student involvement a developmental theory for higher education

Student Involvement: A Developmental Theory for Higher Education Big Idea Update (if you would care to skip to lightning round it is bolded below): To preface this week’s lightning round

student involvement a developmental theory for higher education

5. The effectiveness of any educational policy or practice is directly related to the capacity of that policy or practice to increase student involvement.”

“4. The amount of student learning and personal development associated with any educational program is directly proportional to the quality and quantity of student involvement in that program.

Bean, J. P. (1980). Dropouts and turnover: The synthesis and test of a causal model of student attrition. Research in Higher Education12: 155-187.
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

“… problem with this approach is its focus on the mere accumulation of resources with little attention given to the use or deployment of such resources.” (p 521)

[Heading:”Place of residence”]

Rutgers University Student Involvement offers a wide variety of opportunities to develop, explore, challenge and test your leadership potential. These outside-of-the-classroom experiences give our students a competitive edge in the internship, graduate school and career application processes.
A Job Outlook Survey conducted by the National Association of College Employers (NACE), identified the top five personal qualities/skills employers seek in hiring college graduates: verbal and written communications skills; strong work ethic; teamwork skills; initiative; and interpersonal skills.

INTRODUCTION
Even a casual reading of the extensive literature on student development in higher education can create confusion and perplexity. One finds not only that the problems being studied are highly diverse but also that investigators who claim to be studying the same problem frequently do not look at the same variables or employ the same methodologies. And even when they are investigating the same variables, different investigators may use completely different terms to describe and discuss these variables. My own interest in articulating a theory of student development is partly practical—I would like to bring some order into the chaos of the literature—and partly self-protective. I and increasingly bewildered by the muddle of findings that have emerged from my own research in student development, research that I have been engaged in for more than 20 years. The theory of student involvement that I describe in this article appeals to me for several reasons. First, it is simple: I have not needed to draw a maze consisting of dozens of boxes interconnected by two-headed arrows to explain the basic elements of the theory to others. Second, the theory can explain most of the empirical knowledge about environmental influences on student development that researchers have gained over the years. Third, it is capable of embracing principles from such widely divergent sources as psychoanalysis and classical learning theory. Finally, this theory of student involvement can be used both by researchers to guide their investigation of student development—and by college administrators and faculty—to help them design more effective learning environments.

Resources:

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1018708813711
http://kinasevych.ca/2009/09/27/astin-1999-student-involvement-a-developmental-theory-for-higher-education/
http://involvement.rutgers.edu/organizations/additional-involvement-opportunities/
http://www.projecttopics.org/student-involvement-a-developmental-theory-for-higher-education.html
http://articlegateway.com/index.php/JHETP/about

toward a critical race theory of education

Peabody Journal of Education Volume 93, 2018 – Issue 1 Original Articles Where are We? Critical Race Theory in Education 20 Years Later Download citation

toward a critical race theory of education

This article explores the territory that has been covered since the publication of Ladson-Billings and Tate’s 1995 article, “Toward a Critical Race Theory in Education.” We organize our review of the CRT literature is organized around what we are calling CRT “boundaries.” We identify six boundaries for CRT and education: 1) CRT in education argues that racial inequity in education is the logical outcome of a system of achievement presided on competition; 2) CRT in education examines the role of education policy and educational practices in the construction of racial inequity and the perpetuation of normative whiteness; 3) CRT in education rejects the dominant narrative about the inherent inferiority of people of color and the normative superiority of white people; 4) CRT in education rejects ahistoricism and examines the historical linkages between contemporary educational inequity and historical patterns of racial oppression; 5) CRT in education engages in intersectional analyses that recognize the ways that race is mediated by and interacts with other identity markers (i.e., gender, class, sexuality, linguistic background, and citizenship status); 6) CRT in education agitates and advocates for meaningful outcomes that redress racial inequity. CRT does not merely document disparities. We suggest that these core ideas provide a framework for analyzing the work that has been done in education in the past and a way to determine what might be left to do.
Adrienne D. Dixson, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Education Policy, Organization, and Leadership in the College of Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She is a scholar of race and gender equity in urban educational contexts and an author of over 30 scholarly journal articles and book chapters and editor of five books on critical race theory and education, research and race and urban education.

