value added models in education theory and applications

Value-Added Model (VAM) Research for Educational Policy: Framing the Issue.

value added models in education theory and applications

EPAA/AAPE is a peer-reviewed, open-access, international, multilingual, and multidisciplinary journal designed for researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and development analysts concerned with education policies. EPAA/AAPE accepts unpublished original manuscripts in English, Spanish and Portuguese without restriction as to conceptual and methodological perspectives, time or place. EPAA/AAPE publishes issues comprised of empirical articles, commentaries, and special issues at roughly weekly intervals, all of which pertain to educational policy, with direct implications for educational policy.
Clarin Collins, Ph.D., recently graduated from the Educational Policy and Evaluation program in the Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College at Arizona State University. For her dissertation study she analyzed teachers’ understanding of and experiences with the SAS Educational Value-Added Assessment System (SAS ® EVAAS ® ) in the Houston Independent School District where SAS ® EVAAS ® is currently used to evaluate teachers with high-stakes consequences. Her research interests include national and local policy implementation at the classroom level, teacher influences on policymaking and implementation, and education evaluation and accountability systems.

Value added models in education theory and applications
Orcid: 0000-0002-4137-2025 Yazar: İbrahim YILDIRIM Kurum: Harran University Ülke: Turkey
Orcid: 0000-0001-6962-4960 Yazar: Sedat ŞEN (Sorumlu Yazar) Kurum: Harran University Ülke: Turkey

Value added models in education theory and applications
Jimmy Scherrer, The University of Pittsburgh, 830 Learning Research and Development Center, 3939 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA Email: [email protected]
Jimmy Scherrer is part of the Learning PolicyCenter at the Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, USA. His work lies at the intersection of instruction and policy. Current projects include Improving Teacher Accountability Systems and Examining the Classroom Discourse Patterns of Effective Teachers.

Hanushek, E. (1972). Education and race. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company.
Graham, S.E., Singer, J.D. and Willett, J.B. (in press). Longitudinal data analysis. In A. Maydeu-Olivares and R. Millsap (Eds.), Handbook of quantitative methods in psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Value added models in education theory and applications
Doug Harris’ book focuses solely on VAMs and what the title suggests, “What every educator needs to know” about VAMs. Hence, his examination of VAMs, while primarily of VAMs’ technical properties and limitations, is written in a way to make this highly technical information accessible to more of an everyday practitioner type of audience. Beyond VAMs’ strengths and weaknesses, Harris also proposes a series of suggestions, given the limitations of value-added, so that others, particularly those in practice, do not feel paralyzed by the top-down policies of which VAMs and VAM use are a part. He also offers implications of those for policy.
Audrey Amrein-Beardsley writes in her book about the analytical methods of documenting students‘ academic progress over time, specific to using VAMs and student growth models (e.g., the Student Growth Percentiles [SGP] model) and students’ large-scale standardized test scores to measure growth. Throughout the book, she discusses the major issues surrounding VAMs writ large, specifically in that they have (thus far) issues with 1) reliability or consistency, 2) validity, 3) transparency, 4) fairness, and 5) use, especially in that they are too often being used to make consequential decisions regarding such things as teacher pay, retention, and termination. She also examines the unintended consequences of VAM use, and abuse, many of which are not fully recognized in larger policy arenas.

Resources:

http://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/turje/issue/39139/456656
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0192636511410052
http://www.nap.edu/read/12820/chapter/7
http://vamboozled.com/books-on-vams/
http://www.umich.edu/~psycours/350/moverby/truefalseexam_1.htm

cognitive theory education

As an aspiring or current teacher it’s important to understand different learning styles and how they impact your students. Recognizing how different students may learn best will help you be an effective teacher. Discover what cognitive learning is and how it can help teachers reach their students.

cognitive theory education

Cognitive theory education
Social cognitive theory is the idea that learning happens in a social concept and is impacted by the person, environment, and behavior. In social cognitive theory it is suggested that there are several factors that impact a person’s ability to perform and learn. Their internal thoughts, and external forces around them can both play an important role in their cognitive process. Social interactions, things they see around them, observed behavior, and how they interpret these things all impact behavior and learning. For example, a teacher can help students see the outcome of a certain behavior. They can show students that when they listen to instructions and follow quickly, there is more time at the end of the day for a reward. This gives students the motivation to follow that social behavior.
How to Use Cognitive Learning Strategies as an Educator

Cognitive theory education

Accommodation – how we modify what we already know to take new information into account;
Cognitive Learning Theory, on the other hand, suggests that the learner is an active participant in the process. They come to the table with their own skills, knowledge, memories and relevant information they’ve learned in the past. When learning something new, individuals process and construct their own understanding of a topic based on their past experiences and knowledge.

