critical education theory

andy coverdale’s phd wiki

critical education theory

Ivan Illich
Ivan illich (1970; 1973) gained international recognition writing about both education (Deschooling Society) and technology (Tools for Conviviality); both of which have, in recent years, been noted as being remarkably prescient of the internet, the emergence of social computing (Kop, 2008), and the Open Source movement (Leadbeater, 2008). In Deschooling Society, Illich (1970) presents a postindustrial alternative model of education within a broad social, political, economic and ecological framework.
Blair, T. (2000). The knowledge economy: UK Prime Minister speech, Knowledge 2000 conference, London, 7 March 2000.

Critical education theory
Socialist and poststructuralist feminists question critical pedagogy’s Marxist ideology and its concept of emancipation. Marxist theory was traditionally concerned with male labor and production, while women’s experiences were understood as part of oppression within their class position. Consequently, social feminists contend that Marxist and neo-Marxist theories are inadequate for gender analysis (Jagger, 1983; Lather, 1992a; Luke & Gore, 1992; Mackinnon, 1983; Weiler, 1988). Nicholson 0994) argues that Marxism is seen as “not only irrelevant to explaining important aspects of women’s oppression but, indeed, as an obstacle in the attempt to develop such explanations” (p. 71). Nicholson also claims that similar arguments can be made against Marxism in movements against racism and in movements for gay and lesbians.
Just as Habermas and Marcuse, for example, do not believe that technology has only negative characteristics, not all education critical theorists find only harm in media. For example, Phelen’s (1988) “Communing in Isolation,” an article that alludes to critical theory, argues that mass media campaigns can successfully communicate messages when they use local celebrities, live meetings, and easily measured finite goals.

Critical education theory
Sometimes, in education, in more honest spaces, critical thinking isn’t spoken of at all; in many other places it appears in relation to levels of assessment as another stick to beat teachers with (“Not enough criticality!”) It’s a Dancing Princesses thing, an Anti-Hero thing, a Tutor Voices thing – the empirical certainty that critical education has world-changing properties. As with anything in this representational world, where descriptions of a thing become twisted to suit every agenda until the sight of the thing is lost, getting the point across the whole adult education sector is not easy. Many people don’t expect to hear real honesty in this day and age. They don’t want to hear that education equals change.
Change (or transformation) is at the heart of critical education, it is its heart. Whether you call it critical pedagogy, social purpose (as we at Northern College and our WEA colleagues do), or, as Rebecca Maxted terms it (2), social justice, doesn’t matter. It pares back to the same Freirean (3) place: students and tutors working as equals to question their world as a prelude to direct and affirmative political action. This – inevitably – terrifies those who hold conventional power, whether that’s ‘the patriarchy’, Nicky Morgan or your line manager.

Critical education theory
ISSN 1920-4175 Critical Education
Deadline extended . August 1, 2020

Critical education theory
The idea of a radically new social, historical or economic order centered on information or knowledge has an important and politically-charged history. By examining this history and thus historicizing the idea of the knowledge economy, it is possible to show its gradual construction and its actual and possible contestation. This history begins with a paradigmatic “shift recognized as early as 1973 by Daniel Bell�the shift from an industrial to a knowledge economy. ” (Gandel, Katz, Metros, 2004, p. 42). Bell, who is sometimes described as one of the fathers of neo-conservatism (e.g., see Nuechterlein, 1990), is famous for his account of the “coming. postindustrial society.” In fact, this phrase forms the title of a text by Bell, which arguably serves as the basis for much subsequent speculation on new social and economic forms for the twentieth century (e.g., Brzezinski, 1970; Toffler, 1980; see Mattelart, 2003 pp. 73-98). In his foreword to the 1999 edition of this famous text, Bell lists the characteristics of the coming postindustrial society and how they have become and continue to be manifest. Among these are four trends: First, Bell identifies a shift from “manufacturing to services” in the workforce and the economy (Bell, 1999, xv). The percentage of the workforce employed in the manufacturing sector in America, Bell points out, has shrunk over the past decades, and has been accompanied by an “extraordinary rise of professional and technical employment” (Bell, 1999, p. xv). Associated with this first shift is an important, second change, an increase in the general importance of education: “Today education has become the basis of social mobility,” as Bell puts it, “especially with the expansion of professional and technical jobs. ” (Bell, 1999, p. xvi). A third change listed by Bell is the increased importance of technological infrastructure, and what he refers to as “intellectual technology:” “These technologies,” Bell explains, “form a complex adaptive system that is the foundation of the electronically mediated global economy” (1999, xvii). The combined result of these and other changes is effectively summarized in Bell’s fourth trend or characteristic: The “knowledge theory of value:” “Knowledge is the source of invention and innovation. It creates value-added and increasing returns to scale. ” (Bell, 1999, xvii).
As emphasized earlier, however, the task of critical theory is not simply to engage in “criticism” for its own sake. It also seeks to generate emancipatory forms of knowledge able to provide alternative and progressive ways of thinking and acting. These can be found by looking to sources of information that stand as alternatives to those usually referenced in e-learning or research and development in ICTs. One simple example of this kind of source is provided by information that is supplied to people who are unemployed or who find themselves, as is euphemistically said, “in between jobs.” Imagine yourself looking for a job as a student or considering the possibility of a new area of employment (as millions of people do every day). As a part of your job search you go to the US Department of Labor Web site and look at the “career advice” section available there. Under the heading “Career Changers” this Web site lists the top ten highest-growth industries in the US and shows the total number of jobs that will be created in each by the year 2014. Based the way that the “knowledge economy” has been described above, you would think that jobs in research, in high tech and in information technologies would be at the very top of this list. But this is not the case. The first three industries or areas of employment listed are “hospitality,” “health care” and “retail.” Together, these three categories will provide more new jobs than the remaining seven job categories, combined. These top three sectors are predicted to produce over 15 million jobs in the US by 2014. After these top three come the financial services and construction industries. These top five industries hardly suggest that your best chances for a job would be to become a “mature knowledge producer” who would manage and produce knowledge or direct and meter knowledge flows. You would be more likely to conclude that future career choices can be found in the area of service: Working in a Wal-Mart (retail), a Holiday Inn (hospitality), or perhaps more optimistically as a hospital worker or care provider (healthcare).

