confucius theory of education

Confucius theory of education Confucius’s Educational Theory Analyst: A. M. McEnroe 1. Theory of Value : What knowledge and skills are worthwhile learning? What are the goals of

confucius theory of education

4. Theory of Learning: What is learning? How are skills and knowledge acquired?
7. Theory of Opportunity: Who is to be educated? Who is to be schooled?

2. L.Y. refers to Lun Yu, a compilation of Confucius’ sayings and aphorisms by his disciples of the succeeding generation, which is also, called ‘Analects’ by Westerners. It is generally accepted as the most direct and reliable source on Confucius and his doctrines. For the purpose of identification, both chapters and section numbers are included. The division of section is based on The Analects of Confucius (1992) (Bao, S., Translated into modern Chinese, and Lao, A., Translated into English). I have read both original Chinese and modern Chinese versions to compare with various English translations. I have also translated many quotes myself where I see the English translations do not express well the deeper meaning of Chinese.
1. The life of Confucius in the Shi Ji, (the historical records), by Sima Qian, is considered the most reliable source. The biography, as contained in Shi Ji, is the first biography even written on Confucius. For centuries, Sima Qian’s biography has been held as authoritative and his treatment of Confucius considered definitive though there has debate among later scholars. Because Sima Qian’s biography of Confucius was at best a chronology of events attributed to Confucius, it will be used in so far as its content is in agreement with those mentioned in the Analects. Books on Confucius’ life resting upon this source are also consulted. See Lin, Y. ( 1994 Lin, Y. , ed. 1994 . The Wisdom of Confucius, New York : The Modern Library . (Ed., and translated with notes) [Google Scholar] ), The Wisdom of Confucius. New York: The Modern Library. Creel, H. G. ( 1949 Creel, H. G. 1949 . Confucius: The man and the myth, Norwalk, CT : Easton Press . [Google Scholar] ) Confucius: The Man and the Myth (Norwalk, CT: Easton Press). Widgery, A. G. ( 1961 Widgery, A. G. 1961 . Interpretations of History: Confucius to Toynbee, London : George Allen & Unwin . [Google Scholar] ). Interpretations of History: Confucius to Toynbee (London: George Allen and Unwin). Wu‐Chi Liu, ( 1955 Liu, W.‐C. 1955 . A Short History of Confucian Philosophy, Westport, CT : Hyperion Press . [Google Scholar] ) A Short History of Confucian Philosophy (Westport, CT: Hyperion Press). Also see Jiang, L. (2002) The Value and Tradition of Confucianism in Relation to Modernization (Shang Dong: Qi Lu Publisher). Lou, C. L. (2002) On the Study of Confucianism (Shang Dong: Qi Lu Publisher). Miao, R. and Yang, Z. (eds.) (2004) Confucianism and Modernization (Shang Dong: Qi Lu Publisher).

ISSN 2309-1606. Філософія освіти. 2014. № 2 (15)
Aristotle and Confucius elaborate their theories on the basis of a complex apprehen-sion of the ethical and political problem as one. The Greek and the Chinese philosopher focus on the importance of virtue , which signifies a passage from an initial understanding of communal life to a life with others that becomes self-fulfilling and facilitates self improvement and excellence . The individual goal is the same as the collective goal; this becomes the foundation of their educational schemes. By their doctrines on the Mean , the two thinkers focus on the acquisition of wisdom and knowledge , not as mere theoretical equip-ment but as guidance for practical purposes. Virtue is the capacity to preserve oneself in a perfect condition, one that will lead to a eudaimonistic and har-monious life. The Mean is the proper way that will create the right habit and will secure the right evolution of the human being towards its ideal condition. Thus the Mean becomes a golden rule for education , as education is an ongo-ing process until righteousness and phronesis become indispensable aspects in one’s personality.