At GradePower Learning, our cognitive teaching strategies focus on meaningful learning. We don’t focus on memorization or repetition. Instead, our tutors teach students the fundamentals of lifelong learning. Your child will learn skills and strategies that will help him or her on the way to better grades in school, including how to think critically and how to make lasting connections between topics.
Cognitive learning helps students learn effectively and ensures that the concepts learned in class are understood, not just memorized.

Cognitive theory education

  1. Behavioral factors
  2. Environmental factors (extrinsic)
  3. Personal factors (intrinsic).

The theory is broken down into two further cognitive theories of learning: the Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT) and the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). What’s the difference?

Cognitive theory education
Piaget disagreed with the behaviorist theory which focuses strictly on observable behavior. He concentrated more attention to what went on inside the learner’s head, instead of how they reacted.
The Cognitive Learning Theory is a broad theory used to explain the mental processes and how they are influenced by both internal and external factors in order to produce learning in an individual. The theory is credited to Educational psychologist Jean Piaget. He believed knowledge is something that is actively constructed by learners based on their existing cognitive structures.

Resources:

http://www.learnupon.com/blog/cognitive-learning-theory/
http://gradepowerlearning.com/cognitive-learning-theory/
http://www.edapp.com/blog/cognitive-learning-theory/
http://thepeakperformancecenter.com/educational-learning/learning/theories/cognitive-learning-theory/
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000073.htm

a signaling theory of education suggests that educational attainment

Human Capital Theory Related terms: Download as PDF About this page Entrepreneurship, Psychology of 4 Human Capital Human capital theory is concerned with knowledge and

a signaling theory of education suggests that educational attainment

A signaling theory of education suggests that educational attainment
A context that affects immigrant earnings trajectories is the structure of the host-country’s labor market. One conceptualization is based in human capital theory . Another, introduced by the economists Averitt (1968) and Doeringer and Piore (1971) , postulates that two types of demand determine the characteristics of jobs in the economy. Jobs in the primary sector (responding to the stable component of demand) are “good jobs” characterized by security, responsibility, and career lines; jobs in the secondary sector (responding to demand that is highly variable) are dead-end jobs. The dual labor market theory contends that it is not so much the human capital of individuals that determines their earnings trajectories, but the characteristics of the job a person is in. Jobs are, to some extent, “parceled out” with some groups benefiting from the employment fruits of the primary sector while others, primarily poorly educated minorities and immigrants, are shunted off to the secondary sector.
Figure 3 . Benefits and costs associated with alternative signals. Adapted from Spence, A. M. (1973). Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics 87, 355–374.

The signalling theory as developed by Spence ( 1973 ) starts from the following assumptions: (i) individuals differ in productivity and productivity is fully person-specific and not affected by schooling; (ii) more schooling entails more costs, and schooling costs are lower for the more productive (e.g., they may need to spend less time studying); (iii) individuals know their productivity; employers do not (asymmetrical information); and (iv) schooling levels can be observed without incurring a cost. As employers cannot observe potential workers’ actual productivity, they instead used educational qualifications to predict productivity, make hiring decisions, and set wages, based on the assumption that individuals who have more years of education are more productive. The model is based on the premise that individuals will invest in schooling as long as the benefits outweigh the cost. Since employers can observe total output for the entire workforce, they can use this as probabilistic information to check whether this assumption is correct in the aggregate. Thus, employers cannot directly observe the marginal product prior to hiring. What employers observe is a plethora of personal data in the form of observable characteristics and attributes of the individual (e.g., education, previous work, race, sex, criminal and service records, etc.).
If education only serves as a screen, the gross social returns to education will be zero because of its distributional effects. The net social returns will be negative, as investments in education imply social costs (Johnstone 2017 ) with are not matched by higher total output. However, the private returns to investment in education will be positive for those with more capabilities. In an economy without signalling, all employees would receive the same wage equal to the average marginal product. As a results of signalling, workers with more capabilities will receive more than average, while those with less capabilities will receive less than average.