Resources:

http://members.aect.org/edtech/ed1/09/09-05.html
http://teachnorthern.wordpress.com/2015/11/03/what-is-critical-education/
http://ices.library.ubc.ca/index.php/criticaled/index
http://ubiquity.acm.org/article.cfm?id=1386860
http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/human-capital-theory

what is critical race theory in education

Critical race theory, the view that the law and legal institutions are inherently racist and that race itself, instead of being biologically grounded and natural, is a socially constructed concept that is used by white people to further their economic and political interests at the expense of people of colour.

what is critical race theory in education

Critical race theory (CRT), the view that the law and legal institutions are inherently racist and that race itself, instead of being biologically grounded and natural, is a socially constructed concept that is used by white people to further their economic and political interests at the expense of people of colour. According to critical race theory (CRT), racial inequality emerges from the social, economic, and legal differences that white people create between “races” to maintain elite white interests in labour markets and politics, giving rise to poverty and criminality in many minority communities. The CRT movement officially organized itself in 1989, at the first annual Workshop on Critical Race Theory, though its intellectual origins go back much further, to the 1960s and ’70s.
The launch of the CRT movement marked its separation from critical legal studies (CLS), an offshoot of critical theory that examined how the law and legal institutions function to perpetuate oppression and exploitation. However, instead of drawing theories of social organization and individual behaviour from continental European thinkers such as G.W.F. Hegel, Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud, as CLS and feminist jurisprudence had done, CRT was inspired by figures such as Martin Luther King, Jr., W.E.B. Du Bois, Malcolm X, the Black Panthers, and Frantz Fanon. Critical race theory advanced theoretical understandings of the law, politics, and American sociology that focused on the efforts of white people (Euro-Americans) to maintain their historical advantages over people of colour.

María C. Ledesma and Dolores Calderón, “Critical Race Theory in Education: A Review of Past Literature and a Look to the Future,” Qualitative Inquiry 21, no. 3 (2015): 206, 218.
The first conference devoted to CRT met in 1989. Foundational documents include Derrick Bell, Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence of Racism (New York: Basic Books, 1992); Mari J. Matsuda, Charles R. Lawrence III, Richard Delgado, and Kimberlè Williams Crenshaw, Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993); and Richard Delgado, ed., Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993).

What is critical race theory in education
“The Critical Race Studies in Education Association (CRSEA) is an interdisciplinary consortium of experts who recognize global implications of race and education for minoritized people. Through scholarship, we identify and expose inequities for the ultimate eradication of white supremacy. As a community, we are committed to (1) countering and combating systemic and structural racism with scholarship and praxis, (2) recognizing the multiple locations of oppression and the myriad manifestations and effects of their intersections and (3) co-constructing liberating knowledge that facilitates collective agency to transform schools and communities.
With this mission, the annual Critical Race Studies in Education (CRSEA) conference brings together scholars, activists, educators, students and community members who use critical race studies as a tool to frame, examine, document, understand and transform racial inequalities in education and in the broader society.”

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article.
Race has historically been, and continues to be, a significant issue in all aspects of American society. In the field of education, racial inequality is prominent in the areas of access, opportunity, and outcomes. Critical Race Theory (CRT) is a framework that offers researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers a race-conscious approach to understanding educational inequality and structural racism to find solutions that lead to greater justice. Placing race at the center of analysis, Critical Race Theory scholars interrogate policies and practices that are taken for granted to uncover the overt and covert ways that racist ideologies, structures, and institutions create and maintain racial inequality.

What is critical race theory in education
It is all the more troubling, then, to witness the sudden expansion of an influential (albeit minority) outlook determined to reinstate ‘race’. I am not referring to those who rallied under the banner of Black Lives Matter following events in Minneapolis. But attached to BLM is an ideological mission encouraging almost religious reinterpretations of societal and personal relationships. It does this through the lens of ‘white privilege’.
In The School That Tried To End Racism, CRT practitioner Dr Nicola Rollock and social psychologist Professor Rhiannon Turner watch over an experiment involving 11- and 12-year-olds at Glenthorne High School in South London. Before splitting a classroom of 24 pupils into white and non-white ‘affinity groups’, the three-week programme begins with a technique developed two decades ago at Harvard University called the Implicit-Association Test (IAT). Using iPads, the pupils have to make snap decisions based on images or words flashing on to the screen. They tap different icons to show their association of faces or names with good or bad connotations. ‘This is the most fun racist game I’ve ever played!’, exclaims one black pupil, Bright.

Resources:

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12129-018-9699-z
http://libguides.du.edu/c.php?g=931280&p=7093674
http://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-1
http://www.spiked-online.com/2020/07/09/keep-critical-race-theory-out-of-the-classroom/
http://www.ncsall.net/[email protected]=208.html

vygotsky theory on inclusive education

Vygotsky’s Vision: Reshaping the Practice of Special Education for the 21st Century