Toward a critical race theory of education
Smedley (1993) points out that there is a deep paradox between the scientific notion of “no-race” and the “social parameters of race by which we conduct our lives and structure our institutions” (p. 19). Thus, while critical race theorists accept the scientific understanding of no-race or no genetic difference, we also accept the power of a social reality that allows for significant disparities in the life chances of people based on the categorical understanding of race.
Critical race theorists use storytelling as a way to illustrate and underscore broad legal principles regarding race and racial/social justice. The point of storytelling is not to vent or rant or be an exhibitionist regarding one’s own racial struggle. Unfortunately, far too many would-be critical race theorists in education use the narrative or counter-story in just that way. There is little or no principled argument to be made. The writer is mad because of an affront and the pen becomes a retaliatory weapon. The story does not advance larger concerns or help us understand how law or policy is operating.

Toward a critical race theory of education
2. The challenge to dominant ideology. In law and other arenas there is a belief that concepts like neutrality, objectivity, colorblindness, and meritocracy can be fully actualized. CRT says, “not so fast, how can one be truly neutral on issues of race when racism is baked into the fabric of America?” (Ummm, it can’t).
A friend of mine said that Freedom School is basically my way of bringing Critical Race Theory to the folks in my life. She’s was right! I know that Critical Race Theory sounds incredibly academic but I have a feeling many of you are already doing work based on CRT and just don’t know it, so I pulled together a little overview for y’all.

Toward a critical race theory of education
With this mission, the annual Critical Race Studies in Education (CRSEA) conference brings together scholars, activists, educators, students and community members who use critical race studies as a tool to frame, examine, document, understand and transform racial inequalities in education and in the broader society.”
“The Critical Race Studies in Education Association (CRSEA) is an interdisciplinary consortium of experts who recognize global implications of race and education for minoritized people. Through scholarship, we identify and expose inequities for the ultimate eradication of white supremacy. As a community, we are committed to (1) countering and combating systemic and structural racism with scholarship and praxis, (2) recognizing the multiple locations of oppression and the myriad manifestations and effects of their intersections and (3) co-constructing liberating knowledge that facilitates collective agency to transform schools and communities.

Resources:

http://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9780203155721.ch3
http://adawaygroup.com/critical-race-theory/
http://libguides.du.edu/c.php?g=931280&p=7093674
http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1933/Educational-Change.html

big bang theory cast education

THE BIG BANG THEORY may follow some of the world’s smartest budding scientists in the form of Leonard, Howard, Raj and Sheldon, but what are the real-life educations of the actors?

big bang theory cast education

Big bang theory cast education
He received his BA from the University of Houston before landing his MFA at the University of San Diego.
Speaking to Time Out Chicago back in 2009, Galecki said: “Once long division came up in the third grade, I’d go to the bathroom for 45 minutes,

Big bang theory cast education

  1. Jim Parsons’ Muppet Counterpart
  1. Simon Helberg’s Black Belt

Nayyar landed his breakthrough role on “The Big Bang Theory” just a year after graduating from Temple University in Philadelphia. Since then, he’s lent his voice to animated series like “Sanjay and Craig” and Dr. Pakij in “Fantasy Hospital.” On the stage, Nayyar starred opposite Jesse Eisenberg in the play “The Spoils,” which transferred from off-Broadway to London’s West End in 2016. The actor also published a book about his career in 2015, titled “Yes, My Accent Is Real.” “When I travel all over the world and people come up to me and say how much [“The Big Bang Theory”] changed their lives — that’s amazing,” Nayyar says. “We get kids who come here and we make them laugh until their dying days and that’s enough credit. You show up, and you do your job, and you go home. I’m very lucky and I’ve had a very, very good life because of it.”
Bialik is the ultimate multitasker. After starring in the popular ’90s sitcom “Blossom,” she graduated from UCLA and went on to get her PhD in neuroscience, which she completed in 2007, the same year “The Big Bang Theory” premiered. During her stint on “Big Bang,” Bialik has also written four books on subjects such as attachment parenting and vegan cooking. Her next, “Boying Up: How to Be Brave, Bold, and Brilliant,” will be released this month. And she founded the lifestyle website GrokNation.com. “I don’t have any place I’d rather be — than working on ‘The Big Bang Theory,’” Bialik says. “For me, it is the dream of an actor’s lifetime, to be in this kind of situation. I write. I have my fourth book coming out in May. And I will continue to write. I have a website. I’m very dedicated to GrokNation, and I make videos for YouTube and I do charity work. I do a lot of other things.Mostly, I raise my kids. My life is about doing what I need to do to be the best mom I can be, no matter what my work is.”

