critical thinking theory in education

We all think. It’s an essential part of us being human beings. But critical thinking – why should we be concerned with it? Don’t we have enough people happy to criticize just about anything and everything? And how does critical thinking relate to teaching and learning? Relevant questions which will be discussed here.

critical thinking theory in education

Critical thinking theory in education
The following example of an instructional objective relates to a lesson topic of work motivation and constitutes only a part of the 90-minute lesson. Albeit important, the cognitive objective is set aside for now and the focus is on the affective objective. Employing the ABCD model, an instructional objective could be formulated in the following way:
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Critical thinking theory in education
From what critical thinking is to how to incorporate it into everyday lessons, we examine the essentials of this fundamental intellectual skill below.
Since children learn in different ways and can come from vastly different backgrounds, it’s essential that future elementary school teachers receive an education that helps them effectively reach various types of students so they can learn to think critically and meet the challenges of living in a diverse, complex world.

Critical thinking is a central concept in educational reforms that call for schools to place a greater emphasis on skills that are used in all subject areas and that students can apply in all educational, career, and civic settings throughout their lives. It’s also a central concept in reforms that question how teachers have traditionally taught and what students should be learning—notably, the 21st century skills movement, which broadly calls on schools to create academic programs and learning experiences that equip students with the most essential and in-demand knowledge, skills, and dispositions they will need to be successful in higher-education programs and modern workplaces. As higher education and job requirements become competitive, complex, and technical, proponents argue, students will need skills such as critical thinking to successfully navigate the modern world, excel in challenging careers, and process increasingly complex information.
Critical thinking is a term used by educators to describe forms of learning, thought, and analysis that go beyond the memorization and recall of information and facts. In common usage, critical thinking is an umbrella term that may be applied to many different forms of learning acquisition or to a wide variety of thought processes. In its most basic expression, critical thinking occurs when students are analyzing, evaluating, interpreting, or synthesizing information and applying creative thought to form an argument, solve a problem, or reach a conclusion.

It is common ground in debates about the generality or subject-specificity of critical thinking dispositions and abilities that critical thinking about any topic requires background knowledge about the topic. For example, the most sophisticated understanding of the principles of hypothetico-deductive reasoning is of no help unless accompanied by some knowledge of what might be plausible explanations of some phenomenon under investigation.
Disorder: A man finds his rooms on his return to them in disorder with his belongings thrown about, thinks at first of burglary as an explanation, then thinks of mischievous children as being an alternative explanation, then looks to see whether valuables are missing, and discovers that they are (1910: 82–83; 1933: 166–168).

Critical thinking theory in education
The techniques I’ve described above — explicit instruction on critical-thinking principles and techniques, deliberate practice opportunities that put those techniques to work, encouraging transfer between domains, and inspiring students to practice thinking critically on their own — all represent high-leverage critical-thinking practices applicable to any domain. Such practices can be applied to focused content areas, highlighting the fact that integrating critical-thinking practices into the curriculum does not need to crowd out other activities college instructors have used for years.
While people continue to be debate the role of elements such as creativity in the critical-thinking process, there is a general consensus, going back to the earliest definitions of the term, that the concept includes three interconnecting elements: knowledge (for example, knowledge of one or more logical systems), skills (such as skills in applying that logical system to construct and analyze arguments) and dispositions (such as the willingness to apply critical-thinking principles, rather than fall back on existing unexamined beliefs, or simply believe what you’re told by authority figures).

Resources:

http://www.waldenu.edu/online-bachelors-programs/bs-in-elementary-education/resource/seven-ways-to-teach-critical-thinking-in-elementary-education
http://www.edglossary.org/critical-thinking/
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/critical-thinking/
http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2020/03/02/teaching-students-think-critically-opinion
http://www.psychologydiscussion.net/psychology/psychoanalysis/how-is-psychoanalysis-used-in-education-psychology/2647

social education theory

Albert Bandura – Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura – Social Learning Theory By Saul McLeod, updated 2016 In social learning theory, Albert Bandura (1977) agrees with the behaviorist

social education theory

Social education theory
Individuals that are observed are called models. In society, children are surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family, characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. These models provide examples of behavior to observe and imitate, e.g., masculine and feminine, pro and anti-social, etc.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Social education theory
Attention: First off, the learner needs to pay attention. If they are distracted, this will influence the amount or quality of learning that occurs. I don’t think anyone disagrees with this statement. We have all gotten distracted and know that it affects our learning and quality of work. Additionally, the more interesting or unique the model or situation is, the more fully the learner will attend to the learning. This explains why you might not be able to put down a good book or give up on any one of your passions no matter the obstacles you encounter.
Retention: How you can to store the information learned (i.e., retention) is important. Let’s face it. We have all learned so much content throughout our years of schooling, but how much do we retain? Maybe you can remember the more significant learning in a certain way through any number of memory techniques (e.g., mnemonic devices, writing it down, repetition, etc.). Or maybe you applied the learning to a real-life situation which aids in retention.

The length may vary from 500 to 3,500 words. The format for the top of the first page is as follows: Books: Author (last name first). Date of publication (in parentheses). Title (in italics). City of publication: Publisher, total number of pages, list price (for both hard and softcover, if available). ISBN number.
The right to reply policy encourages comments on recently published articles in Theory and Research in Social Education. They are, of course, subject to the same editorial review and decision. If the comment is accepted for publication, the editor shall inform the author of the original article. If the author submits a reply to the comments, the reply is also subject to editorial review and decision. The editor may allot a specific amount of journal space for the comment (ordinarily about 1,500 words) and for the reply (ordinarily about 750 words). The reply may appear in the same issue as the comment or in a later issue.

