health behavior and health education theory research and practice

Health Behavior and Health Education theory, research, and practice Bonus For the Fourth Edition of the book, we put together a comprehensive set of companion materials. About

health behavior and health education theory research and practice

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice
Theory-driven health behavior change interventions and programs require an understanding of the components of health behavior theory, as well as the operational or practical forms of the theory. The first edition of Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, published in 1990, was the first text to provide an in-depth analysis of a variety of theories of health behavior relevant to health education in a single volume. It brought together dominant health behavior theories, research based on those theories, and examples of health education practice derived from theory that had been tested through evaluation and research. The second (1996) and third (2002) editions of Health Behavior and Health Education updated and improved upon the earlier volume. People around the world are using this book and it has been translated into multiple languages, including recent Japanese and Korean editions.
Programs to influence health behavior, including health promotion and education programs and interventions, are most likely to benefit participants and communities when the program or intervention is guided by a theory of health behavior. Theories of health behavior identify the targets for change and the methods for accomplishing these changes. Theories also inform the evaluation of change efforts by helping to identify the outcomes to be measured, as well as the timing and methods of study to be used. Such theory-driven health promotion and education efforts stand in contrast to programs based primarily on precedent, tradition, intuition, or general principles.

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice
Chapter 10 Social Support and Health 183
Julianne Holt-Lunstad and Bert N. Uchino
KAREN GLANZ, PhD, MPH, is George A. Weiss University Professor, professor of epidemiology and nursing, and director of the Prevention Research Center and the Center for Health Behavior Research at the University of Pennsylvania.

Note: Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.
Caution: Some text formatting within citations may be lost or altered when copied into word processing programs or Web-based applications such as e-mail services.

Health behavior and health education theory research and practice
The contributors draw from such fields as cognitive and organizational psychology, marketing, and communications to explain the diverse factors affecting health behavior.
This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.

Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice provides a thorough introduction to understanding and changing health behavior, core tenets of the public health role. Covering theory, applications, and research, this comprehensive book has become the gold standard of health behavior texts. This new fifth edition has been updated to reflect the most recent changes in the public health field with a focus on health behavior, including coverage of the intersection of health and community, culture, and communication, with detailed explanations of both established and emerging theories. Offering perspective applicable at the individual, interpersonal, group, and community levels, this essential guide provides the most complete coverage of the field to give public health students and practitioners an authoritative reference for both the theoretical and practical aspects of health behavior.
A deep understanding of human behaviors is essential for effective public health and health care management. This guide provides the most complete, up-to-date information in the field, to give you a real-world understanding and the background knowledge to apply it successfully.

Resources:

http://www.wiley.com/en-us/Health+Behavior%3A+Theory%2C+Research%2C+and+Practice%2C+5th+Edition-p-9781118628980
http://www.worldcat.org/title/health-behavior-and-health-education-theory-research-and-practice/oclc/225874161?page=citation
http://www.abebooks.com/9780787903107/Health-Behavior-Education-Theory-Research-0787903108/plp
http://books.google.com/books/about/Health_Behavior.html?id=0j4LCgAAQBAJ
http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/Education_Theory/Constructivism_and_Social_Constructivism

conflict theory on education

Conflict theory on education The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack, 2012).

conflict theory on education

Conflict theory on education
Sources: Chetty et al., 2011; Schanzenbach, 2006 Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., Hilger, N., Saez, E., Schanzenbach, D. W., & Yagan, D. (2011). How does your kindergarten classroom affect your earnings? Evidence from Project STAR. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126, 1593–1660; Schanzenbach, D. W. (2006). What have researchers learned from Project STAR? (Harris School Working Paper—Series 06.06).
Functional theory stresses the functions that education serves in fulfilling a society’s various needs. Perhaps the most important function of education is socialization. If children are to learn the norms, values, and skills they need to function in society, then education is a primary vehicle for such learning. Schools teach the three Rs (reading, ’riting, ’rithmetic), as we all know, but they also teach many of the society’s norms and values. In the United States, these norms and values include respect for authority, patriotism (remember the Pledge of Allegiance?), punctuality, and competition (for grades and sports victories).

Conflict theory on education
The conflict theory perspective towards education focuses on the role school systems may play in implementing social control.
Defined tracks often mirror class divisions in society. Thus, traditionally, students were tracked into academic, general, and vocational tracks. Academic tracks prepare students for advanced study and professions such as medicine or law, whereas general and vocational tracks were meant to prepare students for middle or working class life. Students in academically advanced tracks study higher mathematics, more foreign languages, and literature. Students in less academic tracks acquire vocational skills such as welding or cosmetology, or business skills, such as typing or bookkeeping. Students are usually not offered the opportunity to take classes deemed more appropriate for another track, even if the student has a demonstrated interest and ability in the subject. Today, few schools use tracking systems that so overtly differentiate upper, middle, and working class skills. Instead, many secondary schools now base track levels on course difficulty, with tracks such as basic, honors, or college-prep.