Staten Island has brought the world many treasures — the Wu-Tang Clan, the Staten Island Ferry bar, Pete Davidson, and at least a quarter of the Jersey Shore cast. It also brought us Kevin Sussman, who embodies The Big Bang Theory’s loveable (and vaguely depressed) comic shop owner Stuart Bloom.
Bialik’s path to education was unconventional. In 2017, she told National Geographic that she was inspired by her junior high physics teacher, but left regular school in favor of on-set tutoring from ages 14 to 19 because she was starring on the hit sitcom Blossom. Even then, the actress knew she wanted to go to college.

Big bang theory cast education
While you may have already guessed it due to her passion for animals and involvement with animal rights charities, Kaley Cuoco doesn’t eat meat.
Photography by Patrick Demarchelier.

Resources:

http://www.skullmadmama.com/10-fun-facts-about-the-cast-of-the-big-bang-theory/
http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/tv/la-ca-st-big-bang-theory-sider-20180504-htmlstory.html
http://www.nickiswift.com/152666/how-far-the-cast-of-the-big-bang-theory-got-in-school/
http://www.cbs.com/shows/watch_magazine/photos/1007618/21-facts-about-the-big-bang-theory-s-kaley-cuoco-that-will-blow-your-mind
http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/behaviorism.html

health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf

The essential health behavior text, updated with the latest theories, research, and issues Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice provides a thorough introduction to understanding and changing health behavior, core tenets of the public health role. Covering theory, applications, and research, this comprehensive book has become the gold standard of health behavior texts. This new fifth edition has been updated to reflect the most recent changes in the public health field with a focus on health behavior, including coverage of the intersection of health and community, culture, and communication, with detailed explanations of both established and emerging theories. Offering perspective applicable at the individual, interpersonal, group, and community levels, this essential guide provides the most complete coverage of the field to give public health students and practitioners an authoritative reference for both the theoretical and practical aspects of health behavior. A deep understanding of human behaviors is essential for effective public health and health care management. This guide provides the most complete, up-to-date information in the field, to give you a real-world understanding and the background knowledge to apply it successfully. Learn how e-health and social media factor into health communication Explore the link between culture and health, and the importance of community Get up to date on emerging theories of health behavior and their applications Examine the push toward evidence-based interventions, and global applications Written and edited by the leading health and social behavior theorists and researchers, Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice provides the information and real-world perspective that builds a solid understanding of how to analyze and improve health behaviors and health.

health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf
Chapter 1 The Scope of Health Behavior 3
Chapter 12 Stress, Coping, and Health Behavior 223
Elaine Wethington, Karen Glanz, and Marc D. Schwartz

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf
The fourth edition of Health Behavior and Health Education once again updates and improves on the preceding edition. Its main purpose is the same: to advance the science and practice of health behavior and health education through the informed application of theories of health behavior. Likewise, this book serves as the definitive text for students, practitioners, and scientists in these areas and education in three ways: by analyzing the key components of theories of health behavior relevant to health education; by evaluating current applications of these theories in selected health promotion programs and interventions; and by identifying important future directions for research and practice in health promotion and health education.
* From the Preface

For example, change objectives for an intervention might be to increase adolescents’ self-efficacy beliefs to resist social pressure to use drugs. The accompanying belief would be, for example, ‘When I am at a party and a friend offers drugs, it is hard to resist’. Successfully changing this belief into: ‘When I am at a party and a friend offers drugs, I am confident that I can resist’, would increase adolescents’ self-efficacy (the overarching determinant) to refuse offered drugs. To achieve this change objective, theory-based methods might include modelling, guided practice with feedback, and reinforcement. One application for modelling in a school setting could be a videotaped step-by-step demonstration by adolescents of how to resist peer pressure in situations they commonly encounter. However, for a different population, such as low-income middle-aged migrants, a discussion session that incorporates a role playing session with a professional actor might be more appropriate. Thus, the same method can be translated into a myriad of possible applications depending on the specific population and context. Similarly, one application can be a manifestation of multiple methods, as illustrated in Table 15 in the supplementary materials or at http://osf.io/sqtuz (also see Figures 2 and 3 in Kok, 2014 ).
We define practical applications as specific translations of theory-based methods for practical use in ways that fit the intervention population and the context in which the intervention will be conducted (Bartholomew et al., 2011 ). Note that practical applications therefore have as one of their characteristics one or more mode(s) of delivery, such as ‘face to face’, ‘internet’, or ‘telephone’ (Hoffmann et al., 2014 ). For example, a group discussion is an example of a practical application, and can be held face to face or using the internet (i.e., with different modes of delivery). In addition, specifying the mode of delivery would not suffice to describe the application: the exact content of group discussion protocols or a recording are also part of the application. This is important because any thorough description of an application needs to make clear how satisfaction of the parameters of effectiveness of the embodied methods of behaviour change is secured. For example, group discussions can increase knowledge only if the correct schemata are activated in those discussions (see Table 2 in the supplementary materials or at http://osf.io/sqtuz). Therefore, a part of the application must be a system for ensuring that these schemata are addressed in the discussions, regardless of mode of delivery (e.g., face to face).