Social education theory
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Ebook of the best icebreaker activity guide with detailed step-by-step instructions, templates and more. Only the best icebreakers for the classroom. Great for building teamwork and helping students get to know each other better! 63 pages.

Social education theory

  1. Developing Learning Communities
  2. Community of Learners Classroom
  3. Collaborative Learning and Group Work
  4. Discussion-based Learning (Socratic Questioning Methods)

Instruction that supports social learning:
Social learning theories help us to understand how people learn in social contexts (learn from each other) and informs us on how we, as teachers, construct active learning communities. Lev Vygotsky (1962), a Russian teacher and psychologist, first stated that we learn through our interactions and communications with others. Vygotsky (1962) examined how our social environments influence the learning process. He suggested that learning takes place through the interactions students have with their peers, teachers, and other experts. Consequently, teachers can create a learning environment that maximizes the learner’s ability to interact with each other through discussion, collaboration, and feedback. Moreover, Vygotsky (1962) argues that culture is the primary determining factor for knowledge construction. We learn through this cultural lens by interacting with others and following the rules, skills, and abilities shaped by our culture.

Resources:

http://educationaltechnology.net/social-learning-theory-albert-bandura/
http://www.socialstudies.org/publications/theory-and-research-social-education
http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/lsn/educator/edtech/learningtheorieswebsite/vygotsky.htm
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00098655.2011.568989?scroll=top&needAccess=true

labelling theory in education pdf

Please note that I have currently written 7 essays on the Sociology of Education and intent to write a few more in the near future. Note that in each case these essays are far longer than could be

labelling theory in education pdf

It is perhaps well known that it is Chinese girls who achieve the best examination results at GCSE Level and one might expect there fore that it would be Chinese girls who are most likely to benefit from the effects of positive labelling in schools . However in a recent[2008] detailed academic study Louise Archer suggests that this is not the case and that “the normalised “ideal pupil” emerges as the dominant male, White, middle class Western subject. ” Although Advanced Level Sociology students need not familiarise themselves with the details of this highly technical article they may scroll down to page 12 of the article [which is p101 of the journal] 101 and a table illustrating this conclusion which may provoke some class discussion.
Click here for a recent BBC item on Streaming. An ideal introduction. NEW link added June 2018****

Labelling theory in education pdf
Rosenthal and Jacobson speculated that the teachers had passed on their higher expectations to students which had produced a self-fulfilling prophecy.

  • teachers will push students they think are brighter harder, and not expect as much from students they have labelled as less-able.
  • Building on the above point, a positive label is more likely to result in a good student being put into a higher band, and vice versa for a student pre-judged to be less able.
  • Positively labelled students are more likely to develop positive attitude towards studying, those negatively labelled an anti-school attitude.
  • The above may be reinforced by peer-group identification.

Labelling theory in education pdf
The classroom is like a second home for the child. Each and every child requires to be nurtured with unadulterated care and love to be able to realize her complete potential.
This theory is also closely related to the concept of self-fulfilling prophecy. This expression was coined by the sociologist Robert. K. Merton. In simple terms, it means the following: Certain professed expectations (positive or negative), may affect behavior so much so that the expectations actually come true. Although the abovementioned theories have been invoked in various contexts, I would like to talk about these in the classroom context, by the means of an example. The incident that I am now going to discuss is an actual classroom experience that occurred in the Nursery class of a reputed private school that prides itself on being an innovative and progressive school. The said school uses storytelling as a major learning resource for the pre-primary students. The school planned on holding a story-telling session in front of an audience, in this case, the parents of these 3-4 year olds. A story which was transacted often with the kids in the classroom was chosen to be enacted in front of the parents. This was the first time that such a ‘show’ had been envisaged by the school. For the show, the class-teacher of the kids selected 2-3 students who would be given the roles which had certain dialogues to be spoken. The rest of the students were supposed to be holding certain props like trees etc. and standing on the stage with these props. The selection of the students who were required to be delivering the dialogues was done by the teacher based on her judgment on who would be able to memorize the dialogues and deliver them confidently on the stage. In fact she called the parents of the few she had initially chosen separately and asked them to make the children practice the dialogues at home as well.

The effect of labelling theory on juvenile behaviour is a bit more pronounced and clear. Youths are especially vulnerable to labelling theory. Once they start to believe in their negative labels, self rejection occurs which plays a major role in the social rejection theory. This self rejection attitude leads to the rejection of the norms of society and gives them a motive to deviate from conventional values of society. They then form bonds with like minded deviant peers. These youths then go on to reject those that have labelled them and tend to set up their own criminal lifestyles consisting of criminal behaviour. In schools, those that come from a working class family or a lower class, the youth gangs are seen as ‘trouble makers’ compared to the middle class gangs who are labelled as ‘pranksters’ instead. Research has shown that many of the youth gangs who come from the lower class get arrested and are labelled further as criminals.
Labelling theory and its theorists focus on the groups and/or individuals who were deemed to be criminal and labelled thus by society. Labelling theorists studied the various interactions between the ‘criminal’ groups and individuals and the conformist society. Labeling theory was quite popular in the 1960s and early 1970s, but then fell into decline—partly as a result of the mixed results of empirical research. This essay will go on to show the origins of labelling theory, the theory itself and will show its strengths and weaknesses using various case-studies and examples.

This story illustrates a growing concern referred to as grade inflation —a term used to describe the observation that the correspondence between letter grades and the achievements they reflect has been changing (in a downward direction) over time. Put simply, what used to be considered C-level, or average, now often earns a student a B, or even an A.
Consider a large-city newspaper publisher. Ten years ago, when culling résumés for an entry-level copywriter, they were well assured that if they selected a grad with a GPA of 3.7 or higher, they’d have someone with the writing skills to contribute to the workplace on day one. But over the last few years, they’ve noticed that A-level students don’t have the competency evident in the past. More and more, they find themselves in the position of educating new hires in abilities that, in the past, had been mastered during their education.