IMPLICATION OF CONFLICT THEORY TO EDUCATION
Education achieves its purpose by maintaining the status quo, where lower class children become lower class adults, and middle and upper class children become middle and upper class adults. This cycle occurs because the dominant group has, over time, closely aligned education with middle class values and aspirations, thus alienating people of other classes. [11] Many teachers assume that students will have particular middle class experiences at home, and for some children this assumption isn’t necessarily true. [8] Some children are expected to help their parents after school and carry considerable domestic responsibilities in their often single-parent home. [12] The demands of this domestic labour often make it difficult for them to find time to do all their homework and thus affects their performance at school.

Conflict theory on education
Watch this video to better understand how cultural capital impacts a hypothetical student.
IQ tests have been attacked for being biased—for testing cultural knowledge rather than actual intelligence. For example, a test item may ask students what instruments belong in an orchestra. To correctly answer this question requires certain cultural knowledge—knowledge most often held by more affluent people who typically have more exposure to orchestral music. Though experts in testing claim that bias has been eliminated from tests, conflict theorists maintain that this is impossible. These tests, to conflict theorists, are another way in which education does not provide opportunities, but instead maintains an established configuration of power.

Conflict theory on education
When former education secretary Michael Gove argued that pupils should learn more British history, he meant British history where the British are heroic: repelling invaders, winning battles, ending slavery, defeating fascism and all the great men and women and kings and queens. He certainly did not mean the history of Britain invading and occupying other countries, starting wars over the opium trade, of leading the slave trade, of indifference to suffering in Irish and Indian famines. If education was simply about imparting knowledge one would expect all of that to be in the curriculum. If education were about developing a “neutral” value consensus there would be a strong argument for including it: only by learning about the past can we avoid repeating it. But the UK education system is much keener to learn from the mistakes of Germans, Russians and Americans, while learning the triumphs and justice of the British. A lesson that Britain is always right, that our leaders are wise and just and that it is important to preserve our great traditions, is a very effective conservative ideology that helps people to believe that it would be wrong to push for radical social change.
Louis Althusser argued that the education system was part of what he called the ideological state apparatus.

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-sociology/chapter/the-conflict-perspective-on-education/
http://learning.uonbi.ac.ke/courses/TFD301/scormPackages/path_2/2_conflict_theory.html
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-conflict-theory-on-education/
http://www.tutor2u.net/sociology/reference/conflict-theories-of-education-louis-althusser
http://sites.google.com/site/qim501eiddmockingjay/announcements

global citizenship education philosophy theory and pedagogy

The do’s and don’ts of Global Citizenship Education From left to right: Carlos Alberto Torres University of California USA Jason Nunzio Dorio University of California USA Abstract

global citizenship education philosophy theory and pedagogy

Global citizenship education philosophy theory and pedagogy
We think that the significance of a postcolonial understanding of GCED is a concept of global citizenship that does not rely solely on the often untranslatable political traditions of the global North and Eurocentric concepts, practices and institutions, but, encompasses the dynamics of social, economic, and spiritual relationships, organisations and egalitarian formations whose roots are found within the global South. Moreover, since GCED is based on human rights, it is imperative to decouple human rights from imperialist practices and inter ventions. We envision a GCED for adult education that is grounded and contextualized in localities but combines multiple knowledges and multi-civic virtues that transcends borders for actions that endeavour to defend humanity and global commons. For example, Ubuntu is an African collective ethos of the universal bond between people based upon the sharing and collectivity of all humanity, which can not only be the foundation for GCED programmes in relevant communities but might have the possibility of resonating with others around the world.
Our view of GCED aligns with what Santos (2012) describes as “the retrieval of new processes of production and valorisation of valid [multiple layers] knowledges, whether scientific or non-scientific, and of new relations among different types of knowledge on the basis of the practices of the classes and social groups that have suf fered, in a systematic way, the oppression and discrimination caused by capitalism and colonialism” (p. 51). Providing much needed spaces for epistemologies of the south, GCED must be derived from the gaze of postcolonial theories, to counter neoliberal cultural influences and economic policies that have contributed to an international moral and ethical crisis linked to the commodification of our sense of global community, materialising our commitment to the environment, and trampling our global commons.

Figure 2. A capturing of a social cartography of ‘types’ of GCE.
Camicia and Franklin ( 2011 ) describe Critical Democratic Cosmopolitanism as a more desirable framing of GCE than Neoliberal Cosmopolitanism. The former emphasises global community and is ‘best related by principles of social justice and an ethics of recognition’ (314). Drawing on Habermas (1990, 1996), they root Critical Democratic Cosmopolitanism in notions of deliberative democracy: ‘global citizens aim at reaching an understanding of other global citizens rather than adhering to strictly strategic communication such as that found in the economic sphere’ (Camicia and Franklin 2011 , 314). Further, Critical Democratic Cosmopolitan discourses involve communicative action based on ‘a deep commitment to multiculturalism, critical awareness of global power asymmetries, emancipation and social justice’ (314). We map this ‘type’ of GCE in an interface with a liberal orientation as it pushes at the status quo and raises issues of power but relies on existing institutions and processes, and thereby may reproduce the modern/colonial imaginary.