Confucius theory of education
The outer and inner aspects of Confucianism—its conforming and reforming sides—were in tension throughout Chinese history. Moreover, the tensions between social and political realities and the high-minded moral ideals of the Confucians were an ongoing source of concern for the leaders of this tradition. The dangers of moral sterility and hypocrisy were always present. Confucianism, they knew well, served both as a conservative state orthodoxy and a stimulus for reform. Great Confucians, like religious leaders everywhere, sought periodically to revive and renew the moral, intellectual, and spiritual vigor of the tradition. Until the 1890s, serious-minded Chinese saw Confucianism, despite its failures to realize its ideal society, as the source of hope for China and the core of what it meant to be Chinese.
Thus one side of Confucianism was the affirmation of accepted values and norms of behavior in primary social institutions and basic human relationships. All human relationships involved a set of defined roles and mutual obligations; each participant should understand and conformto his/her proper role. Starting from individual and family, people acting rightly could reform and perfect the society. The blueprint of this process was described in “The Great Learning,” a section of the Classic of Rituals:

  • In Weisheng Mou asked Confucius, “Why do you seemingly dart from perch to perch? Is it that you wish to become a glib rhetorician?
    Confucius replied, “It is not that I aspire to great rhetorical skills. It is just that I despise stubborn inflexibility.”

This is a transcript from the video series Books That Matter: The Analects of Confucius. Watch it now, on The Great Courses Plus.


queer theory in education

By Nick Davis, assistant professor of English and Gender Studies at Northwestern University

queer theory in education

Queer theory in education
Thus to assign or study queer theory, even at its most difficult, is not to abandon but to gratify a real-world community, encouraging its members to consider our lives as pivotal within major conceptualizations of human experience, local and global, past and present. Genders and sexualities of all stripes deserve to be valued as centerpieces, not sidebars, within histories of human thought. To address these subjects as complex ideas in perpetual flux—as theories, not facts—challenges students to think critically and to engage across differences.

Leck, G. M. (1999). Afterword. In W. J. Letts & J. T. Sears (Eds.), Queering elementary education: Advancing the dialogue about sexualities and schooling (pp. 257–262). New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Find this resource:
Spargo, T. (1999). Foucault and queer theory. New York: Totem Books. Find this resource:

Queer theory in education
Purchase eBook – £53.99 £43.19
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“. [Pinar] has assembled a passionate, challenging and academically stretching collection of essagys that both re-appropriate the term ‘queer’ and question the whole process of ‘normalisation’ in education.”
— British Journal of Educational Psychology

AU – Jones, Tiffany
Research output : Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Chapter

LOURO, GUACIRA LOPES. Queer Theory : A Post-Identity Politics for Education . Rev. Estud. Fem. [online]. 2001, vol.9, n.2, pp.541-553. ISSN 1806-9584.
The so-called sexual “minorities” are today much more visible than before. Accordingly, there is also more conflict between them and conservative groups. This confrontation, which should be observed closely by educators and students of culture, becomes even more complex if we consider that the great challenge is not to affirm that gender and sexual positions have multiplied and overcome all types of binarisms, but to admit that all borders are being constantly crossed over and that some social subjects live precisely on the border. There is, then, a new social dynamics in action in the gender and sexual movements (and theories). It is within this framework that we should understand queer theory. Acknowledging that an identity politics can become part of that very system which it wants to question, queer theorists propose a post-identity theory and politics. Taking their inspiration from the French post-structuralism, they critique the heterosexual/homosexual opposition, which they think is the central category organizing social practices, knowledge and relationships among subjects. What, after all, this theory has to say to the field of education?


according to proponents of human capital theory, education:

Human Capital Theory Related terms: Download as PDF About this page Entrepreneurship, Psychology of 4 Human Capital Human capital theory is concerned with knowledge and

according to proponents of human capital theory, education:

According to proponents of human capital theory, education:
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Human capital theory is concerned with knowledge and experiences of small-scale business owners. The general assumption is that the human capital of the founder improves small firms’ chances of survival (Bruederl et al. 1992 ). Human capital acts as a resource. However, human capital theory studies usually assume that experiences are translated into knowledge and skills. This assumption is problematic, however, because length of experience is not necessarily a good predictor of expertise (Sonnentag 1995 ). Therefore, it is not surprising that human capital factors, such as length of managerial or industry experiences or education, are not strong predictors of success, although in large-scale studies they usually are significant (Bruederl et al. 1992 , Rauch and Frese 2000 ).

