lev vygotsky education theory
Parents and teachers can foster learning by providing educational opportunities that lie within a child’s zone of proximal development. Kids can also learn a great deal from their peers. Teachers can foster this process by pairing less skilled children with more knowledgeable classmates.
The “zone” is the gap between what a child knows and what they do not yet know.
Vygotsky’s Views on Cognitive Development
2: Vygotsky placed more emphasis on the social factors that contribute to cognitive development
Vygotsky was also influenced by the philosophy of Karl Marx, whose focus on the connections between the material world and human thought were highly influential to Vygotsky, particularly early in his career.
Perhaps Vygotsky’s most dramatic and far-ranging ideas centred on the role of language’s relation to thought and consciousness.
A second aspect of Vygotsky’s theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the “zone of proximal development” (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be attained alone.
This is a general theory of cognitive development. Most of the original work was done in the context of language learning in children (Vygotsky, 1962), although later applications of the framework have been broader (see Wertsch, 1985).
Vygotsky’s work has not received the same level of intense scrutiny that Piaget’s has, partly due to the time-consuming process of translating Vygotsky’s work from Russian. Also, Vygotsky’s sociocultural perspective does not provide as many specific hypotheses to test as did Piaget’s theory, making refutation difficult, if not impossible.
This contradicts Piaget’s view of universal stages and content of development (Vygotsky does not refer to stages in the way that Piaget does).