  • Mediacentral
  • Resource Link/MyView
  • Starrez
  • LAMIS
  • MySupporters
  • CMIS-Go
  • Adlib
  • SIP
  • ETL
  • IDW
  • ITunes/Podcasts
  • Digital Signage
  • Records Office System
  • Ilockerz
  • OUR
  • Funnelback
  • Silva – including the IOE intranet
  • MyAccount
  • UCL Discovery
  • Software Database
  • RedCAP
  • Print – only half of devices on campus available
  • eduroam – reported problems in Halls of Residence
  • SITS/Portico is available
  • Moodle is available although working at reduced capacity
  • [email protected] is available although working at reduced capacity
  • Axiom is available although working at reduced capacity
  • MyHR is available
  • MyFinance is available – however the usual hyperlink to MyFinance is broken but it can be accessed using the MyHR link
  • Drupal is available but it is not currently possible to post news items

“I think because when you think about foreign countries or poverty it’s just a thought but until you experience it and see then it becomes much more real. So to be there and… it’s more personal”.
The need to counter this with what Andreotti calls ‘critical’ global citizenship has been supported by other GCE scholars who state the need to ensure that topics are not only explored thoroughly but multiple authentic viewpoints are heard and individuals are able to critically analyse hegemonic sources of knowledge as well as democratic structures and institutions (Dobson, 2006; Bourn, 2008). Osler (1994) also emphasises the need for topics to be relatable and engaging, where self-reflection can be exercised and self-development nurtured. The idea here is that individuals consider their positionality in the world, push their personal and society’s boundaries, and act for positive change (Conway and Heynen, 2002; Khoo, 2006; Asbrand, 2008). This links with Baillie Smith’s (2013) argument that the social relations of engagement are missing from development studies but play a significant role in how we view the world. The scholar states we need to acknowledge, reflect and gain a better understanding into how factors such as locality, race and gender come together through our lifetimes to shape the way we engage with development issues (Baillie Smith, 2013). Thus, scholars see critical thinking as essential for nurturing independent, self-reflective, active global citizens (Olser, 1994; Armstrong, 2006; Asbrand, 2008; Bourn, 2008; Nussbaum, 2010; Van Peski, 2012; Percy Smith, 2012).

A volume in the series: Research in Social Education. Editor(s): Brad M. Maguth, The University of Akron.
Globalization is changing what citizens need to know and be able to do by interrupting the assumption that the actions of citizens only take place within national borders. If our neighborhoods and nations are affecting and being affected by the world, then our political consciousness must be worldminded. The outcomes of globalization have led educators to rethink what students need to learn and be able to do as citizens in a globally connected world.

Resources:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03050068.2020.1723352
http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/10018010/1/Final%20PhD.pdf
http://www.developmenteducationreview.com/issue/issue-26/informal-spaces-global-citizenship-education
http://www.infoagepub.com/products/Research-in-Global-Citizenship-Education
http://www.abebooks.com/9780133831023/Comprehensive-Multicultural-Education-Theory-Practice-0133831027/plp

critical race theory and education

Critical Race Theory in Education: Where Farce Meets Tragedy This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Access options Buy single article Instant access to the

critical race theory and education

Chapman, “Critical Race Theory and Teacher Education,” 14.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Critical race theory and education
“The Critical Race Studies in Education Association (CRSEA) is an interdisciplinary consortium of experts who recognize global implications of race and education for minoritized people. Through scholarship, we identify and expose inequities for the ultimate eradication of white supremacy. As a community, we are committed to (1) countering and combating systemic and structural racism with scholarship and praxis, (2) recognizing the multiple locations of oppression and the myriad manifestations and effects of their intersections and (3) co-constructing liberating knowledge that facilitates collective agency to transform schools and communities.
With this mission, the annual Critical Race Studies in Education (CRSEA) conference brings together scholars, activists, educators, students and community members who use critical race studies as a tool to frame, examine, document, understand and transform racial inequalities in education and in the broader society.”

Race has historically been, and continues to be, a significant issue in all aspects of American society. In the field of education, racial inequality is prominent in the areas of access, opportunity, and outcomes. Critical Race Theory (CRT) is a framework that offers researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers a race-conscious approach to understanding educational inequality and structural racism to find solutions that lead to greater justice. Placing race at the center of analysis, Critical Race Theory scholars interrogate policies and practices that are taken for granted to uncover the overt and covert ways that racist ideologies, structures, and institutions create and maintain racial inequality.
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Please check back later for the full article.