I propose that government should rather decrease the prices of higher education, to make it more accessible to a much larger population. More population earning higher degrees will push the employers to engage in evaluating the human capital or skills possessed by an individual, than merely relying on signalling effect of higher education. Government should also simultaneously offer several vocational training courses — equivalent to a degree, to ensure that an average individual is equipped with necessary vocational and professional skills with regards to a certain field of work.
Further, it has to be understood that in India, a large section of the population is engaged in informal labour, which does not work on signalling. This is largely due to inaccessibility to formal training by a large section of the population. Unni and Sarkar (2012) found that returns on education are high, particularly for the disadvantaged social groups. Nevertheless, the education levels in these social groups remain low due to non-availability of schools in the local region, and a general perception that chances of obtaining regular employment are low even after obtaining the required education level. Hence, if the government lowers the overall cost of higher education, disadvantaged groups can gain in terms of upward economic and social mobility.

A signaling theory of education suggests that educational attainment
Subgraph 3.C in Fig. 3 shows that there is a high country-level correlation ( (r = 0.77) ) between the within-group standard deviations of literacy and numeracy skills for adults with intermediate and high levels of education. Correlations are lower for the comparisons involving the less-educated group: the correlation with the intermediate-educated group (Subgraph 3.A) is 0.44 and the one with the high-educated group 0.46 (Subgraph 3.B). Nevertheless, the overall picture emerging from Fig. 3 is one of rather strong interrelatedness: Countries where the less educated are very heterogeneous also tend to be countries where the intermediate and high educated are very heterogeneous. The relatively high degree of similarity across educational groups might partly reflect the impact of contextual factors that affect the different groups in similar ways. This possibility will be further pursued in next section where I take a closer look at the role of education systems. Another possible explanation is that some countries have more heterogeneous populations than others, and that these differences in population heterogeneity translate into more heterogeneous educational groups. While the within-group standard deviations in Fig. 3 are calculated after adjusting for differences in sex, age, and foreign-birth/foreign-language status, there clearly are many other individual-level characteristics that might influence the variance of literacy and numeracy skills within a country’s population. Potentially relevant factors include detailed adult training participation, immigration history, language proficiency, or childhood conditions. At least some of these factors are included in the more comprehensive set of covariates considered in the “Robustness checks” section below.
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I begin with two general observations that outline terms on which I agree with Caplan, given his analysis, and where I think that scholars interested in questions of educational justice and fairness in higher education should pay particular attention. In the final section, however, I argue that Caplan’s defense of “radical” cuts as the only way forward elides important questions about the justification of higher education.

Resources:

http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_108-1
http://medium.com/@nidhitambi/relevance-of-human-capital-theory-and-signalling-theory-of-education-in-the-indian-context-4141bd44206d
http://largescaleassessmentsineducation.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40536-018-0062-1
http://www.oneducation.net/no-06_december-2019/the-case-against-actually-existing-higher-education-human-capital-educational-signaling-and-justice/
http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/171/re-envisioning-paulo-freires-banking-concept-of-education

dialogic inquiry towards a sociocultural practice and theory of education

Read the full-text online edition of Dialogic Inquiry: Towards a Sociocultural Practice and Theory of Education (1999).

dialogic inquiry towards a sociocultural practice and theory of education

Mother: Well, when it was in the oven, it got very hot and stretched a bit . I’ve just taken it out of the oven, and it’s cooling down very quickly, you see, and that noise happens when it gets smaller again and goes back to its ordinary shape
James, age 5, comes into the kitchen just as his mother has taken some cakes out of the oven. There is a loud, metallic “Crack. ”

For more than a quarter of a century, the polemics surrounding educational reform have centered on two points of view: those who favor a ‘progressive’ child-centered form of education, and those who would prefer a return to a more structured, teacher-directed curriculum, which emphasizes basic knowledge and skills. Vygotsky’s social constructivist theory offers an alternative solution, placing stress on co-construction of knowledge by more and less mature participants engaging in joint activity together, with semiotic mediation as the primary means whereby the less mature participants can seek solutions to everyday problems, using the resources existing in society. In addition to using illustrative examples from classroom studies, a comparative analysis of the theories and complementary developments in works by Vygotsky, and the linguist M. A. K. Halliday, are provided. This unique volume will be of tremendous benefit to those in the field of education, as well as to sociolinguists, psychologists and researchers.
Gordon Wells, University of Toronto

Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.
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Dialogic inquiry towards a sociocultural practice and theory of education
This volume on Vygotsky presents the alternative solutions to reach a compromise between a child-centered and teacher-directed education.
For more than a quarter of a century, the polemics surrounding educational reform have centered on two points of view: those who favor a ‘progressive’ child-centered form of education, and those who would prefer a return to a more structured, teacher-directed curriculum, which emphasizes basic knowledge and skills. Vygotsky’s social constructivist theory offers an alternative solution, placing stress on co-construction of knowledge by more and less mature participants engaging in joint activity together, with semiotic mediation as the primary means whereby the less mature participants can seek solutions to everyday problems, using the resources existing in society. In addition to using illustrative examples from classroom studies, a comparative analysis of the theories and complementary developments in works by Vygotsky, and the linguist M. A. K. Halliday, are provided. This unique volume will be of tremendous benefit to those in the field of education, as well as to sociolinguists, psychologists and researchers.