vygotsky theory on inclusive education

Vygotsky is rightfully considered to be the “founding father” of what is now known as “dynamic assessment” (Minick, 1987; Guthke & Wingenfeld, 1992; Lidz, 1995). In the early 1930s, at the height of the enthusiasm for IQ testing, Vygotsky was one of the first (if not the only one in his time) who defined IQ tests’ limitations based on his understanding of disability as a process, not a static condition, and on his understanding of development as a dialectical process of mastering cultural means. He noted that standardized IQ tests inappropriately equalize the natural and cultural processes and, therefore are unable to make the differentiation of impaired functioning that can be due to cultural deprivation or can be the result of organic damage. In the essay “The Difficult Child”, Vygotsky (1993, pp. 139-149) described the case of a bilingual Tatar (a nation within the Russian Federation) girl who was diagnosed as having mental retardation. In fact, her poor performance on the standardized cognitive tests was due to her social/cultural deprivation and related to her limited knowledge of both Russian and her native language. Vygotsky showed that as a result, she had not attained the level of acculturation expected at her age: her overall development was frustrated and she appeared to have mental retardation according to an IQ test. The most appropriate test in this case should be a “developmental assessment”, which, Vygotsky insisted, should concentrate on mental processing and certain qualitative meta-cognitive indicators, such as cognitive strategies employed by the child, type and character of mistakes, ability to benefit from the help provided by the examiner; and emotional reactions to success and failure. Although Vygotsky had no chance to elaborate on his ideas to formulate specific assessment operations, he laid down the background for a family of testing procedures commonly recognized as “dynamic assessment” (DA). This is an interactive procedure that follows a test-intervene-retest format focusing on the cognitive processes and meta-cognitive characteristics of a child. Through an analysis of a child’s pre-test and post-test performance following test-embedded intervention, an evaluator can derive important information about the child’s cognitive modifiability, his/her responsiveness to an adult’s mediation, and his/her amenability to instruction and guidance. Therefore, the DA provides information – not readily available through standardized testing – crucial for effective remediation, which is the ultimate goal of this assessment. As was observed by Lidz (1995), traditional standardized assessment trails the child’s cognitive development to the point of “failure” in his/her individualized (independent) functioning, while DA in the Vygotskian tradition leads the child to the point of his/her achieving success in joint/shared activity. A breakthrough in practical application of the DA procedures in special education is attributed to the works of R. Feuerstein (1980) and his colleagues. As of now, DA is still mostly a “supplementary” procedure to the traditional assessment, however, the next century may witness an accelerated shift from standardized testing towards dynamic assessment (Haywood, et al., 1990). A group of prominent researchers in different countries: USA (Brown & Campione, 1987, Lidz, 1991, Swanson, 1995), Canada (Daz, 1995), Israel (Tzuriel 1992, Kozulin 1998, Feuerstein, 1997), Great Britain (Evans, 1993), Germany (Guthke & Wingenfeld 1992), Russia (Ivanova, 1976, Vlasova, 1984, Lebedinsky, 1985, Lubovsky, 1990), are productively developing different aspects of DA in its application to individuals with different disabilities.
QUALITATIVE VERSUS QUANTITATIVE DIFFERENCES IN UNDERSTANDING OF DISABILITY. Traditionally, a child with a disability has been considered to be either “underdeveloped/developmentally delayed” (in the case of mental retardation) or “a regular child lacking a sensory organ” (in the case of physical and/or sensory impairments). In other words, the difference between a child with a disability and his/her non-disabled peer is only quantitative. According to Vygotsky, the development of the individuals with a disability is not “slowed-down” or “missing” variations of normal development. For example, he objected to the terms “developmental disability” or “developmental delays” in relation to mental retardation. He called our attention to the qualitative uniqueness of a disabled child’s development mediated by a such powerful factor as the social implication of disability. He wrote: “A child whose development is impeded by a disability is not simply a child less developed than his peers; rather, he has developed differently.” (Vygotsky, 1983, p. 96). The development of a child with a disability has major qualitative differences in the “means and ways” of his/her internalization of culture. The core of the development of a child with a disability is the “divergence” between his/her “natural” and “social” paths of development. Vygotsky pointed to two major differences in the development of a child with a disability in comparison with his typically developing peers: the formation of compensatory strategies (mechanisms) and the emergence of social complications of the disability. Without an understanding of these qualitative differences, no effective remediation is possible. Vygotsky suggested that in the future science will be able to create the disability-specific “profile” of this discrepancy as the most important characteristic in the psychological development of the child with a particular disability. He listed the dynamic and forms of socialization, adoption of “psychological tools”, and formation/use of compensatory strategies as the “milestones” of this profile (Vygotsky, 1993, see: “Defect and Compensation” and “Principles of Social Education for the Deaf-Mute Child”). Compensatory strategies are by no means “mechanical substitutions” of impaired functions: they are the product of the child’s personality, his/her experiences, and education. Compensatory strategies are aimed at mastering of “psychological tools” and using them to acquire cultural forms of behavior. When the direct way of developing psychological functions is blocked (e.g. in the case of blindness) the compensatory strategies offer an “indirect” path to the same goal of cultural development. Creating the “disability-specific” compensatory strategies was Vygotsky’s vision of the future in remedial education. In Russia, based on Vygotsky’s theoretical foundation, an effective system of educating and raising deaf individuals was created (Knox & Kozulin, 1989, Lebedinsky, 1985, Zaittseva et al. 1999).

A second important aspect of Vygotsky’s theory is the role of play in histheory. According to this perspective teachers need to provide children,especially young children, many opportunities to play. Through play, andimagination a child’s conceptual abilities are stretched. Vygotsky argued thatplay leads to development. “While imitating their elders in culturallypatterned activities, children generate opportunities for intellectualdevelopment. Initially, their games are recollections and reenactments of realsituations; but through the dynamics of their imagination and recognition ofimplicit rules governing the activities they have reproduced in their games,children achieve an elementary mastery of abstract thought.” (Cole, 1978).
The most important application of Vygotsky’s theory to education is in hisconcept of a zone of proximal development. This concept is important becauseteachers can use it as a guide to a child’s development. It allows a teacher toknow what a student is able to achieve through the use of a mediator and thusenables the teacher to help the child attain that level by themselves.

32. Sava F. A. Causes and consequences of dysfunctional teachers. RSS 501/2000 Final Report. Unpublished manuscript, 2001.
Suleymanov Farid Alamdar oglu

Vygotsky theory on inclusive education
Tudge, J. (2010). Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development and peer collaboration: Implications for classroom practice. In L.C. Moll (Ed.), Vygotsky and Education (pp. 207-215). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. [ Links ]
Received 22 November 2017
Accepted 17 May 2018

Resources:

http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/VYG/APP.HTML
http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/positive-interaction-in-an-inclusive-education-manifestation-of-the-international-child-development-programme-icdp
http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2520-98682018000100005

(*) xname, j. d. a theory of education; cornell university: lname, ny, ****.