Critical race theory and education
After a few days when it seemed that all people could talk about was the O.J. Simpson verdict, a White colleague stopped me in the corridor and asked, “So, Gloria, what do Black people think about the O.J. Simpson verdict?” For once I had what I think was the correct response. I smiled slowly and replied, “I don’t know. What do White people think about it?” At that moment my colleague realized just how ridiculous the question was. There was no uniform “White” response to the verdict, and there certainly was no uniform “Black” response. The amount of within-group differences for any racial or ethnic group are greater that the between-group differences. CRT scholars guard against essentializing the perspectives and experiences of racial groups.
As CRT developed, scholars began to see “race” itself as the product of other social forces—for example as the product of heteropatriarchy in a post-industrial, post-colonial, capitalist society—or as in the United States, in a Euro-American heteropatriarchy.

The following tools and resources are a result of the District Leaders of Diversity Council looking at intentional ways to make CRT part of our every day learning and work here at PCC. As shorthand for examining our practice, based on CRT, we ask you to “Take 5”—to take a moment to pause and reflect on the intention, identities and the beneficiaries of the proposed action.
Portland Community College aspires to become an institution of higher education that operates with the theory of social justice as part of its foundation, mission and values. We are taking intentional steps as an institution, to make PCC a more inclusive, welcoming learning and working environment.

Resources:

http://libguides.du.edu/c.php?g=931280&p=7093674
http://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-1
http://www.routledgehandbooks.com/doi/10.4324/9780203155721.ch3
http://www.pcc.edu/about/equity-inclusion/critical-race-theory-toolkit.html
http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789463003872

teacher-directed early-education programs are based on which developmental theory?

Play-based learning provides an excellent environment for fostering young children's cognitive development.

teacher-directed early-education programs are based on which developmental theory?

Miami University, USA
There are many gaps in investigations of play-based learning due to at least four reasons. First, both educators and researchers vary in their definitions of play-based learning so the play experiences may differ in length of time, amount of adult direction/interference, materials available, and methods of data collection. Thus, what one educator/researcher calls play-based learning may differ greatly from that of another. Often curricula called play-based are still highly teacher directed and time available for child self-directed play is not extensive. Second, many studies of play-based learning focus only on academic skill learning rather than on play’s role in fostering other types of cognitive growth. Third, most studies are short term and they should be longitudinal in nature (at least over the course of a preschool year) to measure cognitive change. However, in longitudinal studies, there also are factors of general growth that may affect cognitive growth. Fourth, because preschool programs serve children with diverse home play experiences, different play themes, varied skills, and a range of economic backgrounds, these differences also may affect the results of play-based studies of cognitive growth. Nevertheless, because the theoretical and experiential bases that suggest the importance of play-based learning are so strong, greater funding and attention to research on this issue should be a priority.

Another aspect is student participation. In a teacher-directed classroom, the students are more passive. They just receive knowledge from the teacher and don’t take a very active role in constructing their own knowledge. On the other side, we have the student-centered classroom where the students are active learners. They are creating their own knowledge and constructing their own environment for learning. We know that this is rooted in the constructivist theory by Jean Piaget who in the mid-1900s said that children need to construct their own learning and they need to be actively involved in the knowledge construction process instead of passively receiving it. This helps them to have the depth of understanding and depth of knowledge where all the information that they’re receiving is going to be something that’s meaningful to them because they’ve constructed it. They’ve shown interest in the topics and the areas that they’re exploring so they are able to latch on to their own personal experiences. Real-life information will help them to more deeply understand and remember this content.
In a classroom with more student-centered learning, you’ll see fewer students at tables and more of an interactive setting where students are constructing their own knowledge and actively participating in this process of learning which, of course, looks a lot like play. We know that during play students can be incredibly engaged. This is why play is such a wonderful time to be able to integrate content. During play, when you look at student interactions you will see that students are very interested in what they’re doing. They are incredibly engaged and have a sustained, passionate commitment to their learning and they’re excited. You’ll hear it in their voices and see it in their interactions with their peers and with their teachers. They will call teachers across the room to come see what they are doing and call peers over to help them figure something out. There’s a sustained passionate commitment to play because it is something that they chose to do. Because of this sustained passionate commitment, you’ll find that during playtime there’s limited behavior management. Of course, there’s always the incident here and there, but in comparison to a whole group setting in a classroom, when you’re observing a playtime period there’s limited behavior management in comparison because students are engaged. Students are content and are enjoying their time so there’s less opportunity for them to feel that boredom sneaking in or pay attention to those negative emotions with a peer because they have too much to do. They’re too busy with their play and actively engaged. There’s a lot less behavior management and therefore fewer distractions during play. Because of this sustained passionate commitment and because of the limited distractions and limited behavior management, playtime is a prime opportunity for teachers to really integrate content into play and to be able to use academic content in supplement to the play and in conjunction with what these students are doing in order to help them grow in academic areas as well.