Resources:

http://revisesociology.com/2017/11/01/labelling-self-fulfilling-prophecy-education/
http://www.thenewleam.com/2018/06/labelling-theory-classrooms/
http://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/criminal-law/labelling-theory-its-strengths-and-weaknesses.php
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-symbolic-interactionist-theory-on-education/
http://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Moral-Education%3A-A-Study-In-The-Theory-And-Of-The-Durkheim/1dd43b3cf6ef135184b9aa935320705e3dfc6119

an introduction to multicultural education from theory to practice

An introduction to multicultural education from theory to practice Comprehensive Multicultural Education: Theory and Practice, 4th ed. Christine I. Bennett (1999) Boston: Allyn and Bacon Pp.

an introduction to multicultural education from theory to practice

Christine Bennett’s handbook, Comprehensive Multicultural Education, was written primarily as an interdisciplinary introduction to multicultural education for students and those new to this field. Each chapter closes with activities and questions for discussion. Supplements to the text include an instructor’s manual and a test bank. Bennett does a nice job making complex subject matter accessible. The material is presented in a concise, thoughtful way using charts, illustrations, and boxes to emphasize and summarize main points. A detailed table of contents and index turn a college textbook into a handy reference work.
Comprehensive Multicultural Education: Theory and Practice, 4th ed.
Christine I. Bennett (1999)
Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Pp. xii + 436
ISBN 0-205-28324-1 (paper)
US $46.67

An introduction to multicultural education from theory to practice
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An introduction to multicultural education from theory to practice
You’ll get a bound printed text.
Filled with new developments, trends, and issues as well as current statistics, citations, and references, the 6th Edition now includes Reflection and Action Activities, end-of-chapter summaries, and a new typology of citizenship.

Allport, G. W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Aronson, E. and Gonzalez, A. (1988). Desegregation, Jigsaw, and the Mexican-American Experience. In P. A. Katz & D. A. Taylor, (Eds.), Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy. New York: Plenum Press.
Banks, J. A. (1995a). Multicultural Education: Historical Development, Dimensions, and Practice. In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (pp. 3-24). New York: Macmillan.
Banks, J. A. (1995b). Multicultural Education: Its Effects on Students’ Racial and Gender Role Attitudes. In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (pp. 617-627). New York: Macmillan.
Banks, J. A. (Ed.) (1996). Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge and Action. New York: Teachers College Press.
Banks, J. A. (1997). Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals. In J. A. Banks & C. A. M. Banks, (Eds.). Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives (3rd ed., pp. 3-31). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, J. A., with Clegg, A. A. Jr. (1990). Teaching Strategies for the Social Studies: Inquiry, Valuing and Decision-Making. 4th ed. New York: Longman.
Banks, C. A. M. & Banks, J. A. (1995). Equity Pedagogy: An Essential Component of Multicultural Education. Theory into Practice, 34 (3), 151-158.
Lewis, B. A. (1991). The Kids Guide to Social Action. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing.
Phinney, J. S. & Rotheram, M. J. (Eds.) (1987) Children’s Ethnic Socialization: Pluralism and Development. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
Prejudice reduction describes lessons and activities used by teachers to help students to develop positive attitudes toward different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. Research indicates that children come to school with many negative attitudes toward and misconceptions about different racial and ethnic groups (Phinney & Rotheram, 1987). Research also indicates that lessons, units, and teaching materials that include content about different racial and ethnic groups can help students to develop more positive intergroup attitudes if certain conditions exist in the teaching situation (Banks, 1995b). These conditions include positive images of the ethnic groups in the materials and the use of multiethnic materials in a consistent and sequential way.

BANKS, JAMES A., ed. 1996. Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge, and Action: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. New York: Teachers College Press.
SLAVIN, ROBERT E. 2001. “Cooperative Learning and Intergroup Relations.” In Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education, ed. James A. Banks and Cherry A. McGee Banks. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Resources:

http://www.abebooks.com/book-search/title/introduction-multicultural-education-theory/author/chinaka-domnwachukwu/
http://www.pearson.com/store/p/an-introduction-to-multicultural-education/P100000874824
http://education.uw.edu/cme/view
http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2252/Multicultural-Education.html
http://www.guilford.com/books/Executive-Function-in-Education/Lynn-Meltzer/9781462534531

john dewey theory of education summary

Educator John Dewey originated the experimentalism philosophy. A proponent of social change and education reform, he founded The New School for Social Research.

john dewey theory of education summary

John Dewey taught at universities from 1884 to 1930. An academic philosopher and proponent of educational reform, in 1894 Dewey started an experimental elementary school. In 1919 he co-founded The New School for Social Research. Dewey published over 1,000 pieces of writings during his lifetime.
In the 1930s, after he retired from teaching, Dewey became an active member of numerous educational organizations, including the New York Teachers Guild and the International League for Academic Freedom.

The problems of readjustment differ somewhat according to the child’s social status. The class structure quickly impresses its stamp upon the plastic personality, conditioning and regulating the relations between the sexes, the rich and the poor, the upper, middle and lower classes. This determines both the characteristics of the educational system and of the children tutored and trained under it.
Dewey sought to supply that unifying pattern by applying the principles and practices of democracy, as he interpreted them, consistently throughout the educational system. First, the schools would be freely available to all from kindergarten to college. Second, the children would themselves carry on the educational process, aided and guided by the teacher. Third, they would be trained to behave cooperatively, sharing with and caring for one another. Then these creative, well-adjusted equalitarians would make over American society in their own image.