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice pdf
A series of reports by Mittleman et al. (1993, 1995, 1996) explored family-based interventions for the elderly with dementia. They demonstrated that an intervention with multiple members of the patient’s family substantially improved caregiver well-being. The intervention also resulted in a significant delay in institutionalization of the demented elderly, compared with controls who received usual care. The intervention consisted of six psychoeducational sessions with individual families followed by long-term availability of the healthcare counselors to the family members. More studies on the effectiveness of interventions for caregivers are warranted.
Several school-based trials targeted dietary behaviors and found significant differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change between intervention and control schools. Two exemplary programs are the Class of 1989 Study as part of the Minnesota Heart Health Program for 6th-12th graders (Kelder et al., 1994) and CATCH for 3rd–5th graders (Luepker et al., 1996; Perry et al., 1992). Both studies involved school-based interventions with large samples assessed for a long duration. Both interventions had beneficial effects on diet and eating habits (Nader et al., 1999); however, CATCH did not produce effects on physiological measures related to cardiovascular disease. In a review of interventions to promote healthy dietary behavior in children and adolescents, Perry et al. (1997) concluded that school-based nutrition education programs have been effective in improving aspects of children’s eating behaviors, with positive effects also observed in physiological outcomes such as serum cholesterol.

This paper describes the rationale and design of a theory-informed patient education programme addressing cardiovascular disease for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to illustrate how theory can explicitly be translated into practice.
A steering group of rheumatologists and psychologists was convened to design the programme. The Common Sense Model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Stages of Change Model were used to underpin the topics and activities in the programme. User involvement was sought. The programme was formatted into a manual and the reading age of the materials was calculated.

Resources:

http://www.med.upenn.edu/hbhe4/
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17437199.2015.1077155
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK43749/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073839911000385X
http://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html

multiple intelligence theory in education

One of the most popular ideas in education is applied in ways that its creator never intended.

multiple intelligence theory in education

Multiple intelligence theory in education
One of the most popular ideas in education is applied in ways that its creator never intended.
It’s clear that children learn differently—teachers in Edutopia’s audience are adamant on that score—but research shows that when students process and retain information, there is no dominant biological style, and that when teachers try to match instruction to a perceived learning style, the benefits are nonexistent.

Multiple intelligence theory in education
Words, language, and writing
People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good at visualizing things. These individuals are often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos, and pictures.  

Multiple intelligence theory in education
Proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983, the theory of multiple intelligences has revolutionized how we understand intelligence. Learn more about the research behind his theory.
Many educators have had the experience of not being able to reach some students until presenting the information in a completely different way or providing new options for student expression. Perhaps it was a student who struggled with writing until the teacher provided the option to create a graphic story, which blossomed into a beautiful and complex narrative. Or maybe it was a student who just couldn’t seem to grasp fractions, until he created them by separating oranges into slices.

Multiple intelligence theory in education
Howard Gardner of Harvard University originally identified seven distinct intelligences. According to Gardner, this theory, which emerged from cognitive research, “documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways.”
The theory of multiple intelligences is so intriguing because it expands our horizon of available teaching and learning tools beyond the conventional linguistic and logical methods used in most schools (e.g. lecture, textbooks, writing assignments, formulas, etc.).

Multiple intelligence theory in education
Linguistic Intelligence is a part of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory that deals with sensitivity to the spoken and written language, ability to learn languages, and capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals.
Some responses to this criticism include that the Multiple Intelligences theory doesn’t dispute the existence of the “g” factor; it proposes that it is equal along with the other intelligences. Many critics overlook the inclusion criteria set forth by Gardner.

