theory and research in social education

Theory and Research in Social Education Theory and Research in Social Education is designed to stimulate and communicate systematic research and thinking in social education. Its purpose is to

theory and research in social education

The length may vary from 500 to 3,500 words. The format for the top of the first page is as follows: Books: Author (last name first). Date of publication (in parentheses). Title (in italics). City of publication: Publisher, total number of pages, list price (for both hard and softcover, if available). ISBN number.
Manuscripts will be acknowledged by the editor upon receipt. Following preliminary editorial review, manuscripts will be sent to reviewers who have expertise in the subject of the article. The review process takes approximately three months. Authors should expect to hear from the editor within that time regarding the status of their manuscript. Theory and Research in Social Education uses the blind review system. The names of referees are published annually in the fall issue of the journal.

Our graduates go on to research and clinical faculty positions in colleges and universities, teacher leadership positions, and social studies positions in schools.
Just as there are a variety of disciplines within, and approaches to, social studies education, there are many possibilities available for doctoral study. Our faculty members borrow from various research methodologies (narrative inquiry, self-study, and discourse analysis) and a variety of theoretical perspectives (feminism, pragmatism, critical theory, psychoanalytic theory) to focus research in social studies education.

Theory and research in social education
Social Studies allows joint concentrations with interdisciplinary programs that include social science faculty: generally, African and African American Studies, East Asian Studies, Environmental Science and Public Policy, Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Religion, South Asian Studies, Philosophy, and The Study of Women, Gender, and Sexuality, We do not allow joint concentrations with science or humanities departments or with social science departments that we share faculty with (anthropology, economics, government, history, or sociology).
For up-to-date information on advising in Social Studies, please go to www.socialstudies.fas.harvard.edu or visit the Advising Programs Office website .

The course aims to provide students with an understanding of and skills in research design and research process in the social sciences. More specifically, the following topics will be covered by the course: research approaches, applied philosophy of science in the social sciences, selection of a research topic, literature overview, contextualising the research topic, role of theories in research, formulation of research questions, research design, choice of methods, planning of research, research ethics, and reflexivity in the research process. The course will introduce these issues through theoretical discussions and practical exercises. Students will work both in groups and individually.
This course aims at providing a comprehensive understanding of different and mixed methods approaches in the Social Sciences, as well as providing you with necessary skills required for their application.

Theory and research in social education
Books, Articles and Other Amazing Resources
Books, Articles and Other Amazing Resources Continue reading →

Resources:

http://coe.uga.edu/academics/degrees/phd-social-studies-education
http://handbook.fas.harvard.edu/book/social-studies
http://www.graduateschool.sam.lu.se/academics/course-catalogue/courses-method-and-theory-science/social-scientific-research-design-and-process-simm51
http://visionsofed.com/
http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html

functionalist theory on education

Functionalist theory on education There are several major manifest functions associated with education. The first is socialization. Beginning in preschool and kindergarten, students are taught to

functionalist theory on education

Functionalist theory on education
The educational system, especially as experienced on university campuses, has traditionally provided a place for students to learn about various social issues. There is ample opportunity for social and political advocacy, as well as the ability to develop tolerance to the many views represented on campus. In 2011, the Occupy Wall Street movement swept across college campuses all over the United States, leading to demonstrations in which diverse groups of students were unified with the purpose of changing the political climate of the country. Social and political advocacy can take many forms, from joining established programs on international development to joining a particular party-affiliated group to supporting non-profit clubs at your school.
In the United States, schools also fill the role of preparing students for competition in life. Obviously, athletics foster a competitive ethos, but even in the classroom students compete against one another academically. Schools also aid in teaching patriotism. Students recite the Pledge of Allegiance each morning and take history classes where they learn about national heroes and the nation’s past. The practice of saying the Pledge of Allegiance has become controversial in recent years, with individuals arguing that requiring or even expecting children to pledge allegiance is unconstitutional and as such may face legal challenges to its validity. [1] [/footnote]

Functionalist theory on education
There are several major manifest functions associated with education. The first is socialization. Beginning in preschool and kindergarten, students are taught to practice various societal roles. The French sociologist Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who established the academic discipline of sociology, characterized schools as “socialization agencies that teach children how to get along with others and prepare them for adult economic roles” (Durkheim 1898). Indeed, it seems that schools have taken on this responsibility in full.
School systems in the United States also transmit the core values of the nation through manifest functions like social control. One of the roles of schools is to teach students conformity to law and respect for authority. Obviously, such respect, given to teachers and administrators, will help a student navigate the school environment. This function also prepares students to enter the workplace and the world at large, where they will continue to be subject to people who have authority over them. Fulfillment of this function rests primarily with classroom teachers and instructors who are with students all day.