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(*) xname, j. d. a theory of education; cornell university: lname, ny, ****.

m’WéJ’-.m. .>‘ Max». ‘ IANGILL, MARILY J. LANGILL, ROSS M. LAUTERBACH, KAREN K. LINNELL, JANICE R. LONTZ, WILLIAM C. LORDDZER, BRADLEY G. Waukesha, Wis. Waukesha, W13, Waterloo, Iowa Chicago, Ill. Fargo, N.D. Chicago, Ill. Waukesha H.S. waukesha 11.3, West H.S. Fenger H.S. Central H.S. Morgan Park H.S. Main Hall North Younker H311 James Hall Cleveland Hall Gates Hall Rawson Hall . I. .4′ 7’ :”F‘er-t’L-mm ! , I (- ’ r A . ., 3 . t x”- .c’:‘u‘1.‘; Value -, . . -,,v M t; ” ‘ ‘ , , N , . . .. A LOVELL, RICHARD H- WE, ALICIA R. LYNNER, LUCIA A. MacALPINE, GORDON A. GranOI‘dSV’fl-le: Ind- Mdee, Ill- Libertyville, Ill. Des Moines, Iowa Swarthmore, Pa. Crawfordsville H.S. Dundee H.S. Libertyville H.S. Roosevelt H.S. Swarthmore H.S. Clark Hall Main Hall Clark Hall Mears Hall South Younker Hall $11., MADARA, MARION S. MAIN, ROBERT w. MANDELRAUM, JUDY M. MANSFIELD, STEWART MARKMANN, DAN E. MARTIN, PATRICIA c. Namath: Pa. Altona, Ill. Flushing, N.Y. Rockford, 111, Newton, Iowa Crown point, Ind. Harri-ton H-S- R-0.V.A. H.S. F1115hin8 H-S- West H.S. Newton H.S. Crown Point H.S. Cleveland Hall Rawson Hall James Hall Clark Hall Smith Hall James Hall MATTOX, JUDITH L. Delmar, N.Y. Bethlehem Central Main Hall McDONOUGH, CAROIXN Delavan, Wis. Delavan-Darien H.S. Mears Hall -’.’.r MILLIKEN, JOHN G. Arlington, Va. School in the Hague South Younker Hall MORITZ, NANCY Tulsa, Okla. Edison H.S. Mears Hall 1.x NUTE, C. CHRISTIE New York, N.Y. George H.S. James Hall MAY, ANNETTE G. Shenandoah, Iowa Shenandoah, H.S. Cleveland Hall McCALMONT, K. ANN Wichita, Kan. Wichita H.S. Cleveland Hall Mo CANNON, NANCY Bloomington, Ill. University H.S. Mears Hall McCONOCHIE, CAROL A. Glen Ellyn, Ill. Glenbard West H.S. James Hall I. y l‘ ‘ ,0 A MCDONALD, JOHN W. Decatur, Ill. MacArthur H.S. Clark Hall ‘ ‘ . 2 W’ ,. ? ‘ET’T’ .I McDONOUGH, WILLIAM Wilmington, Del. Pierie du Pont H.S. South Younker Hall x ‘ l i Isa; MILLER, MARGAREI‘ Florissant, Mo. McCluer H.S. Cleveland Hall McDOWELL, F. BURT Prairie Village,Kan. Shawnee-Mission East Langan Hall McKEY, BARBARA ANN Downers Grove, Ill. Downers Grove H.S. Main Hall MEYER, MARION L. Chicago, ILL. Chicago U. Lab. H.S. Cleveland Hall v w 1.5,: W .1 , . 1 r ‘ flu awn-‘1″- :
. ’ Name: Barbara McKey Whitney Frcflallt Main Major: EngliSh Address; 1821 W. Farwell Avenue City: Chicago State: IL Zip: 60626 Ph. H: (312)465—6396 W=(708)998—4lOO Occupation: Psychotherapist Spouse’sName: Steven Whitney Barbara Whitney & Associates/Humana Oumpmkmt Owner & president Michael Reese HMO Whitney Products, Inc. AdvancedDegrees/Study= MSW–l982 (manufactures hospital University of supplies)/PeelMaster IllinOiS at Chicago (makes peel packs for FirstJobafterGrinnell: High school English teacher medical instruments) South Tama County High School SubsequentJobs/Careers: Director of Sunshine, a federally funded school and work program for high school dropouts administered by Oakton Community College PlacesLived: Eagle Lake, Ontario St. Paul, Minnesota Glen Ellyn, Illinois FamilyInformation: One daughter, Lauren Kathryn McGinty, age 17, attends Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, plans to attend Michigan State or the University of Iowa in the fall and major in psychology Anything else you want to say: (Your most vivid Grinnell memory, an inspirational quote, etc. ) Favorite Grinnell memories: waiting for Spring Riot to happen, being serenaded by the men of Cowles and North Younker, discussing Moby Dick in Mr. Cleaver’s American Novel class, enjoying old movies at ARH (along with the ever—present audience participation, always a show in itself), listening to Nina Simone records in the Forum, escaping from the Quad at 4:00 a.m. along with A.B. and two male accomplices, contemplating the nature of freedom, responsibility, and the ideal society in Mr. Eastman’s Philosophy and Education class More recent interests and involvements: elected to the Whitney Young Local School Council as a parent representative in the 1989 election following state mandated “school reform” of the Chicago Public Schools; member, Northwestern University Chorus, where I met my husband Steve in 1984; member, Fourth Presbyterian Church Thoughts: “The beginnings and endings of all human undertakings are untidy.” –John Galsworthy “The impossible is often the untried.” -—Jim Goodwin r , ‘ Address: 909 West Madison Street City: Lake City State: IA Zip: 51449 Ph. H: 712/464-7484 W: 712/464-3171 Occu ation: Coordinator of Hospice for Spouse’sName: David L. Willis ’65 Name: Marilyn Price Willis Fr. Hall: Mears Major: History Cal oun County, 1984 — present Occupation: Attorney Advanced Degrees/Study: 1979 ADN FirstJob after Grinnell: University of Iowa Libraries SubsequentJobs/Careers: Registered nurse, ICU, Stewart Memorial Community Hospital, Lake City, Iowa Places Lived; Iowa City, Iowa; Sioux City, Iowa; Chagrin Falls, Ohio. Family Information: Laura Lea: Graduate of Drake University — working in Des Moines, Iowa Jonathan L. – Grinnell College ’93 Anything else you want to say: (Your most vivid Grinnell memory, an inspirational quote, etc. ) Visits to see Jon at Grinnell always stir memories. His stories evoke a mixture of smiles, raised eyebrows, and “What?!” We have explored the changing campus, but I think Dave still mourns for Ole South Younker. People form the core of my Grinnell memories. The endurance of special friendships initiated twenty-five years ago has been sustaining and enriching. But, someone needs to fess up — who is sitting on the crane now? ’ Fr. Hall: Name’ William A. Wolff Rawson Address: 5 9 Wa r re n Ave. # 3 City: Boston, State: MA Zip: 021 15 . Occupation: Spouse’s Name: Second Vice President Group Pension Marketing The New England (New England Mutual Advanced Degrees/Study: CLU (Chartered Life Underwriter) CPCU (Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter) First Job after Grinnell: Management Consultant Connecticut General Life Subsequent Jobs/ Careers: Occupation: Life Ins. Co.) Insurance Company Various marketing management positions at CG 1988 moved to The New England as head of the Group Pension Marketing Department Places Lived: 1967-1987: Connecticut. Hartford area 1988-present: Boston, MA ‘ Family Information: Divorced; Two Children: Greg, 17; Stephanie 14 Vivid Memories: for Rawson Hall’s toilet bowl sculpture. complete with sound effects. Swimming team going to Fort Lauderdale for Christmas vacation. The political activities of ’64 including the mock political convention and elections. Being elected President of Rawson Hall. as a junior. Living off-campus my senior year and spending too much time at The Longhorn. I visited with him when I would go to Washington. We all miss him. Major: Ph. H: W: 617-578-4234! Anything else you want to say: (Your most vivid Grinnell memory, an inspirational quote, etc. ) Freshman year Homecoming: ‘Flush The Vikings” was the theme One of my college roommates. and good friend, was Steve Kent 617-426-9540 Economic _—’_”’————_”‘—_—