Vygotsky’s fundamental insight was “higher psychological processes unique to humans can be acquired only through interactions with others”
Expanded view of ZPD:
1. rather than being a fixed attribute of the learner, the zpd is dynamically created and emerges in the activity
2. the ZPD potentially applies to all participants in a learning community
3. the sources of assistance and guidance are not limited to human participants who are physically present

Resources:

http://www.cambridge.org/core_title/gb/137356
http://www.worldcat.org/title/dialogic-inquiry-towards-a-sociocultural-practice-and-theory-of-education/oclc/39624865?page=citation
http://www.kinokuniya.co.jp/f/dsg-02-9780521631334
http://tltjc.blogspot.com/2010/10/wells-g-1999-zone-of-proximal.html?m=1
http://www.educationquizzes.com/ks3/music/

what are theoretical foundations for theory practice gaps in nursing and nursig education

Exploring the reasons for theory-practice gap in emergency nursing education: A qualitative research Shima Safazadeh Student Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan

what are theoretical foundations for theory practice gaps in nursing and nursig education

What are theoretical foundations for theory practice gaps in nursing and nursig education
Nursing is a scientific profession based on research, theory, and numerous known concepts focused on the art of care and its results;[1] but guiding the practice by the theoretical sciences has been the biggest challenge facing nursing as an academic field, so far.[2] The difference between these two is the theory-practice gap,[3] which is known in the field of nursing and midwifery as a universal issue.[4] As Risjord quotes Cody (2006) theory’s place in nursing practice has long been obscure and unimportant, and this gap has led to an incomplete, small, and sometimes meaningless interaction.[5] According to researches, nursing students have experienced this gap, which can lead to incompatibility with the clinical setting and becoming disillusioned with nursing practice.[6] The newly graduated nurses would experience transition shock as a result of this gap[7] which makes them conclude their education was useless and following the usual traditional routines is a better choice. It leads to incapacity of nurses and the quality of nursing care decreases.[8] Hence, nursing education significantly requires an integration of theory and practice.[9] This combination is more important in emergency education. Because in emergency cases, nursing interventions are based on independent judgment, decision-making skill, and prioritizing.[10]
A number of studies have been conducted to establish the nature of and how to address this problem. For example, Streveler tried to understand what effect the theory-practice gap had on students and how students manage any differences they find.[11] Saifan et al. mentioned the reasons for this gap and present suggestions to overcome it.[12] Iranian researchers also have shown that nurses often do not follow their academic training in practice and can neither use their qualifications nor their scientific knowledge in the health system.[13] Some reasons are the shortage of philosophical insight about nursing, unappropriated clinical knowledge of instructors, and poor communication between theoretical and practical units,[14] using memorization system in nursing education[15] and the domination of task-oriented work in clinical settings.[13] However, the importance of training programs in shaping the essential professional skills and abilities of students[16] and the ambiguity and complexity of clinical education and its related issues,[17] especially in emergency departments, have inspired current writers to use their teaching and clinical experience and do further research to recognize and describe the reasons for theory-practice gap in the trainees of nursing in emergency departments.

What are theoretical foundations for theory practice gaps in nursing and nursig education
Data sources for this study were triangulated to ensure a holistic coverage of the phenomenon from perceptions of stakeholders with extensive experience of the events of TPG. The topic guide for focus group discussions was reviewed by two expert nurse educationists and piloted with student nurses, nurse faculty and clinicians at two sites similar to the study sites but in a different region. Minor revisions were made to wording of the topic guide to enhance clarity. Data analysis was also triangulated, and the analytical process peer reviewed by one of the co‐authors.
Students had to establish personal relationships with clinicians to facilitate their own clinical learning:

What are theoretical foundations for theory practice gaps in nursing and nursig education
In other words, if clinical research is actually to make a difference to practice it must be practitioner based.
Nor is it the sole responsibility of academics but a challenge shared by educators and practitioners too.

