banking theory of education
But, according to Freire, a “liberating” educational practice (his problem-posing method) negates the unconsciousness of those in classroom roles, and no false intellectual stimulation can exist within that practice. On the contrary, in any case, the student is responsible for understanding the material one way or another depending on what style the teacher adapts, even if the content is un-relatable to the students’ lives. If a teacher has a certain premeditated lesson, then there can be no true independence on behalf of the student, because both the banking and problem-posing concepts are anti-autonomous.
In essence, the Freirian spectrum- with “banking” at one end, pseudo “problem-posing” at the center (which essentially is a form of banking) and genuine “problem-posing” at the other end- mimics the real world in that one is always subject to some degree of authority. The dynamics of those relationships depend on how much each party is willing to give and take, meaning to what degrees the authority renounces their control and the subject allows them.
Older students have been equally affected by changes to education funding. The Ontario government imposed a 10% university tuition cut while simultaneously eliminating free tuition for low-income students and cutting OSAP grant funding by 60% (McCabe 2019). The tuition cut will cost universities and colleges $360 million in lost revenue, which means a reduction in programs and services, as well as job losses (Rushowy, 2019). 60% of future funding will be tied to key performance indicators, including graduate earnings, skills and competencies, and the number of graduates employed in a related field (Crawley, 2019). This puts pressure on post-secondary institutions to shift their attention to programs that guarantee higher wages and directly related jobs, something more difficult to find in humanities and social science programs. Once again, the Ontario government takes a banking concept approach to education, and implements policies designed to edge out programs more closely associated with problem-posing education. The government’s aim appears to be to eliminate courses that encourage students to engage in critical thought, rather than simply information consumption. Education for education’s sake is not this government’s mandate.
During the first half of 2019, the Ontario government successively announced a series of funding changes to elementary, secondary and post-secondary education. Elementary and secondary schools received funding cuts and new mandates that have resulted in larger class sizes, a smaller selection of elective courses, mandatory online courses, and the layoffs of teaching and support staff (Collaco, 2019.) As Freire notes, banking education uses “distance between the teacher and the taught” as part of its oppressive process (Freire, 1970, p. 76). This distance will be imposed by larger class sizes, fewer teachers, and mandatory online courses in the upcoming school year. Additionally, a majority of the elective courses cut for fiscal purposes are those in the arts, humanities and social sciences – effectively all subject areas that encourage creativity, critical thought, and questioning the world around you through historical and contemporary topics (Jones, 2019).
The world is seen as static and unchangeable, and students are simply supposed to fit into it as it is.
The Banking Concept in Education is a concept in philosophy originally explored by Brazilian philosopher Paulo Freire in his 1968 book “Pedagogy of the Oppressed.” The “banking” concept of education is a method of teaching and learning where the students simply store the information relayed to them by the teacher. In a “banking” type of environment, a classroom is structured in a way that the primary duty of students is to remember and accurately recall the information provided by the instructor. They are not asked to participate in any other way, and simply absorb the information. In this type of approach, the world is seen as static and unchangeable, and students are simply supposed to fit into it as it is. The prevalence of the banking concept within most educational systems prevents students from developing skills that make themselves fair-minded critical thinkers and continues to promote long-standing biases within society.
This artwork shows the value of inquiry-based learning because although it shows the satirical side of how useless banking education is, the underlying feeling of the artwork is that this shouldn’t be the overall goal for our children learning. My picture reveals that education is centered around teachers forcing knowledge in students head that will only have the use of achieving a good grade on a test that will have no real meaning in the real world. Also, it reveals that inquiry-based is much better because it shows the distraught faces of the students being forced to learn for tests rather than skills, and showing how much unhappiness and unfulfilled students are after going through this process.
Freire exposes the flaws in the system of “banking education” and its that it doesn’t teach true skills other than memorizing the info long enough to pass the test. Freire’s argument can be explained through this video. My artwork relates to this exact idea because when asked “what can this information be used for” the teacher satirically responds “the final”. This resembles the fact that the information given is deplorable and ultimately won’t help them in the long run but will rather help them pass the test in the near future. Also, my artwork relates to Freire’s argument because he says that teachers use their authority to control what is being “taught” which means they use their power over the students to make the students comply to what the teacher knows. This is expressed in my picture because the professor is sitting on a throne and wearing a crown to show their authority, and he is force feeding the “knowledge” to the students.
“Implicit in the banking concept of education is the assumption of a dichotomy between man and the world. man is merely in the world, not with the world or with others; man is spectator, not re-creator.” (62) The ‘educated man’ is the adapted man, (63) adapted to the world created by the oppressors; adapted without questioning it.
“Banking education is education as the practice of domination.” (Paulo Freire. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. p. 69) The ‘banking’ concept of education mirrors the oppressiveness of society as a whole. (59)