In the past years, ECERS-R was introduced in many Asian countries including Japan and Singapore. Chen (2005) conducted exploratory use of ECERS-R in Taiwan and found the scale to be culturally relevant except for two items (17 and 37), which can be chosen as N/A items. As a result, Guo-Li and Cheng (2006 ) translated the instrument into Chinese and published it in Taiwan. To this day, however, no exploratory use of ECERS-R has been conducted in mainland China, which shares a lot of similarities culturally with Taiwan yet presents differences in educational policies and economic status.
According to data presented in Table 5, both teacher–child interaction and interactions among children are generally positive. Teachers have great rapport with children, however, they are perceived by children more commonly as the authority rather than as their friend, helper, or playmate. Teachers are well trained in encouraging active participation in gross motor activities to enhance children’s play as well as in supervising such a large class at the same time. Teachers’ ability to keep a balance between a child’s independent discovery and teacher-directed learning needs more practice (e.g., learning how to teach problem-solving skills by allowing children to make mistakes and allowing children to see the problem themselves before being corrected or given the right answers). What appears to be exceptional is that children in China are well trained to sit in their chairs quietly for a much longer period of time than you would expect children to do in the United States. Children also quickly learn to read the teacher’s facial expressions for cues. They are also good at following directions, probably appearing a little bit too obedient for such a young age. This represents another debatable issue of cultural context versus developmentally appropriate practices.

3. Social and cultural appropriateness
DAP focuses on five key areas of early learning practices:

Teacher-directed early-education programs are based on which developmental theory?
The environmental rating scales are designed to assess process quality in early childhood or school age care groups. The Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale – Revised Edition (ITERS-R; Harms et al., 2006) was developed for children from birth to 2½ years of age in centre-based settings, while the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale – Revised Edition (ECERS-R) is meant for children between the ages of 2½ and 5 in center-based or preschool settings. These two scales both have seven subscales, with slightly different items (ITERS-R= 39 items and ECERS-R= 43 items). Each item that compose the seven subscales is scored on a Likert-point scale, ranging from (1) inadequate quality to (7) excellent quality. One subscale focuses on structural quality (space and furnishings) while the other six are process quality related targeting curriculum and staff-to-child interactions.
Setting aside these difficulties, child care research that has considered relationships between staff qualification and training, and observed programme quality, concludes that both qualifications and training affect the ability of staff to provide sensitive, responsive, and stimulating care and education (Dalli et al., 2011; Howes & Brown, 2000; Munton et al., 2002). Coaching or mentoring that provides support to educators on how to implement content-rich and engaging curricula shows some promise in helping to ensure that such instruction is being provided. Coaching or mentoring involves modeling positive instructional approaches and providing feedback on the educator’s implementation in a way that sets goals but is also supportive.

Resources:

http://www.continued.com/early-childhood-education/ask-the-experts/what-difference-between-teacher-directed-23006
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10901020903084330
http://extension.psu.edu/programs/betterkidcare/early-care/tip-pages/all/exploring-developmentally-appropriate-practice
http://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/early-learning-child-care/reports/2019-defining-measuring-quality.html
http://www.pearson.com/store/p/motivation-in-education-theory-research-and-applications/P100000204085

conflict theory education

Conflict theory education The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack, 2012).

conflict theory education

Conflict theory education
Such tracking does have its advantages; it helps ensure that bright students learn as much as their abilities allow them, and it helps ensure that slower students are not taught over their heads. But conflict theorists say that tracking also helps perpetuate social inequality by locking students into faster and lower tracks. Worse yet, several studies show that students’ social class and race and ethnicity affect the track into which they are placed, even though their intellectual abilities and potential should be the only things that matter: White, middle-class students are more likely to be tracked “up,” while poorer students and students of color are more likely to be tracked “down.” Once they are tracked, students learn more if they are tracked up and less if they are tracked down. The latter tend to lose self-esteem and begin to think they have little academic ability and thus do worse in school because they were tracked down. In this way, tracking is thought to be good for those tracked up and bad for those tracked down. Conflict theorists thus say that tracking perpetuates social inequality based on social class and race and ethnicity (Ansalone, 2010). Ansalone, G. (2010). Tracking: Educational differentiation or defective strategy. Educational Research Quarterly, 34(2), 3–17.
Functional theory stresses the functions that education serves in fulfilling a society’s various needs. Perhaps the most important function of education is socialization. If children are to learn the norms, values, and skills they need to function in society, then education is a primary vehicle for such learning. Schools teach the three Rs (reading, ’riting, ’rithmetic), as we all know, but they also teach many of the society’s norms and values. In the United States, these norms and values include respect for authority, patriotism (remember the Pledge of Allegiance?), punctuality, and competition (for grades and sports victories).

Conflict theory education
The cycle of rewarding those who possess cultural capital is found in formal educational curricula as well as in the hidden curriculum , which refers to the type of nonacademic knowledge that students learn through informal learning and cultural transmission. This hidden curriculum reinforces the positions of those with higher cultural capital and serves to bestow status unequally.
Conflict theorists see the education system as a means by which those in power stay in power. (Photo courtesy Thomas Ricker/flickr)

Conflict theory education
Some studies suggest that tracking can influence students’ peer groups and attitudes regarding other students. Adam Gamoran’s study (1992) shows that students are more likely to form friendships with other students in the same tracks than with students outside of their tracks. Since low-class and minority students are overrepresented in low tracks, and Whites and Asians generally dominate higher tracks, interaction among these groups can be discouraged by tracking. However, there is no research showing an academic benefit to low track students from such interaction.
This video explains how cultural capital impacts a hypothetical student.