This rule guarantees that all the changes performed in the base relations UNDERGRADUATE and GRADUATE will be reflected (i.e., will be visible) in their view STUDENT. In particular, for every UNDERGRADUATE and GRADUATE tuple there will be a tuple in the relation STUDENT with the same values of the STUDENTID, NAME, and ADDRESS attributes. Views behave like database relations in many ways. In particular, queries may be stated on views. Examples of such queries are: Print the name and the address of a student with a given student id. Print the alphabetical listing of names of all students and their addresses. Print the names of all students who have the same address.
The first two of the above queries make it obvious that the set of lectures should be the property of the lecturer giving those lectures and also that the set of lectures of a course should be an attribute of that course. The next two of the above queries suggest that in addition to the above requirement the structured tuples of the relation LECTURE should be ordered in two ways: according to the lecturers and according to the courses. Of course, one relation cannot be physically structured according to the above two requirements and the purpose of the relational images is to offer such logical orderings of relations together with the associated primitive operations on them. One way of looking at the relational images within the relational framework is illustrated by the following schema: LECTURE(LECTUREID, COURSEID, LECTURERID, DAY, ROOM, TIME) LECTURERS (LECTURER ID, LECTUREID) COURSES(COURSEID, LECTURE ID) The above representation of two images LECTURERS and COURSES of the relation LECTURE is proposed on the assumption that all three relations are structured in such a way that selection of the tuple with a given tuple identifier is an efficient action (operation). The above representation makes it obvious that changes in the base relations LECTURE must be appropriately reflected in its relational views. That is the price which must be paid to speed-up search (selection) operations on the relation LECTURE. Observe that the views LECTURERS and COURSES are much smaller relations than the base relation LECTURE since their tuples are smaller. Whenever a tuple of the LECTURE relation is inserted, appropriate tuples which refer to it must be inserted in the relational images LECTURERS and COURSES. Whenever a tuple of the LECTURE relation is deleted, the appropriate tuples of the relational images LECTURERS and COURSES which refer to it must be deleted from these images.

Resources:

http://epdf.pub/download/relational-database-technology13564.html
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1468-4446.12374

complexity theory education

Complexity theory education Complexity theory and school improvement: some possible connections Rod Cunningham School Development Adviser, Torfaen County Borough Council, e-mail:

complexity theory education

Complexity theory education
Practical Considerations of the Additional Coding and Analysis
An important outcome is that in school GL students were able to differentiate between a Research-Process and Adopt-Content mode of working as exemplified by the replies from students when questioned about different learning activities before and after the National Assessment tests (SATs).

Complexity theory education
Lissack, M. R. (2000) Complexity Metaphors and the Management of a Knowledge Based Enterprise: An Exploration of Discovery. http://lissack.com/writings/proposal.htm.
April, K. A. Macdonald, R. and Vriesendorp, S. (2000) Rethinking Leadership. Capetown: University of Capetown Press.

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date: 30 July 2020

Resources:

http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415368780/A/ch1doc.asp
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-5812.2007.00413.x/pdf
http://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-479
http://www2.southeastern.edu/Academics/Faculty/nadams/educ692/Rousseau.html

foundations in art theory and education

Our Foundation in Art & Design course provides a year of fundamental art classes to students looking to become better artists.

foundations in art theory and education

Foundations in art theory and education
The Foundation in Art & Design provides students the opportunity to assess their interest and proficiency in the visual arts, while developing the fundamental skills that are essential building blocks to becoming a better artist.
Gnomon’s Foundation in Art & Design provides up to a year of fundamental art education to students looking to become better artists, build a well-rounded portfolio, and lay the groundwork for further education in digital production or a related field.