Furthermore, the ability to coregulate, or to create, meaning in a dynamic process with a multidisciplinary team is essential in the nursing setting. The graduating nurse needs to have the metacognitive awareness to self-regulate as well as an awareness of the other members of the health care team in order to provide quality patient care. For the graduating nurse to engage in this part of the professional nursing role it is vital that they are able to take on various perspectives and engage in a variety of communication techniques, social cognition, and construction and deconstruction of knowledge. The ability to engage successfully in these professional nurse role components requires the individual ability to participate in metacognitive practice [26].
Currently, graduating nurses are faced with entering a complex and rapidly changing health care environment in which they are required to work more autonomously [14]. There is a demand for self-evaluative and autonomous learners in the discipline of nursing due to this need for nurses to be able to view situations from a variety of perspectives and to translate their past, present, and future knowledge into effective health care interventions. Therefore, nursing curriculum has been challenged to embrace the need for a critically reflexive curriculum, rather than one that is grounded in subject based learning and behavioristic paradigms [15].

The separation or gap between theoretical science and clinical care can be defined as a mismatch between what nursing students learn in the classroom and what they experience in a clinical setting (9).
Table 1. The extent of education and practice gap from the viewpoint of the three groups of nurses, students, and nursing educators

Resources:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/nop2.188
http://www.ausmed.com/cpd/articles/close-theory-practice-gap
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anurs/2014/594360/
http://fmej.mums.ac.ir/article_11543.html
http://graysreadinggroup.wordpress.com/2012/12/18/the-reflective-practitioner-by-donald-schon/

bowen theory education center

Business profile for Bowen Theory Education Center – Education

bowen theory education center

Bowen theory education center
If you’d like additional exposure for your business or organization, we offer all kinds of options to fit your needs and budget. Do you want to bring more people in to your establishment? Why not consider a coupon or a promotional event? If you just need to keep yourself in the public eye you might want to think about placing an eye-catching full-color ad. You can choose your medium: the website, the mobile app, the weekly newsletter, our popular wall calendar, or any combination of the four.
The Center’s initial program is our annual Bowen Theory Symposium.

Bowen theory education center
Have the board and senior staff reviewed the conflict-of-interest policy and completed and signed disclosure statements in the past year?
Cause Area (NTEE Code)

The symposium also launches an eight month training program in Bowen Theory. This postgraduate and professional training program provides an in depth study of Bowen Theory, the study of natural systems, and the family.
Sep 28, 2018 8:00 AM to 4:30 PM

Bowen theory education center
Learn about Bowen Family Systems Theory (BFST), a comprehensive theory of the family based on Dr. Murray Bowen’s view of the human as part of nature and the family as a natural system.
As a not-for-profit educational organization, CFC sponsors scientific conferences, clinical training and leadership programs for professionals and for the general public.

Bowen Family Systems Theory, for decades a staple in social services, counseling and ministry education and practice, provides a conceptual framework – consistent with 21st century evolutionary thinking and recent findings in the natural and neuro-sciences – for understanding human behavior, families, organizations, and human society as dynamic living multigenerational emotional systems.

  1. Wednesday Cohort: 10 live webinars, 9:00am-3:30pm, plus 10 two-hour small group supervision sessions
  2. Saturday Cohort: 10 live webinars, 9:0am-3:30pm, plus 10 two-hour small group supervision sessions

Resources:

http://www.guidestar.org/profile/26-4071040
http://www.chattanoogapulse.com/events/bowen-theory-education-center-eighth-annual-symposium/
http://thecenterforfamilyconsultation.com/
http://socialwork.rutgers.edu/academics/continuing-education/certificate-programs/bowen-family-systems-theory-clinical-certificate
http://www.pearson.com/us/higher-education/program/Bogdan-Qualitative-Research-for-Education-An-Introduction-to-Theories-and-Methods-5th-Edition/PGM125872.html

application of maslow theory in education

Applying Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs In Our Classrooms simple truth: Before expecting students to reach their potential, teachers need to meet students at their current levels. research

application of maslow theory in education

To support our students’ esteem needs, we need to provide affirmative, concrete, and transparent feedback so that students know their specific strengths and can articulate when they’ve used them to succeed in our classrooms. Do we create opportunity for peers to share specific positive feedback with each other?
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a popular motivation theory that is widely referred to in educational circles. In this theory, Abraham Maslow suggested that before individuals meet their full potential, they need to satisfy a series of needs. It’s important to note that Maslow based his theory more on philosophy than on scientific evidence. If interested, you can find limitations of this theory here. However, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can provide teachers a reminder and framework that our students are less likely to perform at their full potential if their basic needs are unmet.