Resources:

http://www.verywellmind.com/gardners-theory-of-multiple-intelligences-2795161
http://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-research
http://www.cornerstone.edu/blogs/lifelong-learning-matters/post/what-are-multiple-intelligences-and-how-do-they-affect-learning
http://www.simplypsychology.org/multiple-intelligences.html
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2001.tb17876.x

thorndike theory education

In the ever changing world of education, new theories are constantly being put to the test. Welcome to our efforts to introduce some of the theorists and theories that have an educational impact in our society.

thorndike theory education

Thorndike theory education
During his lifetime, Thorndike published several books on modern day educational psychology. Among his works are: Educational Psychology (1903), Animal Intelligence (1911), The Measurement of Intelligence (1926), and Human Nature and the Social Order (1940). Edward L. Thorndike died in August in 1949, and he is perhaps known best for his early work with animals and the subsequent law of effect.
Encyclopedia World Biography. (2005-2006). Edward Lee Thorndike Biography. Retrieved April 15, 2011, from Bookrags.com: http://www.bookrags.com/biography/edward-lee-thorndike/

Thorndike theory education
Edward Thorndike was an influential psychologist who is often referred to as the founder of modern educational psychology. He was perhaps best-known for his famous puzzle box experiments with cats which led to the development of his law of effect.
Edward Thorndike was the son of a Methodist minister and grew up in Massachusetts. While he was a very successful student, he initially disliked his first psychology course. Like many other psychologists of his time, Thorndike’s interest in psychology grew after reading the classic book The Principles of Psychology by William James.

Intellect and character are strengthened not by any subtle and easy metamorphosis, but by the establishment of particular ideas and acts under the law of habit …. The price of a disciplined intellect and will is eternal vigilance in the formation of habits ….Habit rules us but it also never fails us. The mind does not give us something for nothing, but it never cheats. (1906, pp. 247–248)

While such men as John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins influenced the philosophy of education, Thorndike and those whom he inspired wrote reading and arithmetic books for pupils, school dictionaries and spelling lists, tests, and pedagogical guidebooks and teachers’ manuals. Because, however, it is far more difficult to assess influence in the operations of many thousands of American classrooms than to analyze ideas in the words of educational theorists, Thorndike’s contributions are taken largely for granted.

Connectionism was meant to be a general theory of learning for animals and humans. Thorndike was especially interested in the application of his theory to education including mathematics (Thorndike, 1922), spelling and reading (Thorndike, 1921), measurement of intelligence (Thorndike et al., 1927) and adult learning (Thorndike at al., 1928).
The learning theory of Thorndike represents the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology: Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or “habits” become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings. The paradigm for S-R theory was trial and error learning in which certain responses come to dominate others due to rewards. The hallmark of connectionism (like all behavioral theory) was that learning could be adequately explained without refering to any unobservable internal states.

Thorndike theory education
Thorndike (1905) introduced the concept of reinforcement and was the first to apply psychological principles to the area of learning. –>
His research led to many theories and laws of learning, such as operant conditioning. Skinner (1938), like Thorndike, put animals in boxes and observed them to see what they were able to learn.

Resources:

http://www.verywellmind.com/edward-thorndike-biography-1874-1949-2795525
http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2509/Thorndike-Edward-L-1874-1949.html
http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/connectionism/
http://www.simplypsychology.org/edward-thorndike.html
http://www.learnupon.com/blog/what-is-information-processing-theory/

purposes of nursing theory in education

Purposes of nursing theory in education Please note that Internet Explorer version 8.x is not supported as of January 1, 2016. Please refer to this support page for more information. Get

purposes of nursing theory in education

Purposes of nursing theory in education
Nursing has accepted theory as basic to its practice; however, the use and development of nursing theory is constrained by the approach used in nursing education. It is not appropriate or sufficient to isolate theory in one course. Moreover, confining nursing theory courses to graduate curricula, which is the custom in many schools of nursing, suggests that to focus on theory in the profession is esoteric. These curricular approaches inhibit socialization of students to the value of theory as essential to practice. It is imperative that nursing education engage students in theory-related content at all levels. This article presents a scheme to achieve systematic integration of theory-related content in curricula at all levels of nursing education from associate degree to doctorate. Through theory-based practice, nursing will come to realize its full potential as a discipline.
Associate Professor, School of Nursing, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI.