Functionalist theory on education
Another Marxists called Bourdieu criticises the Functionalist view by saying that not all the pupils have an equal opportunity. He believes that the more upper class values and mannerisms a person has (their ‘cultural capital’) the better they are treated and viewed within education. This creates a divide in education as those who are seen to be upper class are treated better than the working classes and therefore receive a poorer standard of education. This creates unfairness as ‘cultural capital’ works in favour of the upper classes and against the working classes.
Feminists also believe that most educational textbooks are designed for male pupils. Kelly believes that textbooks often contain images of cars and football throughout. Stanworth also said that teachers are more likely to give their time and attention to male pupils. This creates a divide as females are left out in the classroom and could receive a poorer standard of education. She also said that girls often underestimate their ability and lack confidence in themselves.

Functionalist theory on education
4. Role Allocation and meritocracy
You might also like my brief vodcast on the same topic…

A functionalist’s perspective on education is to have a consensus perspective: examine society in terms of how it is maintained for the common good. A functionalist will put an emphasis on positive aspects of schools such as socialisation: the learning of skills and attitudes in school. Education helps maintain society by socialising young people into values of achievement, competition and equality of opportunity. Skills provision is also important: education teaches the skills for the economy. For example, literacy, numeracy and IT for particular occupations. Role allocation is all part of this: education allocates people to the most appropriate jobs for their talents, using examinations and qualifications.
Marxism believes that education teaches the values and norms of the bourgeoisie.

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-functionalist-theory-on-education/
http://www.podology.org.uk/functionalism-education/4560344140
http://revisesociology.com/2015/01/26/functionalist-perspective-education/
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/sociology/education-and-sociology/functionalism-and-education/
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1467-9752.1987.tb00169.x

which statement describes the conflict theory of education?

The conflict theory states that society is in a constant state of conflict due to competition for limited resources.

which statement describes the conflict theory of education?

Conflict theorists point to the financial crisis of 2008 and the subsequent bank bailouts as good examples of real-life conflict theory, according to authors Alan Sears and James Cairns in their book A Good Book, in Theory. They view the financial crisis as the inevitable outcome of the inequalities and instabilities of the global economic system, which enables the largest banks and institutions to avoid government oversight and take huge risks that only reward a select few.
Weber’s beliefs about conflict extend beyond Marx’s because they suggest that some forms of social interaction, including conflict, generate beliefs and solidarity between individuals and groups within a society. In this way, an individual’s reactions to inequality might be different depending on the groups with which they are associated; whether they perceive those in power to be legitimate; and so on.

Which statement describes the conflict theory of education?
Explanation:
The correct answer is option B

Which statement describes the conflict theory of education?
Such a situation leads to social class reproduction, extensively studied by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. He researched how cultural capital , or cultural knowledge that serves (metaphorically) as currency that helps us navigate a culture, alters the experiences and opportunities available to French students from different social classes. Members of the upper and middle classes have more cultural capital than do families of lower-class status. As a result, the educational system maintains a cycle in which the dominant culture’s values are rewarded. Instruction and tests cater to the dominant culture and leave others struggling to identify with values and competencies outside their social class. For example, there has been a great deal of discussion over what standardized tests such as the SAT truly measure. Many argue that the tests group students by cultural ability rather than by natural intelligence.
Conflict theorists do not believe that public schools reduce social inequality. Rather, they believe that the educational system reinforces and perpetuates social inequalities that arise from differences in class, gender, race, and ethnicity. Where functionalists see education as serving a beneficial role, conflict theorists view it more negatively. To them, educational systems preserve the status quo and push people of lower status into obedience.

Which statement describes the conflict theory of education?
credentialism the emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that a person has a certain skill, has attained a certain level of education, or has met certain job qualifications
16.1. Education around the World
Educational systems around the world have many differences, though the same factors—including resources and money—affect each of them. Educational distribution is a major issue in many nations, including in the United States, where the amount of money spent per student varies greatly by state. Education happens through both formal and informal systems; both foster cultural transmission. Universal access to education is a worldwide concern.

Which statement describes the conflict theory of education?
Table 11.1 Theory Snapshot
The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack, 2012). Ballantine, J. H., & Hammack, F. M. (2012). The sociology of education: A systematic analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Table 11.1 “Theory Snapshot” summarizes what these approaches say.