It has been proven that the human capital theory and educational systems work beautifully for the development of individuals and nations, especially developing nations. However, there are implications involved, especially in relation to the differences in policies and expenditures in education. The human capital theory emphasizes the need for policy makers to allocate significant resources to the expansion of educational systems. While some governments may be reluctant to invest in education, the positive returns from this investment will significantly outweigh the costs. Many of the developing nations have thus realized that the principal mechanism for developing human knowledge is the education system. Thus, they invest huge sums of money on education, not only as an attempt to impact knowledge and skills to individuals, but also to impart values, ideas, attitudes and aspirations which may be in the nation�s best developmental interest.
According to Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1997):

  1. Direct economic returns to investment, in terms of the balance between the opportunity costs of resources and the expected future benefits;
  2. Indirect economic returns, in terms of external benefits affecting other members of society;
  3. The private demand for education and other factors determining individual demand for education;
  4. The geographical and social distribution of educational opportunities;
  5. The distribution of financial benefits and burdens of education.

According to proponents of human capital theory, education:
Howard Gardener – different types of human capital. Gardener emphasised the different types of human capital. One could increase education, but be a poor manager. A successful entrepreneur may have no education. Human capital is not unidimensional.
The tertiary/service sector has a greater variety of jobs, which require different skills. These skills and qualities are often more difficult to measure regarding output. For example, the human capital of a teacher, cannot be measured by university degree and A-Levels. The best academics may lack some teaching skills – like empathy, the ability to inspire and command a class.

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* This is an extended version of the keynote address to the annual conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education, Newport, Wales, UK, 9 December 2015. Thank you to Helen Perkins.
Human capital theory assumes that education determines the marginal productivity of labour and this determines earnings. Since the 1960s, it has dominated the economics, and policy and public understanding, of relations between education and work. It has become widely assumed that intellectual formation constitutes a mode of economic capital, higher education is preparation for work, and primarily education (not social background) determines graduate outcomes. However, human capital theory fails the test of realism, due to weaknesses of method: use of a single theoretical lens and closed system modelling, inappropriate application of mathematical tools, and multi-variate analysis of interdependent variables. Human capital theory imposes a single linear pathway on the complex passage between heterogeneous education and work. It cannot explain how education augments productivity, or why salaries have become more unequal, or the role of status. These limitations are discussed with reference to research on social stratification, work, earnings and education.


karl marx theory on education

Marxism & Education Index to the works of Marxists and others on education, cognitive psychology and child development. Because Marxists have tended to approach the whole range of

karl marx theory on education

Karl marx theory on education
Russian Chilren, from Six Red Months in Russia, Louise Bryant 1918
Soviet Education, from Russia in 1919, Arthur Ransome
Education and Culture, My Disillusionment in Russia, Emma Goldman 1922
Children of Revolution, Anna-Louise Strong 1925
Education in Soviet Russia, The First Time in History, Anna-Louise Strong 1925
The Revolution in Education and Culture, Soviet Russia: a living record and a history, Wm Chamberlin 1929
Family Relations Under the Soviets, Trotsky 1932
The Marxist approach to education is broadly constructivist, and emphasises activity, collaboration and critique, rather than passive absorption of knowledge, emulation of elders and conformism; it is student-centred rather than teacher centred, but recognises that education cannot transcend the problems and capabilities of the society in which it is located.

Karl marx theory on education
Traditional Marxists see the education system as working in the interests of ruling class elites. According to the Marxist perspective on education, the system performs three functions for these elites:

  • There is an overwhelming wealth of evidence that schools do reproduce class inequality because the middle classes do much better in education because the working classes are more likely to suffer from material and cultural deprivation. Meanwhile, the middle classes have more material capital, more cultural capital (Reay) and because the 1988 Education Act benefited them (Ball Bowe and Gewirtz),
  • The existence of private schools is strong supporting evidence for Marxism – the wealthiest 7% of families are able to buy their children a better education which in turn gives them a better chance of getting into the top universities.
  • There is strong evidence for the reproduction of class inequality if we look at elite jobs, such as Medicine, the law and journalism. A Disproportionately high number of people in these professions were privately educated.