  • Physiological needs cover areas relating to sleep, eating, dress and environment.
  • Psychological needs highlight communication, emotion, learning and handling fears.
  • Spiritual needs relate to faith and worship.
  • Social needs cover accomplishment and recreational activities.

Community – Through community, two or more people are able to discover the innate meaning of their actions by sharing ideas and experiences with one another.

Purposes of nursing theory in education
Nursing theories are the basis of nursing practice today. In many cases, nursing theory guides knowledge development and directs education, research, and practice. Historically, nursing was not recognized as an academic discipline or as a profession we view it today. Before nursing theories were developed, nursing was considered to be a task-oriented occupation. The training and function of nurses were under the direction and control of the medical profession. Let’s take a look at the importance of nursing theory and its significance to nursing practice:
A term given to describe an idea or responses about an event, a situation, a process, a group of events, or a group of situations. Phenomena may be temporary or permanent. Nursing theories focus on the phenomena of nursing.

Purposes of nursing theory in education
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Professor and Director, School of Nursing, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI.

Purposes of nursing theory in education
A grand theory is just what it sounds like: compared to middle-range and practical theories, grand theories offer a sweeping overview of the nature and goals of professional nursing.
Nursing theory is an essential component of any level of nursing education. For nurses advancing their education, the higher level of reading and analysis required by an MSN curriculum offers the opportunity to examine more complex concepts of nursing theory alongside the practical experience they have already gained. Those who aspire to become nurse educators can build on nursing theories to train students and have an impact on the future of nursing.

Resources:

http://online.norwich.edu/academic-programs/resources/5-nursing-theories-for-nurse-educators
http://nurseslabs.com/nursing-theories/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/8755722392900532/pdf?md5=94efa46d9ed49e51e86972342308900e&pid=1-s2.0-8755722392900532-main.pdf
http://onlinemasters.ohio.edu/blog/the-importance-of-nursing-theory-in-nursing-education/
http://www.wiley.com/en-us/Understanding+Medical+Education%3A+Evidence%2C+Theory%2C+and+Practice%2C+3rd+Edition-p-9781119373827

applying the psychology of working theory for transformative career education:

Maureen Kenny is a professor in the department of Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology (CDEP) at the Lynch School of Education and Human Development and Human Development at Boston College.

applying the psychology of working theory for transformative career education:

Applying the psychology of working theory for transformative career education:
How can we cultivate academic and socioemotional development among children, adolescents, and families? Maureen E. Kenny seeks these answers, examining the individual and contextual factors that promote positive growth. Her expertise includes school and community-based interventions for marginalized youth, whole child education, student motivation, and how academic challenges evolve through shifts in technology, globalization, and workforce opportunities.
Professor, Counseling, Developmental & Educational Psychology

Work and nonwork experiences are often seamlessly experienced in the natural course of people’s lives. As noted earlier, psychological theory and practice has become increasingly insular, leading to artificial splits that are not consistent with the lived experience of people. As such, the relatively seamless nature of life ought to be captured in scholarship and practice about working. In contrast to the increasing compartmentalization of psychology, the psychology-of-working perspective strives to reduce or eliminate a priori categories that separate psychological discourses. The optimal discourse would be one that examines the lived experience of working, which is conveyed in the language of people talking about their lives. As conveyed in memoirs and narrative excerpts (e.g., Blustein, 2006; Bowe et al., 2000; Terkel, 1974), working is inextricably connected to the rest of our lives. We inhabit multiple roles in life and these roles intersect with each other in organized and random ways, creating a rich tapestry of life experiences (cf. Super, 1980).
Following the trend toward increasing specialization within psychology, working, as a context for human behavior, became increasingly compartmentalized throughout most of psychology, ultimately yielding a highly insular view of a portion of our lives that takes up a significant amount of time and energy. For example, with some notable exceptions (e.g., Axelrod, 1999; Lowman, 1993; Richardson, 2012; Socarides & Kramer, 1997), working is not a central part of most psychotherapy and personality theories. Furthermore, within North America (and in many other parts of the globe), psychological practice and scholarship on working increasingly has tended to focus on those with some degree of privilege and choice. These factors, when considered together, have led many scholars to critique existing discourses and to advocate for a more inclusive perspective of the role of work in one’s psychological well-being (e.g., Blustein, McWhirter, & Perry, 2005; Harmon & Farmer, 1983; Richardson, 1993).