Resources:

http://brainly.com/question/12448719
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-conflict-theory-on-education/
http://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter16-education/
http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030034566

behaviorism theory education

Behaviorism Behaviorist teaching methods have proven most successful in areas where there is a “correct” response or easily memorized material. Background Methodological behaviorism began

behaviorism theory education

Behaviorists explain motivation in terms of schedules of positive and negative reinforcement. Just as receiving food pellets each time it pecks at a button teaches a pigeon to peck the button, pleasant experiences cause human learners to make the desired connections between specific stimuli and the appropriate responses. For example, a student who receives verbal praise and good grades for correct answers (positive reinforcement) is likely to learn those answers effectively; one who receives little or no positive feedback for the same answers (negative reinforcement) is less likely to learn them as effectively. Likewise, human learners tend to avoid responses that are associated with punishment or unpleasant consequences such as poor grades or adverse feedback.
From a behaviorist perspective, the transmission of information from teacher to learner is essentially the transmission of the response appropriate to a certain stimulus. Thus, the point of education is to present the student with the appropriate repertoire of behavioral responses to specific stimuli and to reinforce those responses through an effective reinforcement schedule (161). An effective reinforcement schedule requires consistent repetition of the material; small, progressive sequences of tasks; and continuous positive reinforcement. Without positive reinforcement, learned responses will quickly become extinct. This is because learners will continue to modify their behavior until they receive some positive reinforcement.

Behaviorism theory education
What was important for a behaviorist analysis of human behavior was not language acquisition so much as the interaction between language and overt behavior. In an essay republished in his 1969 book Contingencies of Reinforcement, Skinner took the view that humans could construct linguistic stimuli that would then acquire control over their behavior in the same way that external stimuli could. The possibility of such instructional control over behavior meant that contingencies of reinforcement would not always produce the same effects on human behavior as they reliably do in other animals. The focus of a radical behaviorist analysis of human behavior therefore shifted to an attempt to understand the interaction between instructional control and contingency control, and also to understand the behavioral processes that determine what instructions are constructed and what control they acquire over behavior. Important figures in this effort have been A. Charles Catania, C. Fergus Lowe, and Steven C. Hayes.
Skinner’s empirical work expanded on earlier research on trial-and-error learning by researchers such as Thorndike and Guthrie with both conceptual reformulations – Thorndike’s notion of a stimulus-response ‘association’ or ‘connection’ was abandoned – and methodological ones – the use of the ‘free operant’, so called because the animal was now permitted to respond at its own rate rather than in a series of trials determined by the experimenter procedures. With this method, Skinner carried out substantial experimental work on the effects of different schedules and rates of reinforcement on the rates of operant responses made by rats and pigeons. He achieved remarkable success in training animals to perform unexpected responses, and to emit large numbers of responses, and to demonstrate many empirical regularities at the purely behavioural level. This lent some credibility to his conceptual analysis.

The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist’s total scheme of investigation’.

Another important distinction between methodological and radical behaviorism concerns the extent to which environmental factors influence behavior. Watson’s (1913) methodological behaviorism asserts the mind is tabula rasa (a blank slate) at birth.

Behaviorism theory education
The classical conditioning process works by developing an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Simply put, the Premack Principle is a powerful method of cueing activities in a way that creates incentives for completing undesirable activities.
The clearest example of this is eating your vegetables before having your desert.

Resources:

http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/behaviorism.html
http://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html
http://www.verywellmind.com/behavioral-psychology-4157183
http://helpfulprofessor.com/behaviorism/
http://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Classroom_Management_Theorists_and_Theories/Burrhus_Frederic_Skinner

behaviorism theory in education

Behaviorist Approach The Behaviorist Approach By Saul McLeod, updated 2017 Behaviorism is a theory of learning which states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the

behaviorism theory in education

While behaviorists often accept the existence of cognitions and emotions, they prefer not to study them as only observable (i.e., external) behavior can be objectively and scientifically measured.
Behaviorism is a theory of learning which states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment through a process called conditioning. Thus, behavior is simply a response to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors, as they can be studied in a systematic and observable manner.

Pavlov didn’t stop there. Next, he rung a bell every time the dog was about to eat to see whether the bell would also cause the dog to salivate.
References

Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. There are two different types of conditioning, each yielding a different behavioral pattern:

  • Behaviorism does not account for all kinds of learning, since it disregards the activities of the mind.
  • Behaviorism does not explain some learning–such as the recognition of new language patterns by young children–for which there is no reinforcement mechanism.
  • Research has shown that animals adapt their reinforced patterns to new information. For instance, a rat can shift its behavior to respond to changes in the layout of a maze it had previously mastered through reinforcements.