For example, conflict theorists view the relationship between a housing complex owner and a tenant as being based mainly on conflict instead of balance or harmony, even though there may be more harmony than conflict. They believe that they are defined by getting whatever resources they can from each other.
Sears and Cairns note that large banks and big businesses subsequently received bailout funds from the same governments that claimed to have insufficient funds for large-scale social programs such as universal health care. This dichotomy supports a fundamental assumption of conflict theory, which is that mainstream political institutions and cultural practices favor dominant groups and individuals.

Patterns of class conflict theory occur when one class of people is systemically empowered over another. The less empowered class demands a share of resources that the more fortunate class has in abundance, leading to social conflict. Here are some real-life examples of conflict theory in both economic and societal situations.
Part of the backlash following the 2008 economic crisis, Occupy Wall Street was a two-month political protest on Wall Street, New York. Its slogan, “We Are the 99%,” referred to the increasing wealth and income discrepancy between the wealthiest 1% of the population and the rest of the country. Time Magazine named “The Protester,” both international protesters and those involved with Occupy Wall Street, as its 2011 Person of the Year.

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-conflict-theory-on-education/
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-introductiontosociology/chapter/conflict-theory-on-education/
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conflict-theory.asp
http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-social-conflict-theory-in-everyday-life.html
http://www.biography.com/scholar/john-dewey

a theory states that increasing a person’s formal higher education results in increased earnings

Can cultural consumption increase future earnings? Exploring the economic returns to cultural capital † London School of Economics and Political Science; University of Oxford University of

a theory states that increasing a person’s formal higher education results in increased earnings

Web Appendix 4 : Cultural practice is not associated with future non‐labour earnings
If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in.

A theory states that increasing a person's formal higher education results in increased earnings
Such a situation leads to social class reproduction, extensively studied by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. He researched how cultural capital, or cultural knowledge that serves (metaphorically) as currency that helps us navigate a culture, alters the experiences and opportunities available to French students from different social classes. Members of the upper and middle classes have more cultural capital than do families of lower-class status. As a result, the educational system maintains a cycle in which the dominant culture’s values are rewarded. Instruction and tests cater to the dominant culture and leave others struggling to identify with values and competencies outside their social class. For example, there has been a great deal of discussion over what standardized tests such as the SAT truly measure. Many argue that the tests group students by cultural ability rather than by natural intelligence.
Indeed, as these examples show, labeling theory can significantly impact a student’s schooling. This is easily seen in the educational setting, as teachers and more powerful social groups within the school dole out labels that are adopted by the entire school population.

Taboo A strongly prohibited social practice; the strongest form of social norm.
Technological determinism The belief that technological development shapes social life in rather fixed ways.
Technology The practical applications of scientific knowledge.
Tension release theory A theory suggesting that sport serves as a form of social safety valve, allowing individuals to vent their seething aggressions.
Terrorism An attack on people designed to frighten society and force it to meet the terrorists’ demands.
Tertiary economic sector The sector of an economy that offers services to individuals as well as to business.
Theoretical approach A set of guiding ideas.
Theory A system of orienting ideas, concepts, and relationships that provides a way of organizing the observable world.
Theory X A view of organizational behavior suggesting that people hate their jobs, want to avoid responsibility, resist change, and do not care about organizational needs.
Theory Y A view of organizational behavior suggesting that people have the desire to work, to be creative, and to take responsibility for their jobs and for the organization.
Theory Z A form of organizational culture that values long-term employment, trust, and close personal relationships between workers and managers.
Total fertility rate An estimate of the average number of children that would be born to each woman over her reproductive life if current age-specific birth rates remained constant.
Total institution A place where people spend 24 hours of every day for an extended part of their lives, cut off from the rest of society and tightly controlled by the people in charge.
Totalitarianism A form of autocracy that involves the use of state power to control and regulate all phases of life.
Tournament selection An educational pattern in which a continual process of selection serves to weed out candidates; winners move on to the next round of selection and losers are eliminated from the competition.
Tracking The practice of grouping students by ability, curriculum, or both.
Triad A group composed of three people.
Value-added theory A theory suggesting that many instances of collective behavior represent efforts to change the social environment.
Values Strongly held general ideas that people share about what is good and bad, desirable or undesirable; values provide yardsticks for judging specific acts and goals.
Variable A logical set of attributes with different degrees of magnitude or different categories. For example, age is a variable on which people can be classified according to the number of years they have lived.
Verstehen The effort to understand social behavior in terms of the motives individuals bring to it.
Vertical integration A form of business organization that attempts to control the business environment by assuming control of one or more of its resources or business outlets.
Vertical mobility Movement of an individual or a group upward or downward, from one social status to another.