Karl marx theory on education
McLelland, D. (1995 Karl Marx: A biography 3e, London: Macmillan. 464 pages. Something of a standard work and includes a postscript, ‘Marx today’.
But along with the development of the bourgeoisie who own the means of production we find the development of the proletariat – the propertyless working class. With the evolution of modern industry, Marx pointed out that workmen became factory fodder, appendages to machines. Men were crowded into factories with army-like discipline, constantly watched by overseers and at the whim of individual manufacturers. Increasing competition and commercial crises led to fluctuating wages whilst technological improvement led to a livelihood that was increasingly precarious. The result was a growth in the number of battles between individual workmen and individual employers whilst collisions took on more and more “the character of collisions between two classes”. Marx and Engels characterize the growth of the working class as a “more or less veiled civil war raging within existing society” but unlike previous historical movements which were minority movements, the working class movement is “the self-conscious independent movement of the immense majority, in the interests of the immense majority”. The conclusion they drew from this was that the overthrow of bourgeois supremacy and a victory for the working class would not, therefore, produce another minority ruling class but “in place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonisms, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition of the free development of all”.

Section 5 focuses on the actual production process of labour power. It provides some preliminary investigations into the social production of labour power in capitalism. Furthermore, it indicates how capitalist education and training enter into the analysis: as institutional forms within the social production of labour power. The social production of labour power is a process that can, in principle, be researched. Unlike surplus-value production, it lays much closer to the surface of capitalist society and can be observed more directly. Unlike surplus-value production (which is concentrated within the capitalist labour process), the social production of labour power is highly fragmented at the institutional and organisational level. In mainstream social and educational theory and research, such fragmentation is buttressed by multi-disciplinary fragmentation. The multitudinous disciplines and sub-disciplines of bourgeois social science function to hide or mask the social production of labour power in capitalism (Shaw, 1975). This section speculates on methods for researching the social production of labour power in contemporary capitalist society whilst holding no illusions that mainstream social research funders will take up research proposals that allow Marxist researchers to put this into practice, with a good will.
by my own research;

Karl marx theory on education
From 1911 to 2000 there has been a long term trend for the proportion of non-manual jobs to increase and manual jobs to decrease. In 2000 49% of all workers had manual jobs whereas in 1911 79% were in manual employment. There have been marked increases in professional, managerial and routine non-manual work. This shift has been caused due to the decline of manufacturing and the growth of services. Coalmining, steel manufacture, shipbuilding and dock work declined, partly due to new technology has increased productivity so that fewer workers are needed to produce the same amount of goods. Also Britain has lost out in competition with business in lower wage economies such as Latin America, Easterner European and Far East. The old working class employed in coalmining etc now are employed in supermarkets, security firms, contract cleaners and fast foods – the new working class (Roberts 2001).
In 1911 the richest 5% of the country owned 87% of the countries personal wealth. By 1930 this had decreased slightly to 84% then by 1954 had decreased even more to 71%. This was a slight increase by 1960 with the richest 5% of the country 75% of the countries personal wealth. In 1911 the richest 1% owned 69% of the countries personal wealth. By 1936 this had gone down to 56% then by 1960 this had decreased to 42% of the countries personal wealth.


importance of jean piaget theory in education

Pioneers In Our Field: Jean Piaget, is the fifth installment in Early Childhood Today’s series on the Roots of Early Childhood Education. Information on Piaget’s Four Sta

importance of jean piaget theory in education

Formal Operations: Approximately 11 – adult
Normally developing early adolescents are able to think and reason abstractly, to solve theoretical problems, and answer hypothetical questions.
Preoperational Stage: Approximately 2 – 6
Young children can use symbols for objects, such as numbers to express quantity and words such as mama, doggie, hat and ball to represent real people and objects.

Importance of jean piaget theory in education
Almost single-handedly, he shifted the focus of developmental research away from its traditional concerns with social and emotional development and toward cognitive development.”  
Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland on August 9, 1896, and he began showing an interest in the natural sciences at a very early age. By age 11, he had already started his career as a researcher by writing a short paper on an albino sparrow. He continued to study the natural sciences and received his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Neuchâtel in 1918.