Behaviorist teaching methods tend to rely on so-called “skill and drill” exercises to provide the consistent repetition necessary for effective reinforcement of response patterns. Other methods include question (stimulus) and answer (response) frameworks in which questions are of gradually increasing difficulty; guided practice; and regular reviews of material. Behaviorist methods also typically rely heavily on the use of positive reinforcements such as verbal praise, good grades, and prizes. Behaviorists assess the degree of learning using methods that measure observable behavior such as exam performance. Behaviorist teaching methods have proven most successful in areas where there is a “correct” response or easily memorized material. For example, while behaviorist methods have proven to be successful in teaching structured material such as facts and formulae, scientific concepts, and foreign language vocabulary, their efficacy in teaching comprehension, composition, and analytical abilities is questionable.
Methodological behaviorism began as a reaction against the introspective psychology that dominated the late-19th and early-20th centuries. Introspective psychologists such as Wilhelm Wundt maintained that the study of consciousness was the primary object of psychology. Their methodology was primarily introspective, relying heavily on first-person reports of sensations and the constituents of immediate experiences. Behaviorists such as J. B. Watson and B. F. Skinner rejected introspectionist methods as being subjective and unquantifiable. Instead, they focused on objectively observable, quantifiable events and behavior. They argued that since it is not possible to observe objectively or to quantify what occurs in the mind, scientific theories should take into account only observable indicators such as stimulus-response sequences. According to Skinner (1976, 23), “The mentalistic problem can be avoided by going directly to the prior physical causes while bypassing intermediate feelings or states of mind. The quickest way to do this is to … consider only those facts which can be objectively observed in the behavior of one person in its relation to his [or her] prior environmental history.” Radical behaviorists such as Skinner also made the ontological claim that facts about mental states are reducible to facts about behavioral dispositions.

Behaviorism theory in education
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Resources:

http://helpfulprofessor.com/behaviorism/
http://www.funderstanding.com/theory/behaviorism/
http://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/behaviorism/
http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html
http://gsi.berkeley.edu/gsi-guide-contents/learning-theory-research/behaviorism/

social cognitive theory in education

Social Cognitive Theory Social cognitive theory added emotions and cognitions to social learning theory such that an individual’s thoughts and feelings affect their own behavior, and their

social cognitive theory in education

Social cognitive theory in education
Self-efficacy has consistently been shown to influence behaviors in stroke survivors. 26 Social cognitive theory outlines four ways to improve self-efficacy: (1) mastery experiences, (2) vicarious experiences (i.e., social modeling), (3) social persuasion, and (4) states of emotions and physiology. 71 Healthcare providers can provide mastery experiences by encouraging patients to practice the behavior, ensuring that the patient has small successes in engaging in the behavior (i.e., start simple and progress in difficulty), and providing feedback on progress. Healthcare providers can facilitate vicarious experiences by encouraging patients to attend support groups, having them interact with other patients (e.g., group education), and describing success stories of patients engaging in the behavior. Social persuasion and states of emotions can both be addressed by providing education, for example, providing pamphlets on the benefits of exercising or medications, teaching the differences between fatigue felt after exercise and fatigue caused by the stroke, and addressing feelings of depression and/or anxiety. Table 20.1 provides details on implementing behavior strategies consistent with social cognitive theory.
Self-efficacy theory (SET) is a subset of Bandura’s ( 1986 ) social cognitive theory . According to this approach, the two key determinants of behavior are perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. The latter construct refers to the perceived positive and negative consequences of performing the behavior. See Schwarzer and Fuchs ( 1996 ) for a version of this model that incorporates risk perceptions and behavioral intention, as well as components of the action phase of behavior change. No meta-analysis of SET has been published, though there is substantial evidence for the predictive validity of self-efficacy (Schwarzer and Fuchs 1996 ).

One theory that draws on both cognitive and behavior influences and benefits from technology is that of social learning or the social cognitive theory. Learning continually occurs through social interactions and influences from the community, media and the Internet. People determine how these influences will affect them based on their inner thoughts. Through social interactions learning will occur and meaning will be constructed. There are numerous opportunities for people to enhance their learning through social interactions online. Global networking and creating/interacting with educational games as a group are a few resources to enhance social learning. Social learning is ever increasing with the continual advancements of technology and online communications.
Scherba de Valenzuela, J. (2002). Sociocultural Theory. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009, from http://www.unm.edu/%7Edevalenz/handouts/sociocult.html

Social cognitive theory in education
For Bandura (1986), the capability that is most “distinctly human” (p. 21) is that of self-reflection, hence it is a prominent feature of social cognitive theory. Through self-reflection, people make sense of their experiences, explore their own cognitions and self-beliefs, engage in self-evaluation, and alter their thinking and behavior accordingly.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.

