theory of action in education

By Julie Keane – Teacher PD continues to grow, although the challenge lies in providing creative strategies to support teachers as they experiment.

theory of action in education

Theory of action in education
For the theory of action to work, support systems need to be in place in schools to create spaces for teachers and students to learn, experiment and, sometimes, make mistakes. Innovation requires it.
By Julie Keane, Director of Research and Evaluation, VIF International Education

This treatment tells the students how they are expected to behave in the classroom and perform in academic tasks. If the teacher’s treatment is consistent over time, it will likely affect the student’s selfconcept, achievement motivation, levels of aspiration, classroom conduct and interactions with the teacher. These effects will complement and reinforce the teacher’s expectation. Ultimately, this will affect achievement and other student outcomes. High-expectation students will be led to achieve at or near their potential, but low-expectation students will not gain as much as they could have if taught differently.
Theory of action

All proposals are reviewed by series and acquisition editors. There are two types of review: expedited and extended. Expedited reviews occur in cases where the series and acquisition editors have determined that a project should or should not move forward based on the fit and potential of proposal to contribute to the series. Extended reviews occur in cases where proposals take on more specialized topics and would benefit from additional input provided by experts serving on the series advisory board and, in some cases, relevant external reviewers who can make a recommendation about the potential merit of a particular project. Extended reviews may also include an exit review of the completed work by board members or external reviewers.
Educational settings represent sites of creative possibility. They also represent the manifestation of some of the most persistent and dogmatic beliefs about teaching and learning. This series aims to push the frontiers of creativity theory, research, and practice in educational settings. Specifically, this series endeavors to provide a venue for disseminating the kinds of provocative thinking and cutting-edge research that can promote more creative approaches to teaching and learning. The focus of the series is on mainstream (rather than gifted or other specialized) educational settings. Another aspect worthy of exploration is domain specific or domain general view of creativity- one that has hitherto been the speculation of cognitive science but one that can be brought to the forefront of existing treatments of creativity. A final (and general) area of investigation is artistic, ecological, cultural and anthropological aspects of creativity that have been ignored by the community.
This Series: • Capitalizes on the growing international interest and concern about the breakdown of creativity in everyday schools and classrooms • Provides fresh thinking on complex issues and challenges pertaining to theory and practice aimed at promoting creativity in educational settings • Challenges existing dogmas and overly narrow conceptions of teaching, learning, and creativity (e.g., creativity being separated from academic learning and linked to gifted education) • Spotlights new theories, methodologies and approaches to studying and enacting creativity in a variety of domains, contexts, and levels (early childhood through higher education)
The Editors of this Series welcome proposals for edited and authored volumes that provide provocative and original explorations of creative theory, methodology and action in educational settings. This includes international and multidisciplinary perspectives on creativity across and within K-12, university, online and informal educational settings (e.g., museums, organizations, clubs, and groups). The audience for this series includes creativity and educational researchers, graduate students, practicing educators, and educational thought leaders.

Our Students are Pioneers
IF students are taught to be curious, to seek and value diverse perspectives, and to manage and regulate their emotions in the context of collaborative inquiry, THEN classroom communities will support a sense of belonging, empathy, cultural competency, and the teamwork skills necessary for equitable and active citizenship.

Theory of action in education
To determine the problems the TOA would address, NDE staff first looked to the needs and challenges of three schools designated as needing the most improvement through the state accountability system. Even though, these three “priority schools” had already received several supports that the NDE would like to implement statewide through the framework of support, the schools experienced some challenges implementing those supports as well as unaddressed needs. For example, the schools needed enhanced access to tools and resources. Additionally, they needed to develop more trust between school staff, administrators, and support staff to continue the hard work of improving student learning. Reviewing the challenges that the priority schools faced in accessing and using NDE supports provided an indication of what a statewide framework of support would need to address.
For example, NDE staff addressed the problem statement “Educators often lack access to standards-aligned, evidence-based programs and practices for instruction” by pairing it with an activity that would provide “schools with a repository of standards-aligned, evidence-based programs and practices for school improvement.” NDE staff believe this solution will lead to the short-term outcome of teachers being able to access and implement appropriate instructional materials and practices based on what a student can do with and without help. They further expect the intermediate outcome of this access to improve teachers’ capacity to use standards-aligned, evidence-based programs and practices through teacher mentoring programs and evaluation feedback. Finally, NDE staff worked to ensure all of the activities and outcomes they chose would lead to the Nebraska Board of Education’s long-term outcome of “students are supported by qualified/credentialed, effective teachers and leaders throughout their learning experiences.”