Importance of jean piaget theory in education

  • At this stage, the adolescent or young adult begins to think abstractly and reason about hypothetical problems
  • Abstract thought emerges
  • Teens begin to think more about moral, philosophical, ethical, social, and political issues that require theoretical and abstract reasoning
  • Begin to use deductive logic, or reasoning from a general principle to specific information

Up until this point in history, children were largely treated simply as smaller versions of adults. Piaget was one of the first to identify that the way that children think is different from the way adults think.

Importance of jean piaget theory in education
2. Make instructions relatively short, using actions as well as words.
Definition Observational learning, also called social learning theory, occurs when an observer’s behavior changes after… Read More

Importance of jean piaget theory in education
– Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.
For example, a child might have object permanence (competence) but still not be able to search for objects (performance). When Piaget hid objects from babies he found that it wasn’t till after nine months that they looked for it. However, Piaget relied on manual search methods – whether the child was looking for the object or not.


theory of realism in education

Theory of realism in education Section III – Philosophical Perspectives in Education Part 2 Four General or World Philosophies The term metaphysics literally means “beyond

theory of realism in education

Theory of realism in education
Pragmatism (Experientialism)
For pragmatists, only those things that are experienced or observed are real. In this late 19th century American philosophy, the focus is on the reality of experience. Unlike the Realists and Rationalists, Pragmatists believe that reality is constantly changing and that we learn best through applying our experiences and thoughts to problems, as they arise. The universe is dynamic and evolving, a “becoming” view of the world. There is no absolute and unchanging truth, but rather, truth is what works. Pragmatism is derived from the teaching of Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914), who believed that thought must produce action, rather than linger in the mind and lead to indecisiveness.
* A fifth metaphysical school of thought, called Scholasticism, is largely applied in Roman Catholic schools in the educational philosophy called “Thomism.” It combines idealist and realist philosophies in a framework that harmonized the ideas of Aristotle, the realist, with idealist notions of truth. Thomas Aquinas, 1255-127, was the theologian who wrote “Summa Theologica,” formalizing church doctrine. The Scholasticism movement encouraged the logical and philosophical study of the beliefs of the church, legitimizing scientific inquiry within a religious framework.

Theory of realism in education
Since the realist place so much value on the natural law and the moral law as found in the behavior or phenomena in nature, it is readily apparent that the realist will find beauty in the orderly behavior of nature. A beautiful art form reflects the logic and order of the universe. Art should attempt to reflect or comment on the order of nature. The more faithfully and art form does this, the more aesthetically pleasing it is.
There is great variety in the metaphysical beliefs of realists. There is so much variety, in fact, that realists could never be grouped together if they did not have certain common ground. They believe that the universe is composed of matter in motion. It is the physical world in which we live that makes up reality. We can, on the basis of our experiences, recognize certain regularities in it about which we generalize and to which we grant the status of laws. The vast cosmos rolls on despite man. It is ordered by natural laws which control the relationships himself with it or not. It is not unlike a giant machine in which man is both participant and spectator. This machine not only involves the physical universe, it operates in the moral, social and economic sphere as well. The realist sees the immutable laws governing man’s behavior as part of the machine; they are natural law.

Further, with a view to making education practical and useful, the realists stressed upon Travelling, Tour, observation and direct experience. Lord Montaigne (1533-1552) condemned cramming and favored learning by experience through tours and travels. He opposed knowledge for the sake of knowledge and strongly advocated practical and useful knowledge.
According to realists, the world around us is a reality; the real knowledge is the knowledge of the surrounding world. Senses are the gateways of knowledge of the external world. The impressions and sensations as a result of our communication with external world through our sense organs result in knowledge which is real.

Theory of realism in education

Reaction against a type of education that produces scholars and professional men to the neglect of the man of affairs i.e. practice
Aim: to train a “gentleman” for active participation in social life and social judgment and to prepare the practical man of the world
Social realism was generally recommended for the people of the upper social class/strata.
Social realists follow the method of travel of journey method.
Published on May 2, 2016

Theory of realism in education
Modern realism was fashioned by the philosophers Francis Bacon (1561–1626) and John Locke (1632–1704). Locke conjectured that everything we know comes from experience and from reflecting on that experience. We are not born with any innate or preconceived ideas, but rather are a blank slate. Bacon attempted to change the structure of realism from deductive reasoning to an inductive approach. The inductive approach would reform realists’ thinking from a specific idea in the physical world to a more general assumption, ignoring preconceived notions. Bacon identified the origins of our preconceived notions, encouraging humanity to disregard these ideas.
Military schools tend to promote a realist approach. By developing the character of each soldier, or student, they promote honor and dignity. They promote nationalism: the one truth that is common to each participant. Military schools are orderly and systematic and depend on the process to develop excellence in each man or woman. Military schools maintain a distinct separation from the outside world in order to block distractions and allow the trainees to focus.


maslow education theory

Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs In Our Classrooms simple truth: Before expecting students to reach their potential, teachers need to meet students at their current levels. research

maslow education theory

To support our students’ physiological needs, we can ensure that all students have access to water in their rooms. Water bottles are a simple solution and research shows the many benefits of hydrated students.
To support our students physiological needs, we can ensure that we have nutritious snacks available. Foods with slow-burning complex carbohydrates (such as granola bars) can help students sustain energy levels throughout the morning or afternoon.

Maslow education theory
10. Capable of deep appreciation of basic life-experience;
If these needs are not satisfied the human body cannot function optimally. Maslow considered physiological needs the most important as all the other needs become secondary until these needs are met.

Maslow education theory
There is so much more that we could talk about with Maslow, it’s a great theory in that it is both very simple but also deeply complex once you dig beneath the surface.
Maslow’s hierachy appears in pretty much all talks on educational theory. Although usually presented as a hierachy of needs many commentators describe it as a way to understand how learners reach their potential and what barriers might exist to them getting there. For me as an educator it’s a great reminder that it’s not just about what I do in the teaching session. The success of an educational intervention is deeply influenced by the learners experiences, motivations, behaviours and psychology. We can do much to accomodate them to make learning better.

Maslow education theory
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Maslow education theory

5) Cognitive: to know, to understand, and explore;

2) Safety/security: out of danger;


rousseau theory education

Rousseau theory education Born: 1712 Died: 1778 Nationality: French Occupation: philosopher, social and political theorist, musician, botanist, writer Philosophical/Educational School of

rousseau theory education

Discourse on the Arts and Sciences (essay)
Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality
La Nouvelle Heloise
Lettre sur les spectacles
The Social Contract
Rousseau, juge de Jean Jacques
Les Muses galantes (opera)
Harrison, P. (1996). Rousseau: The first romantic. [On-line] ,
Roopnarine, J. L. , & Johnson, J. E. (Eds. ) . (1987) . Approaches to early childhood education. New York: Merrill.
Kreis, S. (1998). The history guide: Lectures on twentieth century europe. [On-line] ,

Briefly re-examining the main concepts of this paper, we see that Jean-Jacques Rousseau spun his web of ideas with threads that had far-reaching effects, leading ultimately to the educational systems that are extant today, certainly in the United States, Europe, and Russia. His influence on Pestalozzi, Tolstoy, and John Dewey was direct and profound, as each of them attempted to put into practice what they had interpreted, correctly or incorrectly, from reading Rousseau’s Emile, forming the basis of progressive, or child-centered, education. Pestalozzi in turn instructed Froebel, who created the kindergarten and taught the concept to many, including Elizabeth Peabody who founded one of the early ones in America. She was also a close associate of Bronson Alcott who claimed not to have read Rousseau, although he was familiar with the works of both Pestalozzi and Froebel. Alcott was a teacher and an administrator in the progressive, child-centered mode. He also had an intimate relationship with Henry Brockmeyer and Willam Torrey Harris who, along with Dewey, were disciples of Hegel and instrumental in bringing his ideas to the United States.
He set forth his ideas about citizenship in The social contract (1762) and, much later, in “A letter to the government of Poland” (1772), proposed a national system of education charged with the responsibility of producing a competent body of voters. Much of that education would have as its goal the subjugation of personal interests to communal ones:

Rousseau theory education
CE – Collier Encyclopedia, Vol 20:245
Educate to be a man, not one profession, he will be able to do whatever is needed in any situation B 18:37

Rousseau theory education
Darling, J. (1994) Child-Centred Education and its Critics, London: Paul Chapman.
Rousseau’s is sometimes described as a romantic vision. ‘Romanticism’ is not an easy term to define – it is best approached as an overlapping set of ideas and values.

Amour de soi, amour propre and pitié are not the full complement of passions in Rousseau’s thinking. Once people have achieved consciousness of themselves as social beings, morality also becomes possible and this relies on the further faculty of conscience. The fullest accounts of Rousseau’s conception of morality are found in the Lettres Morales and in sections of the Confession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar, a part of Emile. In the most primitive forms of human existence, before the emergence of amour propre, pitié balances or restrains self-interest. It is, to that extent, akin to a moral sentiment such as Humean sympathy. But as something that is merely instinctual it lacks, for Rousseau, a genuinely moral quality. Genuine morality, on the other hand, consists in the application of reason to human affairs and conduct. This requires the mental faculty that is the source of genuinely moral motivation, namely conscience. Conscience impels us to the love of justice and morality in a quasi-aesthetic manner. As the appreciation of justice and the desire to act to further it, conscience is based on a rational appreciation of the well-orderedness of a benign God’s plan for the world. However, in a world dominated by inflamed amour propre, the normal pattern is not for a morality of reason to supplement or supplant our natural proto-moral sympathies. Instead, the usual course of events in civil society is for reason and sympathy to be displaced while humans’ enhanced capacity for reasoning is put at the service, not of morality, but of the impulse to dominate, oppress and exploit. (For recent discussion of Rousseau on conscience and reason, see Neidleman, 2017, ch. 7.)
Rousseau argues that in order for the general will to be truly general it must come from all and apply to all. This thought has both substantive and formal aspects. Formally, Rousseau argues that the law must be general in application and universal in scope. The law cannot name particular individuals and it must apply to everyone within the state. Rousseau believes that this condition will lead citizens, though guided by a consideration of what is in their own private interest, to favor laws that both secure the common interest impartially and that are not burdensome and intrusive. For this to be true, however, it has to be the case that the situation of citizens is substantially similar to one another. In a state where citizens enjoy a wide diversity of lifestyles and occupations, or where there is a great deal of cultural diversity, or where there is a high degree of economic inequality, it will not generally be the case that the impact of the laws will be the same for everyone. In such cases it will often not be true that a citizen can occupy the standpoint of the general will merely by imagining the impact of general and universal laws on his or her own case.


john dewey theory on early childhood education

Dewey, John (1859-1952) – Early Childhood Education – to serve as a useful reference source on the period of early childhood and the field of early childhood education

john dewey theory on early childhood education

A leading representative of the progressive movement in the United States and a founder of the philosophical school of Pragmatism, John Dewey was one of the most influential American educational reformers of the last century.
Dewey, John (1859-1952)

How unsettling this was for Dewey! He knew that, out of necessity, even the youngest children participated in household chores and activities, and he quickly recognized the wonderful learning opportunities these everyday experiences provided. He came to believe that the child’s own instincts, activities, and interests should be the starting point of education.
This article originally appeared in the October, 2000 issue of Early Childhood Today.

In this article, the work of John Dewey is recontextualised and proposed as a basis for contemporary early childhood education for sustainability (ECEfS). Five key themes are explored: experiential learning; curiosity and critical thinking; children’s experiences in nature; democracy and participation and classroom as community. In each case, claims are made through aligning the work of Dewey with exemplars from current early childhood practice. The focus is reflection upon the educator as facilitator of dynamic interactions between the learner and her/his experiences, fostering individual growth, influencing social change and, thus, creating possibilities for implementation of ECEfS within early years classrooms.
Thanks to Anglia Ruskin University Research and Innovation Development Office for a Research Funding Observatory bursary that enabled the author to attend the conference John Dewey’s ‘Democracy and Education’ 100 Years On: Past, Present, and Future Relevance at Homerton College and Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge.

John dewey theory on early childhood education
Dewey agreed with Montessori and Piaget that children learn by doing and that a teacher’s role is to encourage experimentation and independent thought. Conversely, unlike Piaget and Montessori who, as we’ve already discussed believed that the environment was the main teacher, Dewey sided more with Vygotsky in that he believed that children learn best when they’re interacting with a More Knowledgeable Other, with other people. This is why I wanted to do Dewey before we move on to anyone else. He really was kind of middle of the pack. He was all about giving children the child-sized tools and enabling them to do it themselves but he felt that part of that was the teacher whose job it is to use their superior knowledge to help children make sense of the world. He thought that information coming from an experienced other was more useful to children than something they stumble upon by themselves.
Today is all about John Dewey. If you’re pretty much every parent who has no previous knowledge of child development than this name rings zero bells. He is not like Montessori who we know about from hearing it in social settings. He was a contemporary of Montessori and Piaget and Vygotsky though. Unlike those three who we’ve already covered, he wasn’t so concerned about child development. He was more concerned with Education. So his work wasn’t aimed at parents at all. It was aimed at teachers, but as parents, we can still take a lot away from it.

John dewey theory on early childhood education
This is number 7 in my blog series on major learning theories. My plan is to work through the alphabet of psychologists and provide a brief overview of their theories, and how each can be applied in education. In the last post we examined the work of Mihály Csíkszentmihályi on Flow Theory. In this post, we explore the work of John Dewey on experiential and interactive learning. This is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please refer to the original work of the theorist.
John Dewey is one of the giants in the history of educational theory, and it’s difficult to isolate one of his specific theories to discuss here. He was influential in so many areas of educational reform, that to choose one theme would do him a disservice, so I will highlight several of the areas in which he was ahead of his time.


scaffolding theory in education

Scaffolding theory in education Types of the Scaffolding Instructors can use a variety of scaffolds to accommodate different levels of knowledge. The context of learning may require

scaffolding theory in education

Scaffolding theory in education

  • reducing cognitive load
  • facilitating the representation of relationships
  • facilitating higher order learning – analysis, synthesis, evaluation
  • providing many paths for knowledge retrieval
  • supporting the communication of knowledge

Strategic Scaffolding helps learner find alternative strategies and methods to solve complex problems. It’s emphasizes alternative learning pathways and tailored instruction to support individual students. Besides, strategic scaffolding also r equires an understanding of the individual learning preferences of learners and level of prior knowledge. This kind of scaffolding also may require strategies to help simplify and organize information and r equires frequent dialogue with student.

Scaffolding theory in education
Bruner’s theory of scaffolding emerged around 1976 as a part of social constructivist theory, and was particularly influenced by the work of Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Vygotsky argued that we learn best in a social environment, where we construct meaning through interaction with others. His Zone of Proximal Development theory, where we can learn more in the presence of a knowledgeable other person, became the template for Bruner’s model.
Although this may not be possible to do on their own, teachers can improvise and provide scaffolding through other support, including the use of other adults such as teaching assistants (para-educators) parent helpers, or more knowledgeable other children within the classroom.

Scaffolding theory in education
Vygotsky came up with the idea of ZPD after extensive studying of how young children learn and the effectiveness of different teaching methods. He found that individual knowledge-based tests are often an inaccurate way to measure a young student’s intelligence since children need to interact with others who are more intelligent than they currently are in order to learn. He cited many examples of cultures where young children are taught new skills and knowledge passed down by older generations.
For example, when infants are learning how to walk, they often start by holding onto the clothes or hands of an adult or older child, who guides them. The infant will continue to do this until they have enough skills and strength to walk on their own. This way they’re able to learn to walk much faster than if they were expected to learn without being able to hold onto anything.

Scaffolding theory in education
Sometimes referred to as front-loading vocabulary, this is a strategy that we teachers don’t use enough. Many of us, myself included, are guilty of sending students all alone down the bumpy, muddy path known as Challenging Text—a road booby-trapped with difficult vocabulary. We send them ill-prepared and then are often shocked when they lose interest, create a ruckus, or fall asleep.
Ask students to share their own experiences, hunches, and ideas about the content or concept of study and have them relate and connect it to their own lives. Sometimes you may have to offer hints and suggestions, leading them to the connections a bit, but once they get there, they will grasp the content as their own.

Scaffolding theory in education
She asked a group of children between the ages of three and five years to help a puppet to decide which furniture should be placed in the various rooms of a dolls house. First Freund assessed what each child already understood about the placement of furniture (as a baseline measure).
Freund, L. S. (1990). Maternal Regulation of Children’s Problem-solving behavior and Its Impact on Children’s Performance. Child Development, 61, 113-126.