exchange theory in education
For example, a person asks an acquaintance to help them move, but they only slightly know each other. The acquaintance will assess their relationship history, the state of their relationship and the potential benefits. If the acquaintance doesn’t feel close to the person and doesn’t plan on pursuing a social relationship, they may decline. However, if the person promises certain favors, such as helping out the acquaintance with a difficult problem, they may agree.
Cross-cultural researchers note that when analyzing the decisions of different societies, cultural values should be included in the process. This is because every culture has their own unique way of judging value, costs and rewards. For example, Asian societies, such as China and Japan, are collective cultures that emphasize group harmony and sacrifice for the group. Therefore, certain individual costs, such as personal freedom or happiness, are not as important as in individualized cultures. In fact, the negative costs of social disapproval are more severe in collective Asian cultures.
How should power be allocated in a couple? The great majority of lesbian and gay couples feel that an equal balance of power would be desirable ( Peplau & Cochran, 1990 ), but not all report that they achieve this ideal state. In Peplau and Cochran’s study, only 59% of lesbians, 38% of gay men, 48% of heterosexual women, and 40% of heterosexual men reported that the balance of power in their current relationship was exactly equal. Others have found that majorities of gay as well as lesbian couples report equal power (see Peplau et al., 1996 ).
Companies can indeed support their employees in their efforts to create synergies and take an active stand in the promotion of work-family enrichment in their employees’ lives. For example, training programs focused on stress and coping strategies could be beneficial to employees and organizations. Kirchmeyer’s (1993) study of the coping strategies used by men and women suggests that what is important is not how actively men and women are involved in nonwork activities, but how well they cope and manage both life domains. Certain coping strategies would not only reduce work conflict but also encourage the transfer of skills and knowledge acquired from one domain to another. As previously stated, women who participate in multiple roles acquire leadership skills that benefit their organization ( Ruderman et al., 2002 ). Hence, it is in the interest of companies to provide supports and services to their employees. Other useful training programs in promoting positive spillover are those that teach employees conflict management or win-win negotiation skills.
Costs involve things that you see as negatives such as having to put money, time, and effort into a relationship. For example, if you have a friend that always has to borrow money from you, then this would be seen as a high cost.
Social exchange theory suggests that we essentially take the benefits and subtract the costs in order to determine how much a relationship is worth. Positive relationships are those in which the benefits outweigh the costs while negative relationships occur when the costs are greater than the benefits.
How do you promote positive relationships with those you lead?
How can a teacher use LMX theory to his or her advantage? The first step is recognize the negatives of this theory, which include the possible alienation of out-group members and no explanation as to how high-quality relationships should be developed. I think that once the issue of how these relationships can be developed, the alienation issue will be resolved. As Power (2013) indicated in his article, more research will need to be done to determine how to develop high-quality relationships between leaders and followers. I posit that effective teachers have a pretty good idea as to how to develop these positive relationships with their students. Creating a safe-classroom environment that promotes trust, respect, and honesty is a great place to start. As a teacher, I genuinely care about my students, what they think, what they do, etc. They know that I genuinely care, and that respect is reciprocated. My classroom is also student-centered, and they have a lot of freedom in the projects they complete. Lastly, I do my best to encourage all of my students in positive ways, and I offer correction in constructive ways to promote learning and respect. While I don’t claim to have all the answers, I think that is a great place to start.
The authors verified that faculty may seek internationalization in search of job opportunities, greater social approval, greater autonomy and greater security. On the other hand, temporal, monetary, psychological and physical costs discourage faculty members from seeking international insertion. Based on these tradeoffs, our findings suggest that although the basic tenets of SET do apply, the theory does not explicitly address two issues: the fact that costs and rewards are intricately related, and the apparent mismatch between (short-term) costs and (long-term) expected rewards.
Publication date: 22 November 2019