Resources:

http://slidelegend.com/download/theories-of-action-for-learning-and-teaching-rnlc_5a16e4e91723dd3e1e098c1f.html
http://link.springer.com/bookseries/13904
http://www.fpsct.org/departments/curriculum-instruction/theory-of-action
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs/regions/central/blog/theory-of-action-nebraska.asp
http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Confucius.html

jean jacques rousseau theory on early childhood education

Jean jacques rousseau theory on early childhood education Born: 1712 Died: 1778 Nationality: French Occupation: philosopher, social and political theorist, musician, botanist, writer

jean jacques rousseau theory on early childhood education

Publications:
Discourse on the Arts and Sciences (essay)
Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality
La Nouvelle Heloise
Lettre sur les spectacles
The Social Contract
Emile
Confessions
Rousseau, juge de Jean Jacques
Reveries
Les Muses galantes (opera)
References:
Harrison, P. (1996). Rousseau: The first romantic. [On-line] , http://members.aol.com/Heraklit1/rousseau.htm
Roopnarine, J. L. , & Johnson, J. E. (Eds. ) . (1987) . Approaches to early childhood education. New York: Merrill.
Kreis, S. (1998). The history guide: Lectures on twentieth century europe. [On-line] , http://www.pagesz.net/

period questioned traditional methods of educating children and introduced revolutionary new ways of thinking to bring about improvements in education and to actual allow students to enjoy learning. Before the Enlightenment, children were treated like small adults with no thought given to the development of very young children and once they were old enough to receive education it consisted of forced memory work along with harsh discipline (Platz & Arellano, 2011). The Enlightenment changed this
Jean Piaget was a developmental psychologist and philosopher from Switzerland. He is known for his epistemological studies with children. He was the first to make a systematic study of cognitive development. Piaget was also the Director of the International Bureau of Education. He was “the great pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing.” He was known as the second best psychologist after Skinner by the end of the 20th century. Throughout his career, Jean Piaget declared that “only education

Jean jacques rousseau theory on early childhood education
Rousseau devotes much space in Emile to an investigation of the ambiguities inherent in language, which he associates with the corruption attendant upon one’s participation in civil society. “Restrict, therefore, the child’s vocabulary as much as possible,” Jean-Jacques advises the reader: “It is a very great disadvantage for him to have more words than ideas” (74). For Jean-Jacques, the most artificial form of language is literary language, and he often rails against “the instruments of [children’s] greatest misery—that is, books. Reading is the plague of childhood and almost the only occupation we know how to give it” (116). Because the “child who reads does not think, he only reads; he is not informing himself, he learns words,” Emile will have “No book other than the world, no instruction other than fact” garnered through his own sense-observations (168). If Emile “reads less well in our books than does another child,” Jean-Jacques declares, “he reads better in the book of nature” (160).
In his obsession with determining appropriate reading for children, Jean-Jacques anticipates what have come to be seen as key duties of those in the industries of publishing, early education, and librarianship: seeking to determine what children read—and, more importantly, what they don’t—as well as what they take away from that reading (no “rigamarole,” nothing that would cause them to “be led astray”). Rousseau also anticipates the drive to regulate children’s reading in terms of age; although few librarians would agree with his dictum, “At twelve, Emile will hardly know what a book is,” the impulse to set aside certain texts as “young adult” literature is certainly familiar (116).

Jean jacques rousseau theory on early childhood education
“Give his body constant exercise make it strong and healthy in orders to make him good and wise”, let him work, let him do things. Let him run and shout. Let him be always on the go, make a man of strength he will be a man of reason”.
Adolescences the stage of morality.