John dewey theory of education summary
John married Alice, his first wife, in 1886. They had six children, with just four surviving into adulthood. The Deweys also adopted a boy, Sabino, who they met in Italy.
Dewey continually pointed out, however, that some experiences were more valuable than others. Teachers must be able to intellectually justify the educational activities, rather than simply let people do their own thing.

John dewey theory of education summary
Notwithstanding, Dewey was wary of placing too much emphasis on the child’s abilities, but preferred to place his trust in a more balanced approach to education where teacher, students and content were given equal importance in the learning equation. Ultimately, his belief was that teachers should not be in the classroom to act simply as instructors, but should adopt the role of facilitator and guide, giving students the opportunities to discover for themselves and to develop as active and independent learners. In some schools, a return to these values is long overdue.
Dewey further argued that for education to be at its most effective, children should be given learning opportunities that enabled them to link present content to previous experiences and knowledge. Again, this was a ground breaking idea for the period. Yet another feature in Dewey’s theories was the need for learners to engage directly with their environment, in what came to be known as experiential learning, where ‘knowledge comes from the impressions made upon us by natural objects.’ This approach led later to a number of other similar approaches such as problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning.

John dewey theory of education summary
The John Dewey theory recommends an interdisciplinary curriculum, or a curriculum that focuses on connecting multiple subjects where students can freely walk in and out of classrooms. In this way, they pursue their own interests, and build their own method for acquiring and applying specific knowledge.
John Dewey believed that democracy is an ethical ideal and not just a political structure. He considered participation rather than representation as the essence of democracy. Furthermore, he insisted on the interaction and harmony between democracy and the scientific method. He saw an increasingly larger and critical research community, drawing on their pragmatic principles and convictions.

Resources:

http://www.marxists.org/archive/novack/works/1960/x03.htm
http://www.thepositiveencourager.global/john-deweys-approach-to-doing-positive-work/
http://www.teachthought.com/learning/pedagogy-john-dewey-summary/
http://www.toolshero.com/change-management/john-dewey-theory/
http://www.educationevolving.org/theory

differentiation theory in education

Learn about differentiated instructionВ in the classroomВ with these tips and guidelines fromВ teachingВ expert Laura Robb.

differentiation theory in education

  1. Make your read alouds a common teaching text. In addition to being just for fun, read-aloud materials will become your common text, setting the stage for differentiation. Use them to build background knowledge and to show students how you apply strategies (Beck & McKeown, 2006; Robb, 2008; Wilhelm, 2001, 2005). You can also use them to introduce issues and invite students to respond to these issues in their journals. Making your read-aloud your teaching text will ensure that every student has access to the information and skills they need to become a better reader.
  2. Teach with diverse materials. Avoid using one text for the entire class. Instead, use multiple texts at diverse reading levels for your units of study. This will enable every student to gather information from books and magazines they can truly read (Robb, 2003; Worthy et al., 1999).
  3. Organize for instruction so you meet all reading levels. Whether you use a differentiated whole-class instructional approach or have students work in small groups, you’ll need to organize each unit of study around a genre, issue, or topic — rather than teaching “the book.”
  4. Value independent practice reading. Set aside 15 to 30 minutes of class time, at least three times a week, for students to read books at their comfort levels — and these levels carry from student to student.
  5. Show students how to construct meaning while reading. Students can become better readers only if they understand how to construct meaning as they read. By modeling the ways you think about texts during your read alouds, while you work with small reading groups, and in your one-to-one instructional conferences with students, you are offering students mutliple opportunities for learning how to consruct meaning
  6. Encourage discussion. Discussion is especially important in a differentiated reading classroom because it provides a powerful way to build on every student’s understandings and knowledge of facts. It also provides them with opportunities to clarify meaning and to build comprehension. By asking students to move beyond memorizing the facts to applying those facts to issues and problems through discussion, students deepen their understanding and recall. In-depth discussions among small groups, and with the entire class, can show students how their peers think and reason, can build background knowledge, and can make the facts relevant to their own lives.
  7. Write to explore, think, learn, and improve comprehension. Learners can write only what they know and understand (Alvermann & Phelps, 1998; Robb, 2002; Self, 1987; Vaughan & Estes, 1986). If they haven’t absorbed a lesson, they will have little to write. It’s crucial for teachers to know that everyone in a class does not absorb the same information from a demonstration or a lesson (Clay, 1993). Reading students’ journals can provide insights into whether students can think inferentially and analyze chunks of text. These insights support planning interventions for individuals, pairs, small groups, and, at times, the entire class.
  8. Use ongoing assessments to support each student. Study the assessments students complete for a unit to discover their successes and their areas of need. Then support each student in your class by getting to know him or her so you can provide targeted instruction. Ongoing assessments allow you to do this.
  9. Plan your units carefully. Thinking through each unit of study enables you to understand what you want students to learn about a genre, an issue, and reading strategies (Tomlinson, 1999). It will also ensure that you have gathered reading materials that meet the needs of each student, as well as appropriate texts for your read alouds.

What you saw in your “visit” to my classroom are practical ways I differentiate to improve my students’ literacy. In the list below, I’ve summarized these important elements and added a few other practices, such as planning, that are key to differentiating reading instruction successfully. In subsequent chapters of this book, we’ll take a closer look at these elements and explore ways to integrate them into your lessons so you can support every student you teach.

Differentiation theory in education
Finding ways to support all students seems to be the best way to make sure everyone is being challenged and given an opportunity to be successful.

  1. Giving students options of how to express required learning (e.g., create a puppet show, write a letter, or develop a mural with labels);
  2. Using rubrics that match and extend students’ varied skills levels;
  3. Allowing students to work alone or in small groups on their products; and
  4. Encouraging students to create their own product assignments as long as the assignments contain required elements.