Application of maslow theory in education
Applying Abraham Maslow’s theory of a pyramid-shaped hierarchy — physiological needs, personal safety, social affiliation, self-esteem and self-actualization — to education is an ideal way to assess lesson plans, courses and educational programs. Like the rungs of a ladder, each need has to be met before progressing to the next level. By asking themselves whether the five needs are being met in their school or classroom, educators can assess how well they are applying Maslow’s hierarchy to their teaching practice. Students may move back and forth on the hierarchy, so it is important to have ongoing assessments of how well their needs are being met.
Encourage social affiliation. Students need to feel that they belong to a class and that they are accepted members of the group if they are to reach the next level. Games, group work and teamwork exercises are a way to apply this stage of the hierarchy, because interaction helps students feel more involved, whether in primary school or in a master’s level class.

Esteem
Feeling safe includes protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, and freedom from fear, with an aim to reduce unfairness, inconsistency and the threat of emotional or physical harm.

Application of maslow theory in education
It has become a mantra that pedagogy should lead technology rather than the other way around and this is, to a large extent true. Much early implementation of educational technology did focus on using technology as a form of motivational gimmick rather than because it was the best way to achieve a pedagogical goal, but that is not the only truth.
This paradigm is a useful one for education because it can help us to focus on what education is really for – helping students to realise their own potential and lead fulfilling lives – rather than achieving what can be rather abstract syllabus goals.

But first things first. Before transformation, you must master the basics.
This concept derives out of the belief that constant betterment can only be achieved when certain needs are mastered. The layers of Maslow’s theory include:

Resources:

http://classroom.synonym.com/apply-maslows-hierarchy-needs-education-7771899.html
http://www.futurelearn.com/courses/challenging-behaviour/0/steps/27894
http://peacheypublications.com/applying-maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-to-the-use-of-educational-technology
http://www.ecampusnews.com/2017/09/26/maslows-hierarchy-needs-outcomes/
http://www.vitalsource.com/products/client-education-theory-and-practice-mary-a-miller-v9781284089622

learning theory definition education

Education Theory Education Theory Education Theory Education theory is the theory of the purpose, application and interpretation of education and learning. It largely an umbrella term,

learning theory definition education

There is an implicit assumption that there is a tangible connection between educational theory and practice. In reality though, the relationship between educational theory and classroom practice is more complex than is usually assumed. Below, Saugstad (2002) discusses the differing definitions of theory and practice:

  1. Help explain a puzzling or complex issue and to predict its occurrence in the future
    • Learning is a latent variable so there is no clear and universal way to explain and predict learning. To help explain this process, therefore, theories based on differing epistemological positions have been developed to explain the procedure.
  2. Allow the transfer of information in one setting to that of another
    • The complex and comprehensive conceptual explanations provided within the framework of a theory can be applied in different settings. Theories provide different “lenses” through which to look at complicated problems and social issues, focusing their attention on different aspects of the data and providing a framework within which to conduct their analysis (Reeves, Albert, Kuper, & Hodges, 2008).
  3. Theories provide greater opportunities for improvement by design
    • By providing information about the mechanisms underlying learning and performance, an awareness of theories and can help us to design environments to improve potential for learning

Social learning theory
The behaviourist perspectives of learning originated in the early 1900s, and became dominant in early 20th century. The basic idea of behaviourism is that learning consists of a change in behaviour due to the acquisition, reinforcement and application of associations between stimuli from the environment and observable responses of the individual. Behaviourists are interested in measurable changes in behaviour. Thorndike, one major behaviourist theorist, put forward that (1) a response to a stimulus is reinforced when followed by a positive rewarding effect, and (2) a response to a stimulus becomes stronger by exercise and repetition. This view of learning is akin to the “drill-and-practice” programmes. Skinner, another influential behaviourist, proposed his variant of behaviourism called “operant conditioning”. In his view, rewarding the right parts of the more complex behaviour reinforces it, and encourages its recurrence. Therefore, reinforcers control the occurrence of the desired partial behaviours. Learning is understood as the step-by-step or successive approximation of the intended partial behaviours through the use of reward and punishment. The best known application of Skinner’s theory is “programmed instruction” whereby the right sequence of the partial behaviours to be learned is specified by elaborated task analysis.

* Observation and reflection involve stepping back from the task and reviewing what has been done and experienced. Your values, attitudes and beliefs can influence your thinking at this stage. This is the stage of thinking about what you have done.
Pragmatism

Learning theory definition education
Gain Attention. Ignore the attention-seeking and use positive reinforcement when positive behaviour is shown. Distract the student by offering alternate actions or choices e.g. “Please could you hand out the books”.

  1. Knowledge
  2. Understanding
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation

Learning theory definition education
This theory is used to focus on preparing people to problem solve. Therefore, to be successful, the learner needs a significant base of knowledge upon which to interpret and create ideas. Additionally, with Constructivism, outcomes are not always predictable because learners are constructing their own knowledge. Thus Constructivism does not work when the results always need to be consistent.