Jean jacques rousseau theory on early childhood education
The Educational Theory of Jean Jacques Rousseau
Cannot separate morality and politics EP222

Resources:

http://www.bartleby.com/essay/Jean-Rousseau-Ideas-About-Early-Childhood-Education-P3GL5CJ4JF9LX
http://www.representingchildhood.pitt.edu/rousseau.htm
http://tinytodlers.blogspot.com/2009/11/jean-jacques-rousseau.html?m=1
http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Rousseau.html
http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html

change theory in education

Educational Change Phases of Educational Change, Emerging Theories of Educational Change Education is generally thought to promote social, economic, and cultural transformation during times of

change theory in education

The first phase of educational changes was in the 1960s when educational reforms in most Western countries were based on externally mandated largescale changes that focused on renewing curricula and instruction. The second phase, in the 1970s, was a period of increasing dissatisfaction of the public and government officials with public education and the performance of schools, decreasing financing of change initiatives, and shrinking attention to fundamental reforms. Consequently, in the 1980s the third phase shifted toward granting decision-making power to, and emphasizing the accountability of, local school systems and schools. Educational change gradually became an issue to be managed equally by school authorities and by the local community, including school principals and teachers. The fourth phase started in the 1990s when it became evident that accountability and self-management, in and of themselves, were insufficient to make successful changes in education.
Education is generally thought to promote social, economic, and cultural transformation during times of fundamental national and global changes. Indeed, educational change has become a common theme in many education systems and in plans for the development of schools. According to Seymour Sarason, the history of educational reform is replete with failure and disappointment in respect to achieving intended goals and implementing new ideas. Since the 1960s, however, thinking about educational change has undergone several phases of development. In the early twenty-first century much more is known about change strategies that typically lead to successful educational reforms.

Change theory in education
Learning must be more student-centered—that is, it must be built on a foundation of strong relationships, responsive to basic needs, driven by student interests, respectful of their identities, adaptive to their academic needs, relevant to their lives beyond school, and not confined within school days and walls.
Public education has an important role to play in equitably preparing all students to lead successful and happy lives, and helping America to prosper. But it needs a new theory of change.

The instructional is political. The instructional core–the relationship between a learner and a teacher in the presence of knowledge–is not only the basic structure within which learning happens (or not). It is also a basic unit of power relationships, where dominant forms of hierarchical separation and control can be either reproduced or subverted. If deep learning is a practice of freedom, effective pedagogy runs inherently against the grain of the conventional culture of schooling. Rather than perpetuating vertical relationships of power and control (knowledge over teachers, teachers over students), pedagogies for deep learning establish more horizontal relationships where both parts (teachers and students, students and knowledge) influence each other through dialogue. Individual and collective freedom is not to be pursued solely through the critical examination of and action over our most evident oppressive conditions, but also in the more subtle, everyday interactions between adults and young people in the presence of knowledge.
Deep learning is a practice of freedom. Whatever its content (be it understanding a mathematical principle, making sense of a poem, or examining what gets on the way of fairness in a school), deep learning is, at its core, a liberating act. It involves getting immersed in and making sense of questions that matter to us, connecting our experiences and what we already know to make meaning of or solve new puzzles, transforming ourselves and, in the best examples, changing the world in the process.

Change theory in education
The roundtable theory (RT) is a shared leadership theory for school change. Gabriele (2002) explained RT as distributing leadership and learning equally across participants. Involving stakeholders in the decision-making process through shared leadership can lead to higher levels of commitment. Gabriele described the ideal RT practice as being run according to a Leader’s Guide developed by consensus and periodically reviewed. The RT sessions would include a reading and review of literature on a topic during a 60 minute session, a time for participants to respond individually and uninterrupted by other members, and all participants would have an equal voice.
Bueker, C. (2005). Teachers’ reports of the effects of a whole-school literacy reform model on teacher turnover. Elementary School Journal, 105(4), 395-416. http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com

Change theory in education
Our Theory of Change is grounded in two long-term goals that are inextricably linked: better outcomes for our students and the elevation of the quality and prestige of the teaching profession.
We drive change by:

Resources:

http://www.educationevolving.org/theory
http://mobile.edweek.org/c.jsp?cid=25920011&item=http%3A%2F%2Fapi.edweek.org%2Fv1%2Fblogs%2F163%2F%3Fuuid%3D73115
http://www.weteachwelearn.org/2010/01/change-theories-in-education/
http://e4e.org/what-we-do/theory-change
http://www.ej4.com/blog/what-is-adult-learning-theory-and-why-is-it-important

which theory of education focuses on the labels acquired through the educational process?