An experiment by Schunk and Hanson, that studied grade 2 students who had previously experienced difficulty in learning subtraction, illustrates the type of research stimulated by social learning theory. One group of students observed a subtraction demonstration by a teacher and then participated in an instructional program on subtraction. A second group observed other grade 2 students performing the same subtraction procedures and then participated in the same instructional program. The students who observed peer models scored higher on a subtraction post-test and also reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that perceived similarity of the model to the learner increases self-efficacy, leading to more effective learning of modeled behavior. It is supposed that peer modeling is particularly effective for students who have low self-efficacy.
Social cognitive theory is a highly influential fusion of behavioral, cognitive and social elements that was initially developed by educational psychologist Albert Bandura. In its earlier, neo-behavioral incarnation called social learning theory, Bandura emphasized the process of observational learning in which a learner’s behavior changes as a result of observing others’ behavior and its consequences. The theory identified several factors that determine whether observing a model will affect behavioral or cognitive change. These factors include the learner’s developmental status, the perceived prestige and competence of the model, the consequences received by the model, the relevance of the model’s behaviors and consequences to the learner’s goals, and the learner’s self-efficacy. The concept of self-efficacy, which played an important role in later developments of the theory, refers to the learner’s belief in his or her ability to perform the modeled behavior.

Social cognitive theory in education
Such beliefs can impact personal growth and change. For example, research has shown that enhancing self-efficacy beliefs is more likely to result in the improvement of health habits than the use of fear-based communication. Belief in one’s self-efficacy can be the difference between whether or not an individual even considers making positive changes in their life.
Social cognitive theory is a learning theory developed by the renowned Stanford psychology professor Albert Bandura. The theory provides a framework for understanding how people actively shape and are shaped by their environment. In particular, the theory details the processes of observational learning and modeling, and the influence of self-efficacy on the production of behavior.

Resources:

http://sites.google.com/a/boisestate.edu/edtechtheories/social-cognition-and-social-learning-theories-of-education-and-technology
http://sites.education.uky.edu/motivation/social-cognitive-theory/
http://www.k12academics.com/educational-psychology/learning-cognition/social-cognitive-perspective
http://www.thoughtco.com/social-cognitive-theory-4174567
http://futuresinitiative.org/rethinkhighered/2017/11/13/student-involvement-a-developmental-theory-for-higher-education/

montessori education theory

Montessori education theory Maria Montessori was born in Italy in 1870. In her work at the University of Rome’s psychiatric clinic, Dr. Montessori developed an interest in the treatment of

montessori education theory

Montessori education theory
4 Stages of Development:
Key Concepts of Piaget
Schemas – A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world.

Montessori education theory
No teacher needs to intervene in the learning process: “The goal is that the child will develop a sense of satisfaction from the work itself, not be dependent on the approval of a teacher.” (The Montessori Controversy, pg. 90) A child learns to make his own decisions and therefore to know and comprehend his instincts effectively. He develops confidence and the ability to problem solve. Montessori called children who reach this point “Normalized”, a term defined by qualities such as self-control, concentration, independence, empathy, and discipline. Normalization is the main goal of Montessori education.
in 1949, Dr. Maria Montessori published a book called “The Absorbent Mind”. She believed strongly in this theory of child-centered development and centered much of her work on it.

Montessori education theory
Young children aren’t usually known for intense concentration. To the contrary, kids are expected to bounce from one activity to another with the attention span of a gnat. That’s why parents are surprised by what they see when they tour Eton Montessori School in Bellevue, Washington: Children as young as three happily engaged in independent, focused work for long stretches.
Though the terms focus and concentration conjure up images of a child working alone, mindfulness is not always a solo pursuit. Montessori-style learning helps kids learn the fine art of shared concentration by encouraging them to engage in tasks with a classmate or two – a critical skill in the age of teamwork.