Although there will be times that individual instruction happens in the classroom, it is not the goal of a differentiated classroom. Differentiated teaching and learning incorporates individual, small group and whole group teaching. Many people believe that if you are teaching to the whole group or a small group that the needs of individual students are not being met. On the contrary, whole group and small group instruction can be very successful if followed up with differentiated activities that promote mastery.
Teachers should anticipate the learning needs of students and tailor lessons to fit. The learning opportunities should be robust enough to challenge every student in the class, but not so challenging that students are feeling overwhelmed and frustrated and shut down.

Differentiation theory in education
Summative assessments can also be differentiated based on readiness, interest and learning profile. It is critical, however, that all variations of the summative assessment allow students to demonstrate what they have learned in reference to the unit KUD’s.
Designing good curriculum starts with identifying the essential Understandings — the concepts, principles, or big ideas of the unit topic. Understandings that are meaningful, intriguing, and thought provoking allow students to see the relevance of what they are studying to other subjects and to the world around them.

Differentiation theory in education
Findings from a 2005 Dutch study imply that feedback should also be differentiated by age. The researchers noted response to positive and negative feedback during efforts to learn new skills. Using fMRI, a process that measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood oxygenation and flow, researchers found that chronological age appears to be a factor in the brain’s response to feedback related to achievement. In 8–9 year olds, the brain responded to positive feedback and gained skill. When negative feedback was offered, there was little measureable response, and increases in skill were not noted. In 11–12 year olds and adults the opposite was found to be true—negative feedback provided a more powerful response in the brain, which led to increased ability with the skill.
References
Delisle, J (2015). Differentiation doesn’t work. Education Week. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/01/07/differentiation-doesnt-work.html

Resources:

http://www.readingrockets.org/article/what-differentiated-instruction
http://www.teachertoolkit.co.uk/2018/03/05/what-is-differentiation/
http://differentiationcentral.com/what-is-differentiated-instruction/
http://www.renaissance.com/2015/10/01/differentiated-learning-closing-the-gap-between-theory-and-practice/
http://www.abebooks.com/Handbook-Theory-Research-Sociology-Education-Richardson/15824606683/bd

harry wong education theory

SUMMARY OF MAJOR CONCEPTS COVERED BY HARRY K. WONG “Marjan…You are making a difference in the lives of students and in the world.” Harry Wong. Author The First Days Of School

harry wong education theory

Harry wong education theory
46. Each person has unlimited potential. Humans are the only species able to improve the quality of their lives.
5. What you do on the first day of school will determine your success for the rest of the year.

Harry wong education theory
EW: Do you believe the traditional advice to new teachers — the advice that says, “Don’t smile until Christmas?”
In five seconds, the class is quiet.

Harry wong education theory
Harry and Rosemary Wong are teachers. Harry is a native of San Francisco and taught middle school and high school science. Rosemary is a native of New Orleans and taught K-8, including working as the school media coordinator and student activity director.
The substitute asked, “But aren’t you supposed to walk quietly in the hall so that you don’t disturb the other classes? Why should you earn a star for doing what is right?”

Harry wong education theory
Wong, H. K. (n.d.). Professional reference for teachers: The well managed classroom. Retrieved from http://go.hrw.com/resources/go_sc/gen/HSTPR034.PDF
Harry and Rosemary Wong are classroom management theorists. Mr. and Mrs. Wong advocate that the key to favorable classroom behavior and learning centers around the clarification of responsibilities of both teachers and students, and teaching the procedures and rules that students are expected to follow in the class. Mr. and Mrs. Wong have found that if students maintain good habits of following the procedures and taking responsibility in the classroom, such actions will become routine so misbehavior will fade, which will allow for instruction and learning to occur as intended. The essential characteristics of their theory are as follows,

Harry wong education theory
HW: Well, we’ve been planning to publish it for about 10 years! We just kept getting so much great material—you know, we have drawers full of examples that teachers send us of the excellent work they’re doing—that we put off finishing it. But finally we just said, “OK, let’s just put a stop to this whole charade and write the book.”
HW: Teaching teachers how to be effective—that’s our passion. And it’s what we’ve done for 30 years, and we haven’t changed because the research on that hasn’t changed. In this way, we are somewhat unusual. What they do in education is jump from one program to another—one fad, one philosophy, then a different one. We’re always looking for some magic bullet that will some save schools. Schools are drowning in what [education-reform scholar] Michael Fullan calls all these “ad hoc programs.” They jump from one to the next, and that’s not good for teachers or students. So we don’t intend to add to that trend—we know what works, we’ve seen it, and we stick to it.

Resources:

http://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/chat/chat008.shtml
http://www.teachers.net/wong/FEB14/
http://sites.google.com/site/christinajree/kindergarten
http://mobile.edweek.org/c.jsp?cid=25919901&bcid=25919901&rssid=25919891&item=http%3A%2F%2Fapi.edweek.org%2Fv1%2Ftm%2F%3Fuuid%3D2A7432C8-3295-11E3-BEC0-03A9B3743667
http://www.educationcorner.com/social-learning-theory-guide.html

critical education theory

andy coverdale’s phd wiki

critical education theory

Ivan Illich
Ivan illich (1970; 1973) gained international recognition writing about both education (Deschooling Society) and technology (Tools for Conviviality); both of which have, in recent years, been noted as being remarkably prescient of the internet, the emergence of social computing (Kop, 2008), and the Open Source movement (Leadbeater, 2008). In Deschooling Society, Illich (1970) presents a postindustrial alternative model of education within a broad social, political, economic and ecological framework.
Blair, T. (2000). The knowledge economy: UK Prime Minister speech, Knowledge 2000 conference, London, 7 March 2000.

