Chronic Gastritis

Symptoms like nausea and loss of appetite, “sensation of fullness” are some of the primary signs of chronic gastritis. Bacteria Helicobacter pylori are a common cause of chronic gastritis. Helicobacter pylori are found in the digestive tract of humans. This bacterium attacks the stomach lining causing ulcers after many years. Consequently, chronic gastritis is very common with senior citizens like Ms. Johnson as it occurs gradually. Bacteria are the most predominant or the most prevalent causes of this disease.

Some of the other conditions that cause chronic gastritis are bile reflux, regular use of medicines such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chronic vomiting, stress, excessive use of alcohol or cocaine. In rare cases, chronic gastritis occurs when the body’s immune system attacks its individual cells by mistake (Tidy, 2015). Ms. Johnson’s chronic digestive problems may be a result of one of the causes mentioned above.

Bile reflux is caused by the weakening of lower esophageal valve which separates the esophagus and stomach (Tidy, 2015). When this valve becomes weak, there is backflow of bile into the stomach. Bile and stomach acids mix causing inflammation of the stomach lining, gastritis. Ms. Johnson complained of abdominal cramping which is one of the symptoms of bile reflux.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen compromise the mucus on the stomach lining. Acids corrode the now unprotected stomach lining leading to ulcers (Tidy, 2015).

All in all, Helicobacter pylori are a common but not the only cause of chronic gastritis. Ms. Johnson might have experienced a stressful event in her life, used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or her body’s immune system could attack its individual cells. Every possible reason of disease should be checked carefully before starting the treatment.

List of Common Agricultural Items

A transplanter is used to transplant seedlings in the garden. They were invented in regions around Asia which include areas in Japan and Korea.

Plastic mulch layer is used to lay mulch that suppresses weeds and conserve water. It was invented in the mid-1950s by Emery .M. Emmert from the University of Kentucky.

A potato planer is also among the agricultural items that are used to plant potatoes either automatically or manually. Its origin traces back to Peru and regions of Bolivia.

Seed drills are sowing machines that position seeds in the holes and cover them. They were invented by Jethro Tull and again traced back to the Sumerians.

Chisel plough used in cultivation. It traces back to ancient England and Germany during the 1700s.It has been improved though over time.

Harrows are used on farms for smoothening and breaking soils. They were invented by the Babylonians and also are traced back to the 10th century to the Arabs.

Subsoilers are used for deep tillage, breaking of soil and loosening it. Their invention trace back to the USA in the 1950s.

A cultipacker is used in crushing dirt clods, press down stones and remove the air pockets from soils. It was invented in the 1920s by the English.

A roller can be used for breaking up large soils and also flattening land. It was developed in the 20th century in Colombo but earlier was noticed in some parts of France.

Stone pickers remove stones from soils and pick out debris. It was invented by Peter Anderson in the 1940s.

A tractor is amongst these items. It delivers high tractive effort power which can be used in agriculture activities. It originates back to the 19th century the age at which steam engines were invented, and John Dere made them better.

A hoe is one of the most common agricultural items. It serves the most basic of farm work which includes weeding, digging and cultivating (shaping of soil. It’s arguably the most valuable tool in a farm. It has a long handle and a flat blade which is fixed perpendicular to its end. Its origin is traced back to the time a hand stick was used for digging but due to arising complications resulted to its invention. It’s traced back to ancient times in Egypt and some area of California. It exists in various types depending on its use.

Irrigation pipes are also among agricultural items. They transport water through the farm. They trace back to the Romans during the time of ancient civilization from which they were improved over time.

Fertilizers ranging from various varieties are also among these items. They enhance plant growth. Fertilizers go back to the thousands of years ago when Babylonians, Egyptians, Romans and early Germans used manure and minerals to better crop growth.

Packaging bags and sacs are also essential when mentioning these items. They aid in the packaging of farm produce, and their origin is traced back to the U.SA in states like Texas.

Planters are used for sowing seeds on the farm. They were invented by John Dere in ancient times to help man during planting seasons.

A disc harrow cultivates land where crops are to be planted. They were discovered in the high plains of United States in the 20th century.

A tank tread is traced back to 1770 when they were first used and invented by Richard Edgeworth.Better inventions followed in the 1830s by Sir George Cayley.

A drag harrow will smoothen soil and loosen it. This together with the disc harrows was invented in the high plain of United States during the 20th century.

Cultivators are used in secondary tillage. The basic types were designed in 1912 by Arthur Clifford Howard in Australia.