The first plane of development that starts at birth and continues until the child is 6 years old is characterized by children’s “Absorbent Mind”, which takes and absorbs every aspect, good and bad, from the environment that surrounds him/her, its language and its culture. In the second plane, from 6 to 12 years old, the child possesses a “rational mind” to emplore the world with imagination and abstract thinking. In the third plane, from 12 to 18 years old, the teenager has a “humanistic mind” which desires to understand humanity and to contribute to society. In the last plane of development, from 18 to 24 years old, the adult explores the world with a “specialist mind”, finding his/her place in it.
The Story of Numbers

Montessori education theory
Once the learner has found the meaning by contrast, he/she has to generalize the aspect which has previously been separated. If the aspect, for instance, is colour, generalization is achieved by keeping the colour invariant but varying other aspects such as form and size. The aim of generalization is not to find out what different aspects have in common; rather, it is to find out how different aspects vary. If the aspect is colour, the conclusion we will draw through generalization will therefore be something like: “so this can be red, and this and this”, rather than “they are all red”. As Marton ( 2015 ) points out: “Through contrast, we are trying to find necessary aspects of the object of learning, those that define it. Through generalization, we want to separate the optional aspects from the necessary aspects” (p. 51). However, from a variation-theoretical perspective, it is important here to emphasize that such generalization should always be preceded by contrast (ibid.).
The didactic material used for teaching the first arithmetical operations is the same one as used for numeration, the Number Rods. Montessori ( 1912/64 ) writes:

Resources:

http://carrotsareorange.com/montessori-theory-philosophy/
http://www.washingtonparent.com/articles/1709/1709-montessori-method-learning-theories-explained.php
http://www.fundacionmontessori.org/the-montessori-method.htm
http://www.journalofmore.org/articles/10.16993/jmre.12/
http://www.socialstudies.org/sites/default/files/publications/se/6003/600303.html

higher education handbook of theory and research

This Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. It contains chapters on such diverse topics as policy and diversity.

higher education handbook of theory and research

MICHAEL B. PAULSEN is Professor of Higher Education & Student Affairs at The University of Iowa. His primary areas of scholarly expertise are: (a) economics, finance and policy in higher education; and (b) teaching, learning and curriculum in higher education. Prior to his faculty appointment at The University of Iowa, he was a professor of higher education at the Universities of Illinois, Alabama and New Orleans. He is Series Editor of the annual volumes of the scholarly books series, Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. He has also served for over twenty years on the editorial board of Research in Higher Education. He has over seventy publications—books, journal articles, and book chapters. In addition to his annual volumes of the Handbook, Professor Paulsen’s other books include Economics of Higher Education (w/R. Toutkoushian); The Finance of Higher Education (w/J. Smart); Applying Economics to Institutional Research (w/R. Toutkoushian); Taking Teaching Seriously (w/K. Feldman); Teaching and Learning in the College Classroom (w/K. Feldman); and College Choice. His work has been published in an array of professional journals, such as Journal of Higher Education, Research in Higher Education, Review of Higher Education, Journal of College Student Development, Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, Journal of Education Finance, Economics of Education Review, Higher Education, Teaching in Higher Education, Journal of Faculty Development, and College Teaching. In 2015, Dr. Paulsen received the RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENT AWARD from the Association for the Study of Higher Education.
Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. Each annual volume contains chapters on such diverse topics as research on college students and faculty, organization and administration, curriculum and instruction, policy, diversity issues, economics and finance, history and philosophy, community colleges, advances in research methodology and more. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world.

Higher education handbook of theory and research
The Series Editors:
Laura W. Perna, University of Pennsylvania, USA

N2 – Organizational learning is a conceptually rich construct that can inform understandings of a wide range of organizational phenomena. The field of higher education, however, lacks a sufficient body of empirical research on organizational learning in colleges and universities. Moreover, the limited set of organizational learning publications in higher education is weighted heavily toward the functionalist paradigm. This lack of paradigm diversity can be problematic in terms of how the organizational learning construct is applied to practice. In the context of the corporatization of higher education, where the authority of central management has been strengthened, functionalist approaches to organizational learning can reinforce top-down power dynamics and exacerbate tensions between faculty and administrators. This chapter calls for higher education researchers not only to conduct more studies of organizational learning, but to do so from the vantage point of multiple research paradigms. First, the chapter discusses how organizational learning is relevant to the unique contexts of higher education institutions. Second, the chapter examines the wide variety of definitions used in the organizational learning literature, and highlights some of the paradigm debates that have emerged among scholars in this field. Next, the chapter explains and critiques some of the prominent functionalist theories that have guided the study of organizational learning. To complement these long-standing functionalist perspectives, the chapter introduces several organizational learning theories that have emerged in other paradigms. Finally, the chapter concludes with a proposed research agenda for studying organizational learning in colleges and universities.
Higher education: handbook of theory and research. ed. / Michael B. Paulsen. Cham/Heidelberg/New York : Springer, 2016. p. 275-348 (Higher education: handbook of theory and research; No. 31).