Therefore, an Ad Hoc committee of FATE Members created a document for the purpose of setting guidelines for foundations that have received general consensus by members of the organization at the 11th Biennial Conference in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2007. FATE is not an accrediting body, these issues are intended to be used as guidelines to help foundation faculty and administration as they strengthen, reorganize, seek administrative support, or as a guide for the development of fledgling foundation programs. They are, in essence, an opinion that has emerged from of our collective knowledge of foundations.
FATE statement of inclusivity & Diversity

Foundations in art theory and education
Published June 12, 2010
• The Arts, Science and Technology Education Corp. of Tehachapi: $2,300

The graduates of Paris College of Art were conferred their degrees on Saturday, May 9th and Dov Lynch was our guest speaker.
Check out how the PCA community is navigating the temporary transition to distance learning.

Mathematics/natural sciences (choose one of the following):
ANAT 100 General Anatomy
ASTR 101 Introduction to Astronomy
BIOL 100 Environmental Science
MATH 100 College Mathematics*
MATH 101 Intermediate Mathematics*
MATH 110 Evidence and Inference: The Power of Statistics*
MATH 140 The Geometry of Physical Space*
MATH 160 Contemporary Mathematics in Real-world Phenomena*
MATH 201 Applied Mathematics*
PHYS 201 Applied Physics
General education courses in liberal arts are designed to help students develop as critical thinkers by providing an intellectual foundation and breadth of knowledge for lifelong learning. Based on the general education framework, these classes are designed to develop six core competencies for all undergraduate students:

Resources:

http://www.foundationsart.org/about-us
http://bakersfieldcalifornianfoundation.org/
http://www.paris.edu/
http://www.scad.edu/academics/programs/undergraduate-experience
http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_sociology-understanding-and-changing-the-social-world-comprehensive-edition/s19-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html

museum education history theory and practice

Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice NYSED: 85053 CIP: 30.1401 The 48-credit, full- or part-time program in Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum

museum education history theory and practice

In this course, students broaden their understanding of the key European and American decorative arts from the seventeenth through to the early twentieth century. They study decorative art objects and textiles found in American public collections. Material culture, geography, and trade are addressed. Professional museum interpretation and care of objects within historic interiors is covered.
Qualifying Paper

Museum education history theory and practice
…with the National Art Education Association’s From Periphery to Center published just a few years ago, and decent coverage on the topic in journals like the Journal of Museum Education and occasional articles in Art Education magazine, the Journal of Aesthetic Education, etc.
There are a few misses. While Discipline Based Art Education (DBAE) was discussed, I was disappointed that one of DBAE’s great contribution to the art museum field – that it got more students in classrooms looking at works of art – wasn’t mentioned. The authors clearly are not fans of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) but fail to acknowledge that the technique is based on real research. In that omission, the reader who is familiar with VTS will wonder whether Burnham and Kai Kee really understand it. It’s curious that Burnahm writes about her own technique: “The paths of inquiry we followed to reach the goal were always charted by the visitors themselves.” and is apparently unaware how close this is to VTS. There is also an interesting deconstruction of gallery discussions with visitors, in which three modes of talk and the differences between them are defined: conversation, discussion, and dialogue. Although there’s a nice analysis about the differences between these three, it never quite manages to answer the question “so what?”

Museum education history theory and practice
John E. Simmons began his career as a zookeeper before becoming Collections Manager at the California Academy of Sciences, and later at the Natural History Museum at the University of Kansas where he also served as Director of the Museum Studies Program until 2007. Simmons’ publications include Foundations of Museum Studies: Evolving Systems of Knowledge (2014, with Kiersten F. Latham) and Fluid Preservation: A Comprehensive Reference (2014). Simmons is currently a museum consultant and teaches museum studies at Juniata College, Kent State University, the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, the Northern States Conservation Center. He also serves as Adjunct Curator of Collections at the Earth and Mineral Sciences Museum and Art Gallery at Penn State University.
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Museum education history theory and practice
In chapter 13, myself, Philipp Schorch and Arapata Hakiwai address ‘The figure of the kaitiaki’, referring to the notion of kaitiakitanga or guardianship which has been a feature of Māori museology in the last twenty years. The current chapter draws on research by the authors, including interviews with Māori curators, museum professionals, academics, and community leaders, exploring connections with the wider Pacific and the world. The ‘figure of the kaitiaki’ has developed historically as a particular local development of curatorship, drawing on Māori customary concepts and frameworks such as tikanga Māori (culture/practices) and Mātauranga Māori (knowledge).
This traversal of a complex, fragmented and ephemeral domain treats digital heritage as “more than the sum of these digital media tools and platforms,” and aims to understand “the engagement between cultural heritage and technology through the application of a broader socio-cultural lens.” Taking a multidisciplinary approach, and avoiding the utopian, technical or pessimistic rhetoric that often marks writing on this topic, they review the history, use and application of digital technology in cultural heritage environments, which has now become so ubiquitous that the term ‘new’ media seems obsolete, discussing the opportunities and challenges facing museums today.