A theory states that increasing a person's formal higher education results in increased earnings
Discuss the use of school system and media as a means of exercising social control within a given society
Social control refers generally to societal and political mechanisms or processes that regulate individual and group behavior, leading to conformity and compliance to the rules of a given society, state, or social group. Schools can further goals of social control by socializing students into behaving in socially acceptable ways. Some may consider this type of socialization a form of indoctrination. In any case, the social values that are present in individuals are products of informal social control. It is exercised by a society without explicitly stating these rules and is expressed through customs, norms, and mores. Individuals are socialized consciously or subconsciously.

Web Appendix 11 : Cultural practice predicts future incomes, including those who are own account workers in small firms and smaller employers
Web Appendix 13 : Cultural practice predicts future incomes, adjusting for an additional lag in income

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/sociology/chapter/theoretical-perspectives-on-education/
http://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/savvy/introtosociology/Documents/Glossary.html
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-sociology/chapter/the-conflict-perspective-on-education/
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1468-4446.12374
http://www.verywellmind.com/the-great-man-theory-of-leadership-2795311

student engagement theory higher education

Student engagement has increasingly been positioned as a defining characteristic of high quality teaching and learning in higher education. This is because as a concept it can comfortably serve the…

student engagement theory higher education

Student engagement theory higher education
One notable aspect of the student engagement literature is how often the ‘object’ or focus of student engagement is left undefined. For example, Kahu ( 2013 ) develops a model of student engagement without any explicit discussion of what it is that students are engaging with. This is crucial to know because the meaning of student engagement changes when the object of engagement changes.
In partnership, the emphasis is on reciprocity in relationships between students and academics, along with a shared responsibility for what is happening in the learning environment, a shift that includes meaningful sharing of power (Cook-Sather et al. 2014 ). Here students engage with a pre-existing object of engagement, but there is the potential for this object to be transformed through the collaborative work of students, academics and their institutions.

In addition, satisfaction has been found to be an inadequate measure performance due to its normative nature (Brown and Mazzarol 2009 ; Giese and Cote 2000 ). Satisfaction assumes a ‘tabula rasa’ blank slate effect, that is, that all students enter their tertiary journey in equilibrium, with similar experiences, contexts, tacit and implicit expectations, affective responses, and objectives. This approach can lead to a hollowing out effect whereby ‘education’ itself is arbitrarily separated out from ‘holistic experience’ leaving the notion of ‘the student experience’ in a social, cultural and political vacuum which is ‘discontinuous with what has come before it and insulated from all that is around it’ (Sabri 2011 , 664). These perspectives again reiterate the need for a more holistic approach to conceptualising the tertiary journey, and the way in which it shapes student outcomes, and indeed identity.
H4: Expectations are positively related to cognitive engagement

University of Liverpool, UK
Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Liverpool, 128 Mount Pleasant, Liverpool, L69 3GW, UK. Email: [email protected] for more papers by this author

Student engagement theory higher education
I couldn’t agree any more with that last bit. Here in the UK where a new framework for teaching excellence is being implemented, student engagement is definitely front and center in the hearts and minds of those who work in higher education.
The idea that student engagement can be reconceptualized is a fascinating concept. The unifying thread throughout is that higher education is a “student-centred” endeavor. Which, ironically enough, is a bit of a radical idea for UK higher education where academics are very much situated at the center of institutional influence and perceived importance. This is actually reflected in the next article in the issue – Student Engagement: Towards A Critical Policy Sociology:

Student engagement theory higher education
Fayetteville State’s Early Alert System depends on an intricate network of faculty and mentors working in the first-year seminar course along with academic support units and University College and career center staff to identify and assist students in academic difficulty. All faculty teaching first-year students have contact information for students’ mentors and the University College advisers so they can alert them if students seem to be struggling.
College Student Expectations Questionnaire (CSXQ): www.indiana.edu/

Resources:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03075079.2019.1672647
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/berj.3121/pdf
http://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/student-affairs-and-technology/critical-and-alternative-perspectives-student-engagement
http://www.aacu.org/publications-research/periodicals/what-student-engagement-data-tell-us-about-college-readiness
http://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/ces/prospective/edstudies/optionalmodules/socialtheory/

art education theory

The Limits of Theory in Art Education De Montfort University, Leicester, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee De Montfort University, Leicester, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Log

art education theory

Art education theory
De Montfort University, Leicester,
De Montfort University, Leicester,

Art education theory
Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behaviors.
The Law of Proximity

NATIONAL ART EDUCATION ASSOCIATION. 1999. Standards for Art Teacher Preparation. Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.
This view of art education coalesced with other theories, which became generally accepted during the last quarter of the twentieth century. Three are noteworthy. First, constructivism supplanted behaviorism as a guiding instructional theory, drawing on work by educators and researchers, such as Jerome Bruner (1960), Jean Piaget (1974), and Lev S. Vygotsky (1978). Constructivism posits that learners play a crucial role in “constructing” their own knowledge. Where behaviorism tends to see the teacher as a dispenser of knowledge, constructivism views the teacher as a facilitator who helps students acquire understandings and put them to individual use.