Higher education handbook of theory and research
As an Associate Professor of Higher Education, Dr. Kimball teaches courses related to student development theory; student affairs practice; research design; and qualitative research methods. He also serves as the instructor for a first year seminar course, FYS197 Disability in American Civic Life, that utilizes participatory action research methods to help undergraduate students produce new empirical information about how stigma related to disability shapes postsecondary learning environments. Prior to joining the faculty at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Dr. Kimball worked as an administrator at Curry College, Maine College of Art, and PSL STRIVE / STRIVE U, where much of his work focused on supporting students with disabilities.
Dr. Ezekiel Kimball is Associate Dean for Operations and Planning, an Associate Professor of Higher Education, and the Associate Director of the Center for Student Success Research at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. An expert on the postsecondary success trajectories of students with disabilities, his publications have appeared in the Journal of College Student Development, Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, the Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, and New Directions in Institutional Research. In recognition of his scholarly achievements, Dr. Kimball has been named an ACPA Emerging Scholar by ACPA: College Educators International, a Family Research Scholar by the Center for Research on Families, and a Public Engagement Fellow by the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Higher education handbook of theory and research
Dental Phobias (G. Kent).
Water Phobia (R. Menzies).

Resources:

http://www.springer.com/series/6028
http://research.utwente.nl/en/publications/organizational-learning-in-higher-education-institutions-theories
http://www.umass.edu/education/people/ezekiel-kimball
http://www.wiley.com/en-us/Phobias%3A+A+Handbook+of+Theory%2C+Research+and+Treatment-p-9780471969839
http://www.nsa.bg/en/faculty,1/department,37

deficit theory in education

Scores of books, blogs, and articles have challenged the deficit theory, which was defined by Collins in 1988 as a belief that the poor are poor because of their own moral and intellectual deficiencies. Of course, that hasn’t stopped a far greater number of people from continuing to believe in the myth of the undeserving…

deficit theory in education

Deficit theory in education
Kendra LaRoche is a Rowland Fellow of the 2011 cohort, and currently teaches at Burr and Burton Academy in Manchester, VT.
Most educators have good intentions. Many educators also reflect on their own practices. Some educators even go so far as to recognize their own biases. Even these top educators, who are already going above and beyond many of their peers to thoughtfully reflect, are left to flounder when it comes to how to combat their own stereotypes. While many have challenged the myths of a ‘poverty mindset’, few have offered solutions. Teachers and administrators feel powerless to address access to education, since it often falls outside of the scope of traditional schools.

In the 1960’s Cultural Deficit Theorists such as Hess, Shipman, Engelmann, Bereiter and Deutsch, began to gain more credence over the Genetic Theorists. Their studies, especially, began to focus on the idea of “nurture” versus “nature” (Erickson, 1987).” Most cultural deficit studies blamed the child’s social, cultural or economic environment as being “depraved and deprived” of the elements necessary to “achieve the behavior rules (role requirements)” needed to academically succeed (Hess & Shipman, 1965). Engelmann and Bereiter, further emphasized how “cultural deprivation” theories supported the idea that social and emotional deficiencies affected student performance within the academic system. Until dealt with, these differences, would make it “impossible for” culturally deprived students “to progress in academic areas” (1966). Although these same studies did testify that they could modify the behavior of disadvantaged children, they made little progress towards student knowledge acquisition. As the study states, there were “virtually no inroads against the children’s lacks in verbal learning” (1966:41). TOP
C ontexts for Understanding: Educational Learning Theories

According to Otto, numerous researchers have studied language differences between economically privileged children and children who live in poverty. These researchers have described differences in terms of dialect, ways in which children use language to describe aspects of their lives and communicative patterns in the families of these children. The researchers noted that children from economically deprived communities did not succeed in school as well as the children from middle- and upper-class environments.
The “deficit theory” of education posits that students who differ from the norm in a significant way should be considered deficient, and that the educational process must correct these deficiencies.

Deficit theory in education
Put like that, it’s obvious: many studies have shown that children from deprived backgrounds have a more limited vocabulary than others — sometimes extremely so. In advanced countries, where there is a large ‘underclass’ of unemployable people, children often lack role models of responsible adults.
The Deficit Theory attempts to explain why certain disadvantaged students show a high failure rate in school. These students coming from socio-economically disadvantaged homes, show a lack of verbal stimulation and entered school without the necessary linguistic resources for success.