Which theory of education focuses on the labels acquired through the educational process? Symbolic interactionism sees education as one way that labeling theory is seen in action. A symbolic

which theory of education focuses on the labels acquired through the educational process?

Symbolic interactionism sees education as one way that labeling theory is seen in action. A symbolic interactionist might say that this labeling has a direct correlation to those who are in power and those who are labeled. For example, low standardized test scores or poor performance in a particular class often lead to a student who is labeled as a low achiever. Such labels are difficult to “shake off,” which can create a self-fulfilling prophecy (Merton 1968).
This story illustrates a growing concern referred to as grade inflation —a term used to describe the observation that the correspondence between letter grades and the achievements they reflect has been changing (in a downward direction) over time. Put simply, what used to be considered C-level, or average, now often earns a student a B, or even an A.

Rewarding students for meeting deadlines and respecting authority figures is an example of ________.

  1. Hidden curriculum
  2. Labeling
  3. Self-fulfilling prophecy
  4. Tracking

However educators’ descriptions of a structured and responsive approach did not always align the students’ descriptions of their learning. In addition, their descriptions did not encompass ideas of learning through socialization and inclusion within practice communities (Lave & Wenger 1991 ; Higgs et al. 2008a ). For example, the two themes to emerge from analysis of student focus groups (‘self-confidence’ and ‘dynamic knowledge development’) demonstrate that the students in their first block of clinical placements were focused on active and self-directed learning. They combined structured approaches to teaching clinical skills with aspects of their clinical learning environment including learning through interaction with other health professionals. Importantly, where there was a mismatch between the goals and strategies of teaching and their own goals of learning, they were still able to progress towards achieving required competencies.
Two main thematic categories were identified within the student data:

Which theory of education focuses on the labels acquired through the educational process?

  1. A latent function
  2. A manifest function
  3. Informal education
  4. Transmission of moral education
  1. Cultural transmission
  2. Social control
  3. Sorting
  4. Hidden curriculum

Resources:

http://www.oercommons.org/courseware/module/11823/student/?task=8
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01421590902832970
http://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter16-education/
http://sites.google.com/site/andycoverdale/texts/critical-theories-on-education-and-technology

when vitruvius wrote about the education of the architect, he described theory as

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 90 – c. 20 BCE), better known simply as Vitruvius, was a Roman military engineer and architect who wrote De Architectura…

when vitruvius wrote about the education of the architect, he described theory as

When vitruvius wrote about the education of the architect, he described theory as
Book VII – on paving, vaults, and wall-paintings, including the best colours and their origins and history of use.
Copied and re-copied right through the Middle Ages, the oldest surviving copy dates to the 8th century CE and in 1486 CE the first printed copies were published in Rome. Right up to the 20th century CE the descriptions, illustrations, and the very weight Vitruvius gave to certain topics above others influenced not only students of the subject but long-defined what was considered the primary components of western architecture

When vitruvius wrote about the education of the architect, he described theory as
3. Owing to this favour I need have no fear of want to the end of my life, and being thus laid under obligation I began to write this work for you, because I saw that you have built and are now building extensively, and that in future also you will take care that our public and private buildings shall be worthy to go down to posterity by the side of your other splendid achievements. I have drawn up definite rules to enable you, by observing them, to have personal knowledge of the quality both of existing buildings and of those which are yet to be constructed. For in the following books I have disclosed all the principles of the art.