Critical education theory
Socialist and poststructuralist feminists question critical pedagogy’s Marxist ideology and its concept of emancipation. Marxist theory was traditionally concerned with male labor and production, while women’s experiences were understood as part of oppression within their class position. Consequently, social feminists contend that Marxist and neo-Marxist theories are inadequate for gender analysis (Jagger, 1983; Lather, 1992a; Luke & Gore, 1992; Mackinnon, 1983; Weiler, 1988). Nicholson 0994) argues that Marxism is seen as “not only irrelevant to explaining important aspects of women’s oppression but, indeed, as an obstacle in the attempt to develop such explanations” (p. 71). Nicholson also claims that similar arguments can be made against Marxism in movements against racism and in movements for gay and lesbians.
Just as Habermas and Marcuse, for example, do not believe that technology has only negative characteristics, not all education critical theorists find only harm in media. For example, Phelen’s (1988) “Communing in Isolation,” an article that alludes to critical theory, argues that mass media campaigns can successfully communicate messages when they use local celebrities, live meetings, and easily measured finite goals.

Critical education theory
Sometimes, in education, in more honest spaces, critical thinking isn’t spoken of at all; in many other places it appears in relation to levels of assessment as another stick to beat teachers with (“Not enough criticality!”) It’s a Dancing Princesses thing, an Anti-Hero thing, a Tutor Voices thing – the empirical certainty that critical education has world-changing properties. As with anything in this representational world, where descriptions of a thing become twisted to suit every agenda until the sight of the thing is lost, getting the point across the whole adult education sector is not easy. Many people don’t expect to hear real honesty in this day and age. They don’t want to hear that education equals change.
Change (or transformation) is at the heart of critical education, it is its heart. Whether you call it critical pedagogy, social purpose (as we at Northern College and our WEA colleagues do), or, as Rebecca Maxted terms it (2), social justice, doesn’t matter. It pares back to the same Freirean (3) place: students and tutors working as equals to question their world as a prelude to direct and affirmative political action. This – inevitably – terrifies those who hold conventional power, whether that’s ‘the patriarchy’, Nicky Morgan or your line manager.

Critical education theory
ISSN 1920-4175 Critical Education
Deadline extended . August 1, 2020

Critical education theory
The idea of a radically new social, historical or economic order centered on information or knowledge has an important and politically-charged history. By examining this history and thus historicizing the idea of the knowledge economy, it is possible to show its gradual construction and its actual and possible contestation. This history begins with a paradigmatic “shift recognized as early as 1973 by Daniel Bell�the shift from an industrial to a knowledge economy. ” (Gandel, Katz, Metros, 2004, p. 42). Bell, who is sometimes described as one of the fathers of neo-conservatism (e.g., see Nuechterlein, 1990), is famous for his account of the “coming. postindustrial society.” In fact, this phrase forms the title of a text by Bell, which arguably serves as the basis for much subsequent speculation on new social and economic forms for the twentieth century (e.g., Brzezinski, 1970; Toffler, 1980; see Mattelart, 2003 pp. 73-98). In his foreword to the 1999 edition of this famous text, Bell lists the characteristics of the coming postindustrial society and how they have become and continue to be manifest. Among these are four trends: First, Bell identifies a shift from “manufacturing to services” in the workforce and the economy (Bell, 1999, xv). The percentage of the workforce employed in the manufacturing sector in America, Bell points out, has shrunk over the past decades, and has been accompanied by an “extraordinary rise of professional and technical employment” (Bell, 1999, p. xv). Associated with this first shift is an important, second change, an increase in the general importance of education: “Today education has become the basis of social mobility,” as Bell puts it, “especially with the expansion of professional and technical jobs. ” (Bell, 1999, p. xvi). A third change listed by Bell is the increased importance of technological infrastructure, and what he refers to as “intellectual technology:” “These technologies,” Bell explains, “form a complex adaptive system that is the foundation of the electronically mediated global economy” (1999, xvii). The combined result of these and other changes is effectively summarized in Bell’s fourth trend or characteristic: The “knowledge theory of value:” “Knowledge is the source of invention and innovation. It creates value-added and increasing returns to scale. ” (Bell, 1999, xvii).
As emphasized earlier, however, the task of critical theory is not simply to engage in “criticism” for its own sake. It also seeks to generate emancipatory forms of knowledge able to provide alternative and progressive ways of thinking and acting. These can be found by looking to sources of information that stand as alternatives to those usually referenced in e-learning or research and development in ICTs. One simple example of this kind of source is provided by information that is supplied to people who are unemployed or who find themselves, as is euphemistically said, “in between jobs.” Imagine yourself looking for a job as a student or considering the possibility of a new area of employment (as millions of people do every day). As a part of your job search you go to the US Department of Labor Web site and look at the “career advice” section available there. Under the heading “Career Changers” this Web site lists the top ten highest-growth industries in the US and shows the total number of jobs that will be created in each by the year 2014. Based the way that the “knowledge economy” has been described above, you would think that jobs in research, in high tech and in information technologies would be at the very top of this list. But this is not the case. The first three industries or areas of employment listed are “hospitality,” “health care” and “retail.” Together, these three categories will provide more new jobs than the remaining seven job categories, combined. These top three sectors are predicted to produce over 15 million jobs in the US by 2014. After these top three come the financial services and construction industries. These top five industries hardly suggest that your best chances for a job would be to become a “mature knowledge producer” who would manage and produce knowledge or direct and meter knowledge flows. You would be more likely to conclude that future career choices can be found in the area of service: Working in a Wal-Mart (retail), a Holiday Inn (hospitality), or perhaps more optimistically as a hospital worker or care provider (healthcare).