Reflection on current practices relies on critical consideration of personal beliefs, values, and assumptions teachers hold, in order to understand how they impact on teaching practice. Incorporating new knowledge, trying new ideas, changing thinking about different aspects of practice, give teachers the opportunity to scaffold their own learning (O’Connor & Diggins, 2002). Reflection encourages teachers to question their actions and provides valuable insights into how they can get the best from personal/professional development. (Ramsey, Franklin & Ramsey, 2000).
In this paper I argue that New Zealand early childhood teachers need to have a better understanding of the theories underpinning their visual arts practice. This account is based on my recent personal development journey into the current theories and practices in early childhood visual arts teaching. As a result of this personal development, I have come to believe the teaching of visual arts in the early childhood sector in New Zealand is still strongly aligned with child-centred art theories of the last century. I assert that we need professional development for teachers so that there can be a major pedagogical shift towards socio- anthropological, multicultural visual culture education. We need to examine current practice, with regard to the socio-cultural principles that underpin the early childhood curriculum, and determine whether critical reflection on our practice results in a shift in pedagogy.

Art education theory
When I tell people I am getting a Masters in Art Education, too often and much to my chagrin, the response is something along the lines of, “Oh that’s adorable. You’ll get to paint with kids all day!” That is a partial truth, but it is a very small part of a huge job. I believe there are a few reasons why people respond this way, the biggest reason being that their own art education experience somehow lacked substance and did not transfer in any meaningful way to the other subjects they were learning in school.
How would DBAE and Studio Thinking fit in? As I stated earlier, DBAE provides the context for studio art. By providing a foundation for students to understand art history, art criticism, and aesthetics, in addition to technical studio work, I am showing them how art fits into the greater scheme of world history, the evolution of our perceptions of beauty, and how we assess an object’s value from a visual standpoint. One of the most obvious ways to practice DBAE is in an introductory critique of a work of art. Before beginning a new unit, I would use VTS to have students analyze a work of art and draw conclusions about where it is from and what could possibly have been going on historically when it was made.

Resources:

http://snazlan.wordpress.com/2017/03/22/learning-theories-in-art-education/
http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1765/Art-Education.html
http://www.hekupu.ac.nz/article/teaching-visual-arts-putting-theory-practice
http://blogs.colum.edu/marginalia/2012/11/02/designing-an-art-curriculum-based-on-educational-theory/
http://www2.southeastern.edu/Academics/Faculty/nadams/educ692/Rousseau.html

psychology for inclusive education new directions in theory and practice

What can psychology offer inclusive education? Traditionally, special education has looked to psychology for many of its theoretical resources and practical strategies. While those seeking to promote more inclusive education have tended to see psychology and psychologists as part of the problem by providing a rationale for segregation. However, in practice many psychologists today are developing inclusive ways of working, and are paying attention to psychological theories that underpin inclusive education. Psychology for Inclusive Education reframes the contribution of psychology in terms of its relevance to inclusion and will show how psychological theories of learning and human development are compatible with inclusive education. Part 1 explores psychological theories relevant to understanding inclusive education and Part 2 looks at how psychology can contribute to promoting more inclusive education in practice. Chapters cover: how psychologists can collaborate with teachers for inclusive solutions Vygotsky's theories of learning and their significance for inclusion the challenge of developing pedagogies for inclusion sociocultural understandings of learning in inclusive classrooms the role of emotion in learning and inclusion cooperative learning and inclusion the challenges and tensions of inclusion and high standards for schools the practice of dynamic assessment as an inclusive alternative to IQ social justice and inclusive psychology Bringing together a highly distinguished list of international contributors from the UK, USA and South Africa and including practising educational psychologists, this book will link theory to practice in schools and classrooms. International in focus and at the very cutting edge of the field, this is essential reading for all those interested in the development of inclusive education.

psychology for inclusive education new directions in theory and practice

how psychologists can collaborate with teachers for inclusive solutions

the challenges and tensions of inclusion and high standards for schools

Research output : Contribution to journal › Article
Research output : Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Chapter

DOI link for Psychology for Inclusive Education
Psychology for Inclusive Education book

the challenges and tensions of inclusion and high standards for schools

the challenge of developing pedagogies for inclusion

Psychology for inclusive education new directions in theory and practice
Copies on shelf at Kedleston Road.
“This is a book that will become a key reader on a number of courses including psychology, education and disability studies.” Daniel Goodley, Professor of Psychology and Disability Studies, MMU

Resources:

http://kclpure.kcl.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/psychology-for-inclusive-education-new-directions-in-theory-and-practice(373cbf51-7d8d-4865-98c7-5dc9ebf83a05).html
http://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780203891476
http://books.google.com/books/about/Psychology_for_Inclusive_Education.html?id=AYyVxWnkim0C
http://capitadiscovery.co.uk/derby-ac/items/810074
http://soeonline.american.edu/blog/transformational-leadership-in-education