Museum education history theory and practice
During all semesters of the program, students complete course projects in many museums such as the African American Museum in Philadelphia, the Eastern State Penitentiary Historic Site, the Franklin Institute, the Penn Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, the Philadelphia History Museum and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Many students also find part-time jobs in museums and other Philadelphia cultural organizations.
Application Deadline

Resources:

http://www.museum-ed.org/book-review-teaching-in-the-art-museum/
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/9781118829059.wbihms210
http://conalmccarthy.wordpress.com/
http://www.uarts.edu/academics/museum-education
http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_slavin_edpsych_8/0,11117,2547688-content,00.html

deconstructing dispositions: toward a critical ability theory in teacher education

Integrating Disability Studies Pedagogy in Teacher Education By Justin Freedman, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Rowan University Amy Applebaum, M.A. Doctoral Student, Syracuse

deconstructing dispositions: toward a critical ability theory in teacher education

Deconstructing dispositions: toward a critical ability theory in teacher education
Efforts to better prepare teacher candidates to effectively enact disability studies within individual school contexts can be informed by the experiences of current teachers. Research by Broderick et al. (2012), Naraian and Schlessinger (2018), and Rood and Ashby (2018) provides insight into the obstacles faced by teachers who have graduated from DS-influenced teacher education programs, such as accountability policies that segregate students and the isolation that may result from challenging predominant practices in special education without the support of fellow teachers or administrators. Notably, Rood and Ashby (2018) found that eight of the eleven teachers in their study had planned to leave teaching, prompting them to ask “If teachers who believe in DSE are abandoning their respective teaching posts, what long-term impact can DSE have to unseat and challenge the oppressive systems of special education and public education?” (p. 14)
Further, it is important that teacher educators work collaboratively to introduce disability studies perspectives across teacher education. For example, the practice of assigning subject area teacher candidates to create K-12 lessons/units that address disability as a sociocultural phenomenon (Ferri, 2006) need not be relegated to a single course that addresses disability/special education. Beyond the humanities examples in this paper, content area methods classes in math and science would include topics such as eugenics and intelligence testing to highlight the connection between past attitudes about disability and concepts that teacher candidates will be required to teach. Disability studies should serve as an analytic framework introduced with other critical frameworks in foundations courses that ask teacher educators to examine how educational policies and practices preserve prevailing patterns of power, privilege, and hierarchy across racialized, gendered, and class lines (Bialka 2015; Loutzenheiser & Erevelles, 2019).

Latterly this student generation of assessment criteria has been extended to other assessments including the traditional essays, projects (individual and group), reports and the construction of resources. The tasks for assessment are identified and the students are collectively very capable of generating criteria that effectively assess the task. In our experience, the students generate criteria that are equally good as those the lecturers may have conceived and they have the added advantage of being owned by the students. Because our program is based on students reflecting on their own experiences in teaching, they are developing confidence and competence in defining assessment criteria that truly reflect their own contexts and that also reflect the qualities of excellent teachers.
These are the contexts that frame the being of students in classrooms and can also be utilized as the framework for content and process, including assessment. Clearly they suggest challenges to conventional assessment practices. If traditional teacher-directed or institutionally imposed and standardized methods of assessment are used, they run the risk of reflecting the “social, political, cultural and ideological conditions” of society and thus are implicated in generating “divisions that make difficult the construction of our ideals of change and transformation” (Freire, 1998: 55).

Oliver, M. (1990). The politics of disablement: A sociological approach . New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Disability studies gained momentum as a result of the disability rights movement (Pfeiffer, 1993) and the political victory as a result of the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, which guarantees the civil rights of people with disabilities (Davis, 1997a). The achievements of social movements of people of color and the women’s rights movement as well as an emerging cadre of well-educated, assertive people with disabilities in the social environment of the 1960s provided a strong impetus for the emergence of the disability rights movement (for a detailed history of disability rights movement and civil rights legislation for people with disabilities, see Scotch, 1984 and Shapiro, 1993). This new social movement defies the assumptions of the biomedical model, which categorizes and divides people with disabilities on the basis of functional limitations.

Guba, E. C., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105-117). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

I decided to sum up how things are and make a cohesive statement. I tried even harder this year to try to make a comment on where we are, and I felt strongly there was this new message in pop music. (Piazza, 2010, ¶15)

Deconstructing dispositions: toward a critical ability theory in teacher education
The transmission of knowledge through the education system has been built on the foundation of historical and societal ideology; however, reflecting on the education system brings to light questions such as, whose culture is predominant within the curriculum? What is the principal perspective reflected in the course content? Most importantly, whose history, values, and beliefs are absent from or marginalized by the existing system? These questions serve as an introduction to the discussion of how dominant social and historical ideology was forcefully transmitted through the residential school system and often subtly occurs in post-secondary education.
Weber’s (2010) comprehensive framework . To more fully understand the formation of identity developed within dominant societal ideology and the relationship to the educational system, it is useful to review the five themes proposed by Weber (2010). This framework offers a comprehensive lens for examining how individual identity is developed within, and is affected by, societal ideology, including (a) historical and geographical context, (b) the impact of societal constructs, (c) the operation of power relationships at (d) macro social-structural and micro social-psychological levels, and (e) the simultaneous expression of power throughout macro and micro levels (Weber, 2010). An examination of these themes brings to light societal factors that influence the development of identity and the intersectionality that occurs between each. Weber (2010) indicates that to “focus on only a single dimension, although useful for some purposes, [is] ultimately partial” (p. 92). The first three themes recognize the significance that historical, geographical, and societal contexts have on the development of identity, which are further reflected in the construction of societal and cultural knowledge, beliefs, and norms. The fourth and fifth themes highlight the potential for micro-aggressive or other personal bias behaviours to become forcefully or subtly integrated into the learning environment during the development or delivery of curriculum. Weber’s proposed themes provide an inclusive view of how dimensions such as power relations, dominance, and historical and societal contexts intersect and influence the formation of individual identity and are further enculturated into the education system. This framework is a useful guide for educators to understand the complexity of factors that affect the development of identity. It could also be used as a tool for self-reflection and aid in establishing an appreciation for individual differences.