Career construction theory defines vocational personality as the constellation of an individual’s career-related abilities, needs, values, and interests. The theory discusses personality using the nomenclature and framework of Holland’s RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional) types because it offers a widely used language for describing the personological results of an individual’s efforts at self-organization of his or her skills, interests, and abilities. While adopting Holland’s language to articulate accounts of personalities and occupations, career construction theory reminds counselors and researchers that the traits constituting RIASEC types are completely decontextualized and quite abstract. It is easy to forget that the traits, especially when denoted with nouns rather than verbs, are really just strategies for adapting. They are dynamic processes that present possibilities, and they should not be reified into realist tools for predicting the future.
Using social constructionism as a metatheory, construction theory views careers from a contextual perspective that sees people as self-organizing, self-regulating, and self-defining. Relying on its social constructionist epistemology, the theory reconceptualizes both vocational personality types and vocational tasks. It interprets personality types as processes that have possibilities, not realities that predict the future. It views developmental tasks as social expectations. Career construction theory then uses the concept of life themes to weave together its conceptualizations of vocational personality and career adaptability into a comprehensive theory of both vocational behavior and career counseling. Stated succinctly, the theory holds that individuals construct their careers by using life themes to integrate the self-organization of personality and the self-extension of career adaptation into a self-defining whole that animates work, directs occupational choice, and shapes vocational adjustment.

work boundary e.g. excessive time demands affecting relationships, leisure, fitness. Low respect/high control culture. No time off except sickness absence. Discipline for absence. Scapegoating weaker members by stressed team. Harassment or abuse by aggressive/stressed manager. Boss changes. Rigid agenda.

  • Poor transition management – no support, no preparation for change, unrealistic time scales. No monitoring of key issues pre-crisis. No opportunity for fresh insights. Past achievements ignored or rubbished.
    • Economic insecurity – low income, debt, high financial commitments, fear of job loss, temporary, ambiguous or onerous employment contract
    • Emotional insecurity – no partner, few friends, dependent relatives, secret grief (lost lover or child), sense of guilt, unresolved issues or regrets, multiple transitions, anxiety over being diagnosed mentally ill
    • Health – chronic or undiagnosed conditions, low fitness, fatigue, lifestyle
    • Hostile work environment – work overload, unrealistic demands, insufficient resources, abuse of life

    University of Florence:
    Career guidance for social justice
    It is an on-going attempt by Tristram Hooley (Derby University), Rie Thomsen (Aarhus University) and Ronald G. Sultana (University of Malta) to bring sociological perspectives to bear on career guidance theory and practice, so as to further the social justice agenda. The project has led to two books – Career Guidance for Social Justice (2018) and Career Guidance for Emancipation (2019), both published by Routledge. The team is now trying to identify the ways in which career guidance practitioners attempt to enact social justice in their everyday work.

    Resources:

    http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199758791.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199758791-e-001
    http://psychology.iresearchnet.com/counseling-psychology/career-counseling/career-construction-theory/
    http://www.eoslifework.co.uk/transprac.htm
    http://wp.unil.ch/unitwin/research/
    http://www.vitalsource.com/products/comprehensive-multicultural-education-christine-i-bennett-v9780133522457

    bronfenbrenner theory in education

    Outline Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory of development gives us ways on how to organize thinking about the complex relationships between …

    bronfenbrenner theory in education

    Microsystem is the inner system and most direct interaction between an individual with others in the closest environment that the child lives in. It is the smallest group yet it gives a huge influence such as family and then daycare centre and school as they grown up. Family is the closest person to be with since the child born. The child will observe and learn the behaviour of the family members. For an example, the way we speak and treat them. The voice’s tone and the use of words are vital when we are speaking with the child. Using insensitive and ruthless words can cause the child getting use to it which it bad for their development. They may build up a bad manner because of that. Apart from it, the ways of the parents take care of their child also play a huge role in the development of the child. Praising the child for their good achievement even it is a little accomplishment can encourage them to do more. If it is vice versa, the child stop themselves from doing the good deed since they do not receive any appreciation and support.
    Ecological Systems Theory was the primary theoretical by Bronfenbrenner. At first, he introduced four stages in the theory. He named it as the microsystem, the mesosytem, the exosystem, and the macrosystem. Then, he later added the fifth system, called the Chronosystem. Each of them contains functions, regulations and norms which can powerfully shape the development.

