health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf
Chapter 1 The Scope of Health Behavior 3
Chapter 12 Stress, Coping, and Health Behavior 223
Elaine Wethington, Karen Glanz, and Marc D. Schwartz
The fourth edition of Health Behavior and Health Education once again updates and improves on the preceding edition. Its main purpose is the same: to advance the science and practice of health behavior and health education through the informed application of theories of health behavior. Likewise, this book serves as the definitive text for students, practitioners, and scientists in these areas and education in three ways: by analyzing the key components of theories of health behavior relevant to health education; by evaluating current applications of these theories in selected health promotion programs and interventions; and by identifying important future directions for research and practice in health promotion and health education.
* From the Preface
For example, change objectives for an intervention might be to increase adolescents’ self-efficacy beliefs to resist social pressure to use drugs. The accompanying belief would be, for example, ‘When I am at a party and a friend offers drugs, it is hard to resist’. Successfully changing this belief into: ‘When I am at a party and a friend offers drugs, I am confident that I can resist’, would increase adolescents’ self-efficacy (the overarching determinant) to refuse offered drugs. To achieve this change objective, theory-based methods might include modelling, guided practice with feedback, and reinforcement. One application for modelling in a school setting could be a videotaped step-by-step demonstration by adolescents of how to resist peer pressure in situations they commonly encounter. However, for a different population, such as low-income middle-aged migrants, a discussion session that incorporates a role playing session with a professional actor might be more appropriate. Thus, the same method can be translated into a myriad of possible applications depending on the specific population and context. Similarly, one application can be a manifestation of multiple methods, as illustrated in Table 15 in the supplementary materials or at http://osf.io/sqtuz (also see Figures 2 and 3 in Kok, 2014 ).
We define practical applications as specific translations of theory-based methods for practical use in ways that fit the intervention population and the context in which the intervention will be conducted (Bartholomew et al., 2011 ). Note that practical applications therefore have as one of their characteristics one or more mode(s) of delivery, such as ‘face to face’, ‘internet’, or ‘telephone’ (Hoffmann et al., 2014 ). For example, a group discussion is an example of a practical application, and can be held face to face or using the internet (i.e., with different modes of delivery). In addition, specifying the mode of delivery would not suffice to describe the application: the exact content of group discussion protocols or a recording are also part of the application. This is important because any thorough description of an application needs to make clear how satisfaction of the parameters of effectiveness of the embodied methods of behaviour change is secured. For example, group discussions can increase knowledge only if the correct schemata are activated in those discussions (see Table 2 in the supplementary materials or at http://osf.io/sqtuz). Therefore, a part of the application must be a system for ensuring that these schemata are addressed in the discussions, regardless of mode of delivery (e.g., face to face).
A series of reports by Mittleman et al. (1993, 1995, 1996) explored family-based interventions for the elderly with dementia. They demonstrated that an intervention with multiple members of the patient’s family substantially improved caregiver well-being. The intervention also resulted in a significant delay in institutionalization of the demented elderly, compared with controls who received usual care. The intervention consisted of six psychoeducational sessions with individual families followed by long-term availability of the healthcare counselors to the family members. More studies on the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers are warranted.
Several school-based trials targeted dietary behaviors and found significant differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change between intervention and control schools. Two exemplary programs are the Class of 1989 Study as part of the Minnesota Heart Health Program for 6th-12th graders (Kelder et al., 1994) and CATCH for 3rd–5th graders (Luepker et al., 1996; Perry et al., 1992). Both studies involved school-based interventions with large samples assessed for a long duration. Both interventions had beneficial effects on diet and eating habits (Nader et al., 1999); however, CATCH did not produce effects on physiological measures related to cardiovascular disease. In a review of interventions to promote healthy dietary behavior in children and adolescents, Perry et al. (1997) concluded that school-based nutrition education programs have been effective in improving aspects of children’s eating behaviors, with positive effects also observed in physiological outcomes such as serum cholesterol.
This paper describes the rationale and design of a theory-informed patient education programme addressing cardiovascular disease for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to illustrate how theory can explicitly be translated into practice.
A steering group of rheumatologists and psychologists was convened to design the programme. The Common Sense Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Stages of Change Model were used to underpin the topics and activities in the programme. User involvement was sought. The programme was formatted into a manual and the reading age of the materials was calculated.