Resources:

http://members.aect.org/edtech/ed1/09/09-05.html
http://teachnorthern.wordpress.com/2015/11/03/what-is-critical-education/
http://ices.library.ubc.ca/index.php/criticaled/index
http://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=1386860
http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/human-capital-theory

what is critical race theory in education

Critical race theory, the view that the law and legal institutions are inherently racist and that race itself, instead of being biologically grounded and natural, is a socially constructed concept that is used by white people to further their economic and political interests at the expense of people of colour.

what is critical race theory in education

Critical race theory (CRT), the view that the law and legal institutions are inherently racist and that race itself, instead of being biologically grounded and natural, is a socially constructed concept that is used by white people to further their economic and political interests at the expense of people of colour. According to critical race theory (CRT), racial inequality emerges from the social, economic, and legal differences that white people create between “races” to maintain elite white interests in labour markets and politics, giving rise to poverty and criminality in many minority communities. The CRT movement officially organized itself in 1989, at the first annual Workshop on Critical Race Theory, though its intellectual origins go back much further, to the 1960s and ’70s.
The launch of the CRT movement marked its separation from critical legal studies (CLS), an offshoot of critical theory that examined how the law and legal institutions function to perpetuate oppression and exploitation. However, instead of drawing theories of social organization and individual behaviour from continental European thinkers such as G.W.F. Hegel, Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud, as CLS and feminist jurisprudence had done, CRT was inspired by figures such as Martin Luther King, Jr., W.E.B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, the Black Panthers, and Frantz Fanon. Critical race theory advanced theoretical understandings of the law, politics, and American sociology that focused on the efforts of white people (Euro-Americans) to maintain their historical advantages over people of colour.

María C. Ledesma and Dolores Calderón, “Critical Race Theory in Education: A Review of Past Literature and a Look to the Future,” Qualitative Inquiry 21, no. 3 (2015): 206, 218.
The first conference devoted to CRT met in 1989. Foundational documents include Derrick Bell, Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: Basic Books, 1992); Mari J. Matsuda, Charles R. Lawrence III, Richard Delgado, and Kimberlè Williams Crenshaw, Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993); and Richard Delgado, ed., Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993).

What is critical race theory in education
“The Critical Race Studies in Education Association (CRSEA) is an interdisciplinary consortium of experts who recognize global implications of race and education for minoritized people. Through scholarship, we identify and expose inequities for the ultimate eradication of white supremacy. As a community, we are committed to (1) countering and combating systemic and structural racism with scholarship and praxis, (2) recognizing the multiple locations of oppression and the myriad manifestations and effects of their intersections and (3) co-constructing liberating knowledge that facilitates collective agency to transform schools and communities.
With this mission, the annual Critical Race Studies in Education (CRSEA) conference brings together scholars, activists, educators, students and community members who use critical race studies as a tool to frame, examine, document, understand and transform racial inequalities in education and in the broader society.”

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article.
Race has historically been, and continues to be, a significant issue in all aspects of American society. In the field of education, racial inequality is prominent in the areas of access, opportunity, and outcomes. Critical Race Theory (CRT) is a framework that offers researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers a race-conscious approach to understanding educational inequality and structural racism to find solutions that lead to greater justice. Placing race at the center of analysis, Critical Race Theory scholars interrogate policies and practices that are taken for granted to uncover the overt and covert ways that racist ideologies, structures, and institutions create and maintain racial inequality.

What is critical race theory in education
It is all the more troubling, then, to witness the sudden expansion of an influential (albeit minority) outlook determined to reinstate ‘race’. I am not referring to those who rallied under the banner of Black Lives Matter following events in Minneapolis. But attached to BLM is an ideological mission encouraging almost religious reinterpretations of societal and personal relationships. It does this through the lens of ‘white privilege’.
In The School That Tried To End Racism, CRT practitioner Dr Nicola Rollock and social psychologist Professor Rhiannon Turner watch over an experiment involving 11- and 12-year-olds at Glenthorne High School in South London. Before splitting a classroom of 24 pupils into white and non-white ‘affinity groups’, the three-week programme begins with a technique developed two decades ago at Harvard University called the Implicit-Association Test (IAT). Using iPads, the pupils have to make snap decisions based on images or words flashing on to the screen. They tap different icons to show their association of faces or names with good or bad connotations. ‘This is the most fun racist game I’ve ever played!’, exclaims one black pupil, Bright.

Resources:

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12129-018-9699-z
http://libguides.du.edu/c.php?g=931280&p=7093674
http://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-1
http://www.spiked-online.com/2020/07/09/keep-critical-race-theory-out-of-the-classroom/
http://www.ncsall.net/[email protected]=208.html

vygotsky theory on inclusive education

Vygotsky’s Vision: Reshaping the Practice of Special Education for the 21st Century