    Bronfenbrenner theory in education
    In 1910, when the Union of SA was founded, no uniform national education system existed and each province (exo level) had its own education system. At this exo level, fragmented education departments, the lack of support provision and the lack of education in the mother tongue resulted in the exclusion of learners and for learners with barriers to learning to an even greater extent (DOE 1997). According to the constitution of that time, the medium of instruction was Dutch, which was later replaced with Afrikaans and English. Education reached only few learners of the black population (Fataar 1997) and ignored the African culture (Mphahlele & Mminele 1997 cited in Steyn et al. 2017). Moreover, the social context of separate development and the exclusion of learners led to limited access to support and resources for many (Pillay & Di Terlizzi 2009), and also isolation, bringing about contextual disadvantage and multiple social problems (Donald et al. 2014; Dreyer 2015). This influenced the interactions between micro systems in the meso system within the South African educational system.
    Participation in processes develops the learner’s biological resources of ‘ability, motivation, knowledge and skills’ (Bronfenbrenner & Morris 2006) to participate in interactions with other persons in the school context. Within these supportive interactions, the learner builds independence (O’Toole, Hayes & Mhathúna 2014) and becomes a mediator and creator of his or her own development. However, in the absence of these resource characteristics, mediation does not take place, slowing down developmental outcomes (Bronfenbrenner & Morris 2006).

    Urie Bronfenbrenner developed the bioecological model of development, which recognizes that the social contexts in which one develops are ecosystems. This is because they are always in constant interaction as well as influencing each other (Woolfolk, 2010). Bronfenbrenner developed four different ecosystems in his theory: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem.
    Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development

    Bronfenbrenner theory in education
    Example: Bi-directional influences
    Figure 1 Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model of individual development

    Resources:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057737/
    http://sites.google.com/site/northleyms/bronfenbrenner
    http://www.parenta.com/2018/09/01/bronfenbrenner-childrens-learning-in-a-wider-context/
    http://countercurrents.org/2018/09/platos-theory-of-education/

    bruner education theory

    Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner) A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their

    bruner education theory

    As far as instruction is concerned, the instructor should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves. The instructor and student should engage in an active dialog (i.e., socratic learning). The task of the instructor is to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding. Curriculum should be organized in a spiral manner so that the student continually builds upon what they have already learned.
    A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to “go beyond the information given”.

    Thinking is also based on the use of other mental images (icons), such as hearing, smell or touch.
    Bruner (1960) adopts a different view and believes a child (of any age) is capable of understanding complex information:

    The teacher resources used should be focused on that of encouragement, aiding and allowing the student to uncover the main principles on their own. Communication between the learner and teacher is the key concept. Socratic learning is suggested as the best method of communication in this theoretical framework, as it allows the teacher to actively note any study skills the learner verbalizes, their progression, their frustrations, and form a rubric of their current learning state based on the dialogue. Seeing as this theory takes known information and expounds upon it, any teacher lesson plans, teacher worksheets, or resources should in fact be constantly building the learner’s knowledge in a spiral manner.
    Bruner’s theory on constructivism encompasses the idea of learning as an active process wherein those learning are able to form new ideas based on what their current knowledge is as well as their past knowledge. A cognitive structure is defined as the mental processes which offer the learner the ability to organize experiences and derive meaning from them. These cognitive structures allow the learner to push past the given information in constructing their new concepts. The learner, often a child, will take pieces of their past knowledge and experiences and organize them to make sense of what they know, then base further concepts and solve additional problems based upon a combination of what they already processed and what they think should be processed next.

    Bruner education theory
    Details are better retained when placed within the contest of an ordered and structured pattern.
    4. Effective sequencing– no one sequencing will fit every learner, but in general, increasing difficulty. Sequencing, or lack of it, can make learning easier or more difficult.

    Bruner education theory
    As children gain in confidence and competence in a particular areas, teachers might place them in groups to extend each other’s learning further. It’s also important that teachers recognise when a child is at the point where they begin to learn independently, and decisions can be made to set them free from the scaffolding.
    In this post, we explore the work of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding of learning. This is a simplified interpretation of the theory, so if you wish to learn more, please read the original works.

    Resources:

    http://www.simplypsychology.org/bruner.html
    http://www.teach-nology.com/currenttrends/constructivism/bruner/
    http://sites.google.com/site/principlesonlearning/f-jerome-bruner
    http://www.teachthought.com/learning/learning-theories-jerome-bruner-scaffolding-learning/
    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10665680902744246