  • Drill / Rote work
  • Repetitive practice
  • Bonus points (providing an incentive to do more)
  • Participation points (providing an incentive to participate)
  • Verbal Reinforcement (saying “good job”)
  • Establishing Rules

Resources:

http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/geqaf/annexes/technical-notes/most-influential-theories-learning
http://tomprof.stanford.edu/posting/1505
http://teacherofsci.com/learning-theories-in-education/
http://thepeakperformancecenter.com/educational-learning/learning/theories/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/social-learning-theory

just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education

Commentary: Just What is Critical Race Theory and What’s it Doing in a Progressive Field like Public Health? Chandra L. Ford Center for the Study of Racism, Social Justice & Health, UCLA

just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education

The focus areas provide the structure needed for optimal use of the CRT concepts. Each focus targets a major sphere of influence through which racism can unwittingly influence a study. The study moves sequentially though iteratively through the four areas of focus as outlined in Table 3. For each focus, researchers use the associated CRT-based principles to understand and address issues of contemporary race relations (Focus 1), knowledge production (Focus 2), conceptualization and measurement (Focus 3), and action (Focus 4), respectively, as they pertain to the study. We briefly describe each focus below.
b. The approach does not require studies to have this characteristic, though health equity research based on the approach often do.

Okhremtchouk, I. (2015). Why equity matters in �turn White and speak English� political climate. In Esposito, M.C., & Normore, A. (Eds.) Inclusive practices and social justice leadership for special populations in urban settings (165-187). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
Although there have been many historical attempts to even the playing field for marginalized students, the attempts have had questionable effectiveness. The fact that students who come from marginalized groups based on race, sexuality, social and economic factors, have more negative experiences in the education system than White students. Many of these students are found more in special education programs, are under-represented in programs for gifted and talented students, lack of basic resources, have high dropout rates and low academic outcomes. Okhremtchouk (2015) summed up the impact on society as �it is important not to lose sight of the fact that we, as a nation, are losing generations of talent that�students bring into a classroom, which could potently impact us all�we are benefiting no one; in fact, we are stagnating our own collective progress by not ensuring equality of opportunity for these students, so they are well positioned to demonstrate many merits they bring to our social structure.� (p. 18).

Just what is critical race theory and what's it doing in a nice field like education
Self-report surveys, while limited (Bowman, 2010), are also an effective means of ascertaining the cultural and affective perspectives of students (Gonyea, 2005). In this way, individual self-report of CRT constructs combined with an appropriate theoretical framework and interpretive lens can also operate within the counterstory framework of CRT. I will demonstrate the potential of a quantitative counterstory by reviewing CCW as a response to dominant cultural capital.
These limitations make it clear that more work is needed to investigate fully a nascent measurement of a concept such as CCW. Still, this article maintains through its conclusions that operationalizing CCW in a quantitative approach is a worthy endeavor for studying communities of color from an asset-based perspective. This approach can substantively improve on previous quantitative studies that rarely incorporate these theoretical models and may rely on theories bounded in rationality or dominant culture that are not as responsive to communities of color.

Facilitators: Solomon Zewolde and Shaheena Khan | Five 2 hour sessions | Spring: 13:00 – 15:00 Tuesday January 15, 29 + February 12, 26 + March 12 | Rooms Jan 15 = 826 / Jan 29 = B42 in the School of Pharmacy / Feb 12 = 777 / Feb 26 + Mar 12 = 790
Five Topics from Taylor, E., Gillborn, D., & Ladson-Billings, G. (2 nd edition.). (2016). Foundations of critical race theory in education. New York: Routledge.

Just what is critical race theory and what's it doing in a nice field like education
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Resources:

http://journals.uncc.edu/urbaned/article/view/575/568
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/0002831218798325
http://dscal.ioe.ac.uk/event/3358215
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/yd.20293
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/lsn/educator/edtech/learningtheorieswebsite/vygotsky.htm

plato’s theory of education

Plato’s Theory of Education Introduction “The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.e. the class which is the ruling material force of society, is at

plato’s theory of education

Plato's theory of education
Educationis so immensely vital in Plato’s scheme that it is the subject of focus in all the books (chapters) from ii to vii except book v of the Republic. Rousseau calls it “the finest treatise on education that ever was written”[4]. Through state controlled and maintained education system the rulers could create such mindsets that would help retaining the social order and harmony. For Plato, the State’s priority must be education that shall take care of all the other issues. Ever since, the education has remained the most effective ideological apparatus in the hands of the ruling classes. Plato is the first western philosopher to theorize and put in practice through the establishment of Academy, the concept of institutionalizedpublic education system in the west. China and India had already well-established systems of institutionalized education. In ancient India, there were two competing education educational systems. The Brahmanical Gurkulsystem, an authoritarian system of instruction in which the Guru (teacher) was beyond question. In some Sanskrit maxims, he is equated with God[5]. Neither questioning nor any debate-discussions were allowed, whereas knowledge comes from not what is taught, but from questioning what is taught. It imparted the education of conformity; conformity withthe established Brahmanical hierarchical social order. The children of only the ruling classes in the fourfold social division were allowed the accessto education. Buddhist tradition was a revolutionary, dialectical system of debate-discussion, and democratic discourse. There is neither scope nor the need of distraction intoBuddhist and Brahmanical schools of education; it is just to allude to the historic fact that education may be an instrument of revolution as well as of reaction.The modern education of scientific revolution and Enlightenment played a revolutionary role by emancipating the knowledge system from the clutches of theology. It was essential for the bourgeois democratic revolution against the regressive feudalism. The liberal capitalism based on the industrial revolution needed scientific temper and inventive mindset to question and invent. The logical corollary of scientific education is questioning its claim of the end of history. Need of neo-liberal global capital is no more rationality but conformity. There is no scope of going into the history of changes in the nature of institutional education in correspondence with the changing needs of the ruling classes. Plato is also the first philosopher in the western tradition to conceptualize state maintained and controlled education. In recent times, particularly since the globalization, states have been abdicating their maintenance responsibility while intensifying the control over it[6].
Plato divides the education into two parts – elementary and higher. As the “early life is very impressible”[17] and the children are like wax and can be molded in the shape, one wishes to. Hence the education begins from the birth itself. “…… also that the beginning is the most important part of any work, especially in the case of a young and tender thing; for that is the time at which the character is being formed and the desired impression is more readily taken”[18].Hence the education begins from the time of birth itself.

Historians cannot find any evidence on Plato’s early education as a child, but seeing as he belonged to an influential aristocratic family from Athens, it’s assumed that he went through the Athenian form of education that was oriented towards culture, arts, academics, and intelligence. However, some sources claim that Plato was a bright student who was given the best teachers of his time, at one point learning philosophy under another great Greek philosopher Socrates.
For instance, Plato believed that in order to maintain a utopian society, the government (specifically, the ruler or whoever was in charge) had to control the education and the information their people learned. He believed that it was a means for a ruler to shape its people’s beliefs and provide them with patriotic devotion towards their state and the duties they needed to perform.

The educational landscape of most of the countries of the world today has been battered by a spate of insufficient regulation and inefficient implementation in the recent times, accentuating an indispensable need for educational reforms aimed at improving the scenario. It has been often said that the solutions to the problems of the present can well be found by delving in the past, and hence, this essay, titled “Criticism of Plato’s Theory of Education and its Relevance in the Modern Times” aims at analysing and critiquing the scheme of education envisioned by one of the pioneers of political thought and philosophy, Plato, and the applicability of his theory in today’s scenario. Though several lacunae have been identified in his plan, it still serves as a model for countries to adopt and base their present education systems on. This essay has aimed at plugging the loopholes of Plato’s Theory of Education and making it pertinent for the progress of education today.
Date Written: January 15, 2014

The main purpose of Plato’s theory of education was to ban individualism, abolish incompe­tence and immaturity, and establish the rule of the efficient. Promotion of common good was the primary objective of platonic education.
However, the system lacked the literacy aspect. Intriguingly, many Spartans could neither read nor write. Therefore, it can be stated that the Spartan system did not produce any kind of intellectual potentials in man, which made Plato discard the Spartan education to an extent. The platonic system of education is, in fact, a blend of Athens and the organization of Sparta. This is because Plato believed in the integrated development of human personality.

Plato's theory of education
THEORY OF EDUCATION IN PLATO’S « LAWS »
Bury R.G. Theory of education in Plato’s « Laws ». In: Revue des Études Grecques, tome 50, fascicule 236-237, Juillet-septembre 1937. pp. 304-320.

Resources:

http://www.througheducation.com/platos-theory-of-education-explained/
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID2586396_code2335948.pdf?abstractid=2586396&mirid=1
http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/education/platos-theory-of-education/40135
http://www.persee.fr/doc/reg_0035-2039_1937_num_50_236_2825
http://www.earlhamsociologypages.co.uk/Labelling%20Theory.html