Micronutrient Paper Vitamin B6

The bodies of organisms require various forms of nutrients to operate normally and help an individual in the course of executing multiple tasks. One of the primary nutrients that are fundamental to the proper functioning of the body organs is vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), which scientists often group into categories such as pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal. NIH (2016) opines that pyridoxine is a soluble vitamin, which is prevalent in the foods such as potatoes, fish, and meat from the organs of animals. Also, humans can obtain vitamin B6 from common fruits such as citrus thereby implying that the nutrient mentioned above is readily available for the human consumption.

Vitamin B6 plays a critical role in boosting the operations of an individual’s body organs and cells thus improving one’s health status. According to NIH (2016), the active form of vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal Phosphate) is essential in the operations of more than a 100 enzymes, which catalyze various chemical reactions in the human body. Notably, the Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP) is a coenzyme for a catalyst, which initiates the release of glucose from glycogen. Besides, the PLP is crucial for the chemical reactions that lead to the production of glucose from the amino acids in the body.

Scientists have also discovered that PLP is essential in the manufacturing of heme, which is an iron-rich component of hemoglobin that transports oxygen to the various parts of the body (Nutri-Facts, n.d). Specifically, PLP binds the hemoglobin and aids in the efficient transportation of oxygen in the body. Finally, PLP is critical in the reduction of the infections such as prostate and breast cancer. Precisely, PLP binds the steroid receptors in a manner that significantly reduces the binding of steroid hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, which often attaches to the hormone receptors thus changing gene expression. The change in the gene expression is one of the significant occurrences that lead to the development of cancer.

An analysis of the vitamin B6 indicates that it plays a critical role in the improvement of the immunity of the humans (Nutri-Facts, n.d). For instance, scientists attribute the role of vitamin B6 in the metabolism of one-carbon to the improvement of protection of humans thereby increasing the health statuses of various personalities. Apart from the growth in immunity, vitamin B6 acts as a coenzyme in the synthesis of nucleic acids in the body, thus influencing the genetic compositions of an individual.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports that Pyridoxine is essential for the optimal operation of the nervous systems and the psychological processes of an individual (Nutri-Facts, n.d). Therefore, the adequate intake of vitamin B6 is essential in the normal coordination of the body’s organs and levels of intelligence. Also, the EFSA has discovered that Vitamin B6 is critical to the production of glucose and utilization of the toxic amino acids thus enhancing the energy production. Consequently, the consumption of vitamin b6 is essential in the reduction of fatigue and tiredness in the humankind. Furthermore, the nutrient mentioned above is crucial in the metabolic activities occurring in the body of an individual. The efficient metabolism in an individual is critical for the other bodily functions such as reproduction, movement, and digestion among others. Therefore, it is evident that the consumption of vitamin b6 is essential for the welfare of an individual.

According to the nutritionists, the consumption of proper quantities of Vitamin B6 is critical for the welfare of an individual. In reality, the intake of right amounts of vitamin B6 aids in the efficient execution of the previously described roles hence doctors have recommended the upper limits (UL), the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and the dietary reference intakes (DRI) for various categories of people in the society. A recommendation for the appropriate amounts of Vitamin B6 that individuals need to consume is also important in ensuring that one evenly consumes the various nutrients, which are essential for healthy living. The table below shows the RDA for vitamin B6.

Life stage Recommended amount
Birth to 6 months 0.1 mg
Infants 7-12 months 0.3 mg
Children 1-3 years 0.5 mg
Children 4-8 years 0.6 mg
Children 9-13 years 1.0 mg
Teenagers 14-18 boys 1.3 mg
Teens 14-18 girls 1.2 mg
Adults 19-50 years 1.3 mg
Adults 51+ years(men) 1.7 mg
Adults 51+ years(women) 1.5 mg
Pregnant teens and women 1.9 mg
Breastfeeding teens and women 2.0 mg

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin B6 (NIH, 2016)

In addition to the RDA, clinicians have recommended the upper limits for the vitamin B6 that individuals need to consume at a given age level. The table below shows the UL for the B6.

Life stage Upper Limit
Birth to 12 months Not established
Children 1-3 years 30 mg
Children 4-8 years 40 mg
Children 9-18 years 60 mg
Teens 14-18 years 80 mg
Adults 100 mg

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for Vitamin B6 (NIH, 2016)

Finally, the DRI for Vitamin B6 is as in the table below

Age Male Female
Birth to 6 months 0.1 mg 0.1 mg
7- 12 months 0.3 mg 0.3 mg

DRI for Vitamin B6 (NIH, 2016)