Resources:

http://radicalpedagogy.icaap.org/content/issue5_1/03_keesing-styles.html
http://ojs.uwindsor.ca/index.php/csw/article/download/5712/4667?inline=1
http://citejournal.org/volume-15/issue-3-15/english-language-arts/ela-teacher-preparation-2-0-critical-media-literacy-action-research-and-mashups/
http://ineducation.ca/ineducation/article/view/308/904
http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/human-capital-theory

conflict theory and education

Conflict theory and education Conflict theorists do not believe that public schools reduce social inequality. Rather, they believe that the educational system reinforces and perpetuates social

conflict theory and education

Conflict theory and education
Such a situation leads to social class reproduction, extensively studied by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. He researched how cultural capital , or cultural knowledge that serves (metaphorically) as currency that helps us navigate a culture, alters the experiences and opportunities available to French students from different social classes. Members of the upper and middle classes have more cultural capital than do families of lower-class status. As a result, the educational system maintains a cycle in which the dominant culture’s values are rewarded. Instruction and tests cater to the dominant culture and leave others struggling to identify with values and competencies outside their social class. For example, there has been a great deal of discussion over what standardized tests such as the SAT truly measure. Many argue that the tests group students by cultural ability rather than by natural intelligence.
Conflict theorists do not believe that public schools reduce social inequality. Rather, they believe that the educational system reinforces and perpetuates social inequalities that arise from differences in class, gender, race, and ethnicity. Where functionalists see education as serving a beneficial role, conflict theorists view it more negatively. To them, educational systems preserve the status quo and push people of lower status into obedience.

Conflict theory and education
The Hidden Curriculum ideology is very prevalent in sociology, as sociologists seek to better understand how education is shaping society as a larger unit. This video explains what this means.
Such a situation leads to social class reproduction, extensively studied by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. He researched how cultural capital , or cultural knowledge that serves as (metaphorical) currency that helps us navigate a culture, alters the experiences and opportunities available to French students from different social classes. Members of the upper and middle classes have more cultural capital than do families of lower-class status. As a result, the educational system maintains a cycle in which the dominant culture’s values are rewarded and thus generationally reproduced. Instruction and tests cater to the dominant culture and leave others struggling to identify with values and competencies outside their social class. For example, there has been a great deal of discussion over what standardized tests such as the SAT truly measure. Many argue that the tests group students by cultural ability rather than by natural intelligence. For example, a question on the comprehensive reading section of the SAT inquires about a painting at an art museum. For a student who has not experienced art museums regularly, this question poses greater difficulty than it does for a student who grew up going to cultural events such as art exhibitions. Such mechanisms in public education reinforce and perpetuate inequalities.

Conflict theory and education
Conflict theory assumes that the ideas held by a society are the ideas of the ruling class. The ruling class uses schools, along with the media and other means of communication, to disseminate ideas that will support its continued rule. Given this assumption, the conflict perspective often focuses on the role school systems may play in influencing public opinion, or implementing social control.
Vocational track: Students in a vocational track may learn skills such as wood working.

Conflict theory and education
Functional theory stresses the functions that education serves in fulfilling a society’s various needs. Perhaps the most important function of education is socialization. If children are to learn the norms, values, and skills they need to function in society, then education is a primary vehicle for such learning. Schools teach the three Rs (reading, ’riting, ’rithmetic), as we all know, but they also teach many of the society’s norms and values. In the United States, these norms and values include respect for authority, patriotism (remember the Pledge of Allegiance?), punctuality, and competition (for grades and sports victories).
Social and cultural innovation is a fourth function of education. Our scientists cannot make important scientific discoveries and our artists and thinkers cannot come up with great works of art, poetry, and prose unless they have first been educated in the many subjects they need to know for their chosen path.

In current conflict theory, there are four primary assumptions which are helpful to understand: competition, revolution, structural inequality, and war.
Conflict theorists believe that competition is a constant and, at times, an overwhelming factor in nearly every human relationship and interaction. Competition exists as a result of the scarcity of resources, including material resources–money, property, commodities, and more. Beyond material resources, individuals and groups within a society also compete for intangible resources as well. These can include leisure time, dominance, social status, sexual partners, etc. Conflict theorists assume that competition is the default (rather than cooperation).

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-introductiontosociology/chapter/conflict-theory-on-education/
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-sociology/chapter/the-conflict-perspective-on-education/
http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conflict-theory.asp
http://digital.grinnell.edu/islandora/object/grinnell:22653/datastream/OCR/view

constructivism education theory

Education Theory/Constructivism and Social Constructivism Education Theory Constructivism and Social Constructivism “Constructivism is the philosophical and scientific position that

constructivism education theory

Constructivism education theory
This process of interpretation, articulation, and re-evaluation is repeated until they can demonstrate their comprehension of the subject.
Constructivism and Social Constructivism are two similar learning theories which share a large number of underlying assumptions, and an interpretive epistemological position.

A constructivist approach to learning and instruction has been proposed as an alternative to the objectivist model, which is implicit in all behaviorist and some cognitive approaches to education. Objectivism sees knowledge as a passive reflection of the external, objective reality. This implies a process of “instruction,” ensuring that the learner gets correct information.
Real and authentic problems. Constructivist learning is based on the active participation of learners in problem-solving and critical thinking–given real and authentic problems.

3) The teacher’s role is one of a facilitator or guide.
In elaborating constructivists’ ideas Arends (1998) states that constructivism believes in personal construction of meaning by the learner through experience, and that meaning is influenced by the interaction of prior knowledge and new events.

Constructivism learning theory is a philosophy which enhances students’ logical and conceptual growth. The underlying concept within the constructivism learning theory is the role which experiences-or connections with the adjoining atmosphere-play in student education.
Instead of having the students relying on someone else’s information and accepting it as truth, the constructivism learning theory supports that students should be exposed to data, primary sources, and the ability to interact with other students so that they can learn from the incorporation of their experiences. The classroom experience should be an invitation for a myriad of different backgrounds and the learning experience which allows the different backgrounds to come together and observe and analyze information and ideas.

Constructivism education theory
Welcome to Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning . Start with the Explanation section to gain a good understanding of the CONCEPT of constructivism. Then go on to Demonstration, where we move from CONCEPT TO CLASSROOM!
In the classroom, the constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. The teacher makes sure she understands the students’ preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and then build on them.

Resources:

http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2174/Learning-Theory-CONSTRUCTIVIST-APPROACH.html
http://www.simplypsychology.org/constructivism.html
http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist/