide a rich variety of activities that permit children to act directly on the physical world.
    3. A deemphasis on practices aimed at making children adultlike in their thinking. Piaget referred to the question “How can we speed up development?” as “the American question.” Among the many countries he visited, psychologists and educators in the United States seemed most interested in what techniques could be used to accelerate children’s progress through the stages. Piagetian-based educational programs accept his firm belief that premature teaching could be worse than no teaching at all, because it leads to superficial acceptance of adult formulas rather than true cognitive understanding (May & Kundert, 1997).
    4. Acceptance of individual differences in developmental progress. Piaget’s theory assumes that all children go through the same developmental sequence but that they do so at different rates. Therefore, teachers must make a special effort to arrange classroom activities for individuals and small groups of children rather than for the total class group. In addition, because individual differences are expected, assessment of children’s educational progress should be made in terms of each child’s own previous course of development, not in terms of normative standards provided by the performances of same-age peers.

    Piaget theory and education
    During this stage, children also become less egocentric and begin to think about how other people might think and feel. Kids in the concrete operational stage also begin to understand that their thoughts are unique to them and that not everyone else necessarily shares their thoughts, feelings, and opinions.
    During this earliest stage of cognitive development, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects. A child’s entire experience at the earliest period of this stage occurs through basic reflexes, senses, and motor responses.

    Piaget theory and education
    According to Piaget (1958), assimilation and accommodation require an active learner, not a passive one, because problem-solving skills cannot be taught, they must be discovered.
    For example, Keating (1979) reported that 40-60% of college students fail at formal operation tasks, and Dasen (1994) states that only one-third of adults ever reach the formal operational stage.

    Piaget theory and education
    Piaget’s research methods were based primarily on case studies (i.e., they were descriptive). While some of his ideas have been supported through more correlational and experimental methodologies, others have not. For example, Piaget believed that biological development drives the movement from one cognitive stage to the next. Data from cross-sectional studies of children in a variety of western cultures seem to support this assertion for the stages of sensorimotor, preoperational, and concrete operations (Renner, Stafford, Lawson, McKinnon, Friot & Kellogg, 1976).
    Assimilation is the process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures. Accomodation is the process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment. Both processes are used simultaneously and alternately throughout life. An example of assimilation would be when an infant uses a sucking schema that was developed by sucking on a small bottle when attempting to suck on a larger bottle. An example of accomodation would be when the child needs to modify a sucking schema developed by sucking on a pacifier to one that would be successful for sucking on a bottle.

    Piaget theory and education
    The aim of this article was to reflect on the contributions of Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theories to education. Topics analyzed included the evolution of Piaget’s and co-workers’ theory, the reaction by the scientific community to the main theoretical and methodological aspects of each period of his work, the educational potentialities of methodological and theoretical aspects of his theory, the criticisms about the potentialities of Piagetian theory for grounding educational practice. Then the emergence of the neo-Piagetian theories was described, as well as their major aims and their educational potentialities. Finally some considerations concerning the strengths and weaknesses of Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theories were presented.
    ► The educational contributions of Piagetian and neo-Piagetian theories were analyzed. ► neo-Piagetian theories provide important knowledge regarding educational topics. ► However several weaknesses reduce their simplicity and explanatory power. ► Piaget’s epistemological theory is still a decisive reference to rethink education. ► However it is necessary to go beyond Piaget and to approach “educational subject”.

    Resources:

    http://www.verywellmind.com/piagets-stages-of-cognitive-development-2795457
    http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
    http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1747938X1200019X
    http://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/toward-a-tribal-critical-race-theory-in-education

    carl rogers education theory

    Carl rogers education theory Carl Ransom Rogers (1902-1987), an American psychologist, was born in Oak Park, Illinois. He is best known for the development of new methods of therapy. Rogers

    carl rogers education theory

    Carl Ransom Rogers (1902-1987), an American psychologist, was born in Oak Park, Illinois. He is best known for the development of new methods of therapy. Rogers taught at several American universities and worked with abused children. Dissatisfied with contemporary therapeutic and diagnostic techniques, he founded what is now known as client-centered therapy, client meaning patient. This method stresses the relationship between therapist and client and the client�s use of this relationship to guide the course of therapy. Rogers techniques predominate today in psychotherapy in the United States. Carl Rogers would be classified as Progressivism in educational philosophy circles.
    While studying at Teachers� College of Columbia University, Rogers was greatly influenced by Otto Rank and John Dewey. Dewey�s concepts of human organism as a whole and the belief in the possibilities of human action enabled Rogers to conclude that the client usually knows better how to proceed than the therapist. Rogers separated learning into two types: Cognitive (academic knowledge such as psychology or multiplication tables) and experiential (applied knowledge such as learning about engines in order to repair a car). Experiential learning addresses the needs and wants of the learner and is equivalent to personal change and growth.

    Carl rogers education theory
    These elements do not, on their own, explain the phenomenal growth of the ‘person-centred’ school of psychotherapy. To explain this we have to look at the man and the moment. Carl Rogers was an accomplished communicator – both in person and through his writings and films. He was also a committed practitioner who looked to his own experiences (and was, thus, difficult to dismiss as ‘academic). He was able to demystify therapy; to focus on the person of the counsellor and the client (as against a concentration on technique and method); and crucially to emphasize honesty and the destructiveness of manipulation. In the service of the latter Carl Rogers was extremely wary of attempting to dig into, and make sense of the unconscious (and this could also be seen as a significant weakness in his work in some quarters). In short, he offered a new way, a break with earlier traditions. Crucially these concerns chimed with the interests of significant groups of people. Psychologists wanting to enter the field of psychotherapy; case, pastoral and youth workers wanting to develop their practice; lay people wanting to help or understand those with ‘problems’ – all could get something from Rogers.
    The structure and organization of the self appears to become more rigid under threat; to relax its boundaries when completely free from threat…

    Carl rogers education theory
    Self-worth may be seen as a continuum from very high to very low. For Carl Rogers (1959) a person who has high self-worth, that is, has confidence and positive feelings about him or herself, faces challenges in life, accepts failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with people.

    “I have gradually come to one negative conclusion about the good life. It seems to me that the good life is not any fixed state. It is not, in my estimation, a state of virtue, or contentment, or nirvana, or happiness. It is not a condition in which the individual is adjusted or fulfilled or actualized. To use psychological terms, it is not a state of drive-reduction, or tension-reduction, or homeostasis”. (Rogers, 1967, p. 185-186)

    Carl rogers education theory
    References
    Psychotherapist Carl Rogers (1902-1987) born in Illinois, USA is well known for being the founder of ‘Humanistic Psychology’. Believing that therapy should be client centred. Rogers initially studied theology, but later moved towards a more educational aspect of psychology. Throughout his life, Rogers studied at a number of institutes including the University of Wisconsin and Union Theological Seminary. He dropped out of the Union Theological Seminary to study clinical psychology at Columbia University.

    According to Rogers, learning is facilitated when: (1) the student participates completely in the learning process and has control over its nature and direction, (2) it is primarily based upon direct confrontation with practical, social, personal or research problems, and (3) self-evaluation is the principal method of assessing progress or success. Rogers
    Copyright © 2020 Richard Culatta. All rights reserved.

    Resources:

    http://infed.org/mobi/carl-rogers-core-conditions-and-education/
    http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html
    http://phylliciapoynterict.wordpress.com/2013/01/23/carl-rogers-theory-in-education/
    http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/experiential-learning/
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1741-5446.1961.tb00040.x

    vygotsky theory education

    Vygotsky’s Theory Related terms: Download as PDF About this page Pedagogies and teaching methods Susan Myburgh, Anna Maria Tammaro, in Exploring Education for Digital Librarians ,

    vygotsky theory education

    An interest in genres and their place in the teaching of advanced writing increased in the second half of the 1980s, following the publication of Miller’s (1984) article, ‘Genre as social action’. The notion of genres and their importance to writing curricula and pedagogies derived from film studies and from sociological theory. Essentially, Miller’s conception of genre was influential because it saw genres as constituted in social action rather than in text types. The spectrum of possibilities between the social, contextual view of genre and its more narrow textual (formal properties of texts) version has defined the debate and practices in the field, not least because it is at advanced stages in learning to write that the social and textual differentiation between kinds of writing manifests itself. One the one hand, the social, contextual view is represented in writing by Kress (1982/1994) , Freedman and Medway (1994) ; the more linguistically focused view finds expression in the Sydney School of Australian Halliday-derived genre theory and practice, as evidenced in the work of Martin (1991) , Christie (1987) and others. Excellent surveys of the field and of the contribution of genre theory to the development of writing abilities are found in Reid (1987) and Cope and Kalantzis (1993) . The influence of such theory on curriculum design is felt in many countries.
    About this page

    Vygotsky theory education
    Perhaps the main criticism of Vygotsky’s work concerns the assumption that it is relevant to all cultures. Rogoff (1990) dismisses the idea that Vygotsky’s ideas are culturally universal and instead states the concept of scaffolding – which is heavily dependent on verbal instruction – may not be equally useful in all cultures for all types of learning. Indeed, in some instances, observation and practice may be more effective ways of learning certain skills.
    Children use private speech most often during intermediate difficulty tasks because they are attempting to self-regulate by verbally planning and organizing their thoughts (Winsler et al., 2007).

    Vygotsky theory education
    This is a general theory of cognitive development. Most of the original work was done in the context of language learning in children (Vygotsky, 1962), although later applications of the framework have been broader (see Wertsch, 1985).
    The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky (1978) states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.” (p57).

    Vygotsky theory education
    Scaffolding not only produces immediate results, but also instills the skills necessary for independent problem solving in the future.

    Social interactions with a skillful tutor that allow the learner to observe and practice their skills.

    Vygotsky theory education
    Through such social interactions, children go through a continuous process of learning. Vygotsky noted that culture profoundly influences this process. Imitation, guided learning, and collaborative learning all play a critical part in his theory.
    Acquiring the missing information requires skills that a child does not yet possess or cannot do independently, but which they can do with the help of a more knowledgeable other.

    Resources:

    http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html
    http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/social-development/
    http://www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html
    http://www.verywellmind.com/lev-vygotsky-biography-2795533
    http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/1311