Deficit theory in education
Their voice and participation in the planning for success have a huge impact on their motivation to participate.
The GIT and the instructional roundtables that follow are the most important ownership interventions. Each student, as well as his or her parents, is integral to the roundtable where solutions are decided with the student’s input. They have to own the solution:

Resources:

http://staff.washington.edu/saki/strategies/101/new_page_5.htm
http://www.reference.com/world-view/deficit-theory-education-3322533fc557e281
http://myteachersalley.blogspot.com/2018/01/deficit-theory-eller-1989.html?m=1
http://www.edutopia.org/blog/deficit-model-is-harming-students-janice-lombardi
http://fredjonesgraduateproject.pbworks.com/w/page/40563918/Fred%20Jones-Classroom%20Management

john locke theory on education

John Locke was an English philosopher and physician in the 17th century who is known as the “Father of Classical Liberalism.” He was also one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. Locke is well-known for his tabula rasa view of the human mind, his social contract theory, and his belief that knowledge is derived through…

john locke theory on education

John locke theory on education
25 Friday Oct 2013
John Locke was an English philosopher and physician in the 17 th century who is known as the “Father of Classical Liberalism.” He was also one of the most influential Enlightenment thinkers. Locke is well-known for his tabula rasa view of the human mind, his social contract theory, and his belief that knowledge is derived through experience of the senses. His political theories influenced the writings of other philosophers and the key ideas behind the United States’ Declaration of Independence. Locke is famous for three works: A Letter Concerning Toleration, The Second Treatise on Civil Government, and Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Locke has also been labeled “the father of modern education in England” (Locke, 205).

John locke theory on education
[1] [1] Bird T. Baldwin, “John Locke’s Contribution to Education”, 1913
Introduction to the Understanding Why Schools Are the Way They Are Series

Of course, fancy must be tempered by reality. The book simultaneously calls for encouraging self-control, implementing a love of reason, instilling virtue, and utilizing disgrace, as well as praise, as a motivator. A friend to traditionalists as well as to progressives, Locke extols the importance of example and the power of habit. Some Thoughts Concerning Education appealed to parents and teachers because Locke was concrete, practical, moderate, and balanced.
In his book, Locke acknowledges that he does not have all the answers, such as how to motivate the listless student or how to extirpate “sauntering” (17th-century parlance for “hanging out”). There is little mention of art and music. Living in a patriarchal, aristocratic society, he has little advice for women and poor people. He could not envision the importance of a public school in a democracy.

John locke theory on education
Locke attacked ordinary method of teaching – manners learned by example, latin learned by speaking (cranston p. 16)
VIII. THEORY OF CONSENSUS Why do people disagree? How is the consensus achieved? Whose opinion takes precedence?

17In eastern Europe, or the western parts of Asia, the barbarian proves that Greek is not a necessary possession, because his achievement has nothing to do, apparently, with his knowledge of the language and culture. And yet this reference to the Scythian as “Philosopher” is arguably the only positive mention of philosophy in the Thoughts. Most of the word’s other occurrences have to do with movements Locke denigrates: scholasticism, metaphysics or the speculative but impracticable science of “Natural Philosophy” (§190). Yet the reader can only feel that Locke’s thoughts are philosophical, rather than medical, pedagogical in the strict sense or political.
29Education is impossible in this standard view, without social qualification: “Leisure, Books, and Languages” especially. Men are otherwise like animals, and far from representing a new opportunity for the family or the mind, their children are just a further hindrance to their own intellectual development. But beginning with the body, Some Thoughts opens channels of connection between higher and lower classes, so long as the latter are capable of a certain degree of honesty and substance, or “Breeding.” The clearest symptom of the change underway is the long discussion of the tutor (§92-94). Before Locke cuts the discussion short, one may begin to suspect that he has changed subjects, concerning himself not with the creation of a young gentleman’s character but with the tutor’s.

Resources:

http://medium.com/@talesfromthecla/understanding-why-schools-are-the-way-they-are-john-locke-269fd5dbe1d7
http://mobile.edweek.org/c.jsp?cid=25919971&bcid=25919971&rssid=25919961&item=http%3A%2F%2Fapi.edweek.org%2Fv1%2Few%2F%3Fuuid%3D2BF9EED4-36E0-11E5-94EF-71C9B3743667
http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Locke.html
http://www.cairn.info/revue-etudes-anglaises-2005-4-page-387.htm
http://www.beds.ac.uk/jpd/volume-4-issue-1/key-pedagogic-thinkers-sigmund-freud/