vygotsky theory on inclusive education

Vygotsky is rightfully considered to be the “founding father” of what is now known as “dynamic assessment” (Minick, 1987; Guthke & Wingenfeld, 1992; Lidz, 1995). In the early 1930s, at the height of the enthusiasm for IQ testing, Vygotsky was one of the first (if not the only one in his time) who defined IQ tests’ limitations based on his understanding of disability as a process, not a static condition, and on his understanding of development as a dialectical process of mastering cultural means. He noted that standardized IQ tests inappropriately equalize the natural and cultural processes and, therefore are unable to make the differentiation of impaired functioning that can be due to cultural deprivation or can be the result of organic damage. In the essay “The Difficult Child”, Vygotsky (1993, pp. 139-149) described the case of a bilingual Tatar (a nation within the Russian Federation) girl who was diagnosed as having mental retardation. In fact, her poor performance on the standardized cognitive tests was due to her social/cultural deprivation and related to her limited knowledge of both Russian and her native language. Vygotsky showed that as a result, she had not attained the level of acculturation expected at her age: her overall development was frustrated and she appeared to have mental retardation according to an IQ test. The most appropriate test in this case should be a “developmental assessment”, which, Vygotsky insisted, should concentrate on mental processing and certain qualitative meta-cognitive indicators, such as cognitive strategies employed by the child, type and character of mistakes, ability to benefit from the help provided by the examiner; and emotional reactions to success and failure. Although Vygotsky had no chance to elaborate on his ideas to formulate specific assessment operations, he laid down the background for a family of testing procedures commonly recognized as “dynamic assessment” (DA). This is an interactive procedure that follows a test-intervene-retest format focusing on the cognitive processes and meta-cognitive characteristics of a child. Through an analysis of a child’s pre-test and post-test performance following test-embedded intervention, an evaluator can derive important information about the child’s cognitive modifiability, his/her responsiveness to an adult’s mediation, and his/her amenability to instruction and guidance. Therefore, the DA provides information – not readily available through standardized testing – crucial for effective remediation, which is the ultimate goal of this assessment. As was observed by Lidz (1995), traditional standardized assessment trails the child’s cognitive development to the point of “failure” in his/her individualized (independent) functioning, while DA in the Vygotskian tradition leads the child to the point of his/her achieving success in joint/shared activity. A breakthrough in practical application of the DA procedures in special education is attributed to the works of R. Feuerstein (1980) and his colleagues. As of now, DA is still mostly a “supplementary” procedure to the traditional assessment, however, the next century may witness an accelerated shift from standardized testing towards dynamic assessment (Haywood, et al., 1990). A group of prominent researchers in different countries: USA (Brown & Campione, 1987, Lidz, 1991, Swanson, 1995), Canada (Daz, 1995), Israel (Tzuriel 1992, Kozulin 1998, Feuerstein, 1997), Great Britain (Evans, 1993), Germany (Guthke & Wingenfeld 1992), Russia (Ivanova, 1976, Vlasova, 1984, Lebedinsky, 1985, Lubovsky, 1990), are productively developing different aspects of DA in its application to individuals with different disabilities.
QUALITATIVE VERSUS QUANTITATIVE DIFFERENCES IN UNDERSTANDING OF DISABILITY. Traditionally, a child with a disability has been considered to be either “underdeveloped/developmentally delayed” (in the case of mental retardation) or “a regular child lacking a sensory organ” (in the case of physical and/or sensory impairments). In other words, the difference between a child with a disability and his/her non-disabled peer is only quantitative. According to Vygotsky, the development of the individuals with a disability is not “slowed-down” or “missing” variations of normal development. For example, he objected to the terms “developmental disability” or “developmental delays” in relation to mental retardation. He called our attention to the qualitative uniqueness of a disabled child’s development mediated by a such powerful factor as the social implication of disability. He wrote: “A child whose development is impeded by a disability is not simply a child less developed than his peers; rather, he has developed differently.” (Vygotsky, 1983, p. 96). The development of a child with a disability has major qualitative differences in the “means and ways” of his/her internalization of culture. The core of the development of a child with a disability is the “divergence” between his/her “natural” and “social” paths of development. Vygotsky pointed to two major differences in the development of a child with a disability in comparison with his typically developing peers: the formation of compensatory strategies (mechanisms) and the emergence of social complications of the disability. Without an understanding of these qualitative differences, no effective remediation is possible. Vygotsky suggested that in the future science will be able to create the disability-specific “profile” of this discrepancy as the most important characteristic in the psychological development of the child with a particular disability. He listed the dynamic and forms of socialization, adoption of “psychological tools”, and formation/use of compensatory strategies as the “milestones” of this profile (Vygotsky, 1993, see: “Defect and Compensation” and “Principles of Social Education for the Deaf-Mute Child”). Compensatory strategies are by no means “mechanical substitutions” of impaired functions: they are the product of the child’s personality, his/her experiences, and education. Compensatory strategies are aimed at mastering of “psychological tools” and using them to acquire cultural forms of behavior. When the direct way of developing psychological functions is blocked (e.g. in the case of blindness) the compensatory strategies offer an “indirect” path to the same goal of cultural development. Creating the “disability-specific” compensatory strategies was Vygotsky’s vision of the future in remedial education. In Russia, based on Vygotsky’s theoretical foundation, an effective system of educating and raising deaf individuals was created (Knox & Kozulin, 1989, Lebedinsky, 1985, Zaittseva et al. 1999).

A second important aspect of Vygotsky’s theory is the role of play in histheory. According to this perspective teachers need to provide children,especially young children, many opportunities to play. Through play, andimagination a child’s conceptual abilities are stretched. Vygotsky argued thatplay leads to development. “While imitating their elders in culturallypatterned activities, children generate opportunities for intellectualdevelopment. Initially, their games are recollections and reenactments of realsituations; but through the dynamics of their imagination and recognition ofimplicit rules governing the activities they have reproduced in their games,children achieve an elementary mastery of abstract thought.” (Cole, 1978).
The most important application of Vygotsky’s theory to education is in hisconcept of a zone of proximal development. This concept is important becauseteachers can use it as a guide to a child’s development. It allows a teacher toknow what a student is able to achieve through the use of a mediator and thusenables the teacher to help the child attain that level by themselves.

32. Sava F. A. Causes and consequences of dysfunctional teachers. RSS 501/2000 Final Report. Unpublished manuscript, 2001.
Suleymanov Farid Alamdar oglu

Vygotsky theory on inclusive education
Tudge, J. (2010). Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development and peer collaboration: Implications for classroom practice. In L.C. Moll (Ed.), Vygotsky and Education (pp. 207-215). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [ Links ]
Received 22 November 2017
Accepted 17 May 2018

Resources:

http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/VYG/APP.HTML
http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/positive-interaction-in-an-inclusive-education-manifestation-of-the-international-child-development-programme-icdp
http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2520-98682018000100005