  1. The origin of the dwelling house
  2. On the primordial substance according to the physicists
  3. Brick
  4. Sand
  5. Lime
  6. Pozzolana
  7. Stone
  8. Methods of building walls
  9. Timber
  10. Highland and lowland fir

When vitruvius wrote about the education of the architect, he described theory as
The modernist architect’s model is Vitruvius, obviously not for how his buildings look, but for his obedience to a tyrannical patron. Vitruvius’ only option was to serve his divine imperial patron. The modernist architect does have the option to reject the modernist ideology. In the modern era, he can act as a free person and embrace liberty as he pursues his happiness in civil arenas by contributing his special talents to the common good—by making beautiful buildings in cities where people work together to fulfill their aspiration to live nobly and well.
The academic method took hold in academies and in masters’ studios, where it replaced the imitation of nature with the emulation of canonic prec­edents. 8 These are the works of earlier artists, with Raphael and Michelangelo as staples and others included in different times and places. Training begins by drawing the precedents and moving through ever-richer drawings to inventive emulations and original compositions.

the arch, the vault and the dome
According to Professor Tilson’s lecture on Ancient India and Asia, Mohenjo-Daro or Mound of the Dead, was considered a

When vitruvius wrote about the education of the architect, he described theory as
Dwyer, Eugene, et al., ‘Vitruvius’ entry in Oxford Art Online.
Krinsky, Carol Herselle, ’Seventy-Eight Vitruvius manuscripts’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 30 (1967), 36-70.

Resources:

http://www.gardenvisit.com/history_theory/garden_landscape_design_articles/landscape_theory/vitruvius
http://www.nccsc.net/essays/vitruvius-model-modernist-architects
http://subjecto.com/extra-credit/
http://architecture.edwardworthlibrary.ie/people/vitruvius/
http://www.innovativelearning.com/teaching/behaviorism.html

social reproduction theory education

Social Reproduction theory pushes Marxism beyond its preoccupation with class, exploring how race and gender oppression are produced by capitalism.

social reproduction theory education

Social reproduction theory education
It should be clear by now that SRF is interested in the reproductive dynamics of capitalism, not simply an undefined inequality. In that, it shares Marx’s understanding of capitalism as something more than an economic system. For Marx, capitalism is a broad social formation. And Marx too discusses the ‘reproduction of the working class’ as an essential condition of value production. But he stops short of analysing the social relations that are drawn into that reproduction – treating the process of reproduction rather technically, as a matter of skill-transmission, or immigration policies, or biological regeneration. Marx does not explore the gendered relations within the family as part of those wider social relations. And while he notes that there is a necessary but contradictory relationship between life-making and profit-making, he does not elaborate upon it in ways that help us to better understand non-economic oppressions. Still, his insistence on the integral relation of production and reproduction of a broader capitalist system – on their systemic unity – opens up the ground on which SRF plays. SRF takes and reformulates Marxist theory but in ways that are consistent with its premises.
Well, that’s an apt definition in many cases. But it misses the mark when we’re talking about how the term has been used by Marxist Feminists. Social Reproduction Feminism (which I’ll shorten to SRF for the rest of this posting) explores the ways in which the daily and generational renewal of human life (and thus of human labour power) is absolutely essential to the decade-over-decade tenacity not merely of inequality, but of capitalism.

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DOI link for Education, Inequality and Social Class
Education, Inequality and Social Class book

Social reproduction theory argues that schools are not institutions of equal opportunity but mechanisms for perpetuating social inequalities. This review discusses the emergence and development of social reproduction analyses of education and examines three main perspectives on reproduction: economic, cultural, and linguistic. Reproduction analyses emerged in the 1960s and were largely abandoned by the 1990s; some of the conceptual and political reasons for this turning away are addressed. New approaches stress concepts such as agency, identity, person, and voice over the structural constraints of political economy or code, but results have been mixed. Despite theoretical and methodological advances—including new approaches to multilevel analysis and alertness to temporal processes—the difficult problem remains to understand how social inequality results from the interplay of classrooms, schools, and the wider society.
Neoliberalism has been a popular concept within anthropological scholarship over the past decade; this very popularity has also elicited a fair share of criticism. This review examines current anthropological engagements with neoliberalism and explains . Read More

Social reproduction theory education
Most research on intergenerational status mobility and status reproduction stresses the importance of education as a mediator between social origin and destination (Blau and Duncan 1967 ; Breen 2010 ; Breen and Jonsson 2005 ; Ishida, Muller and Ridge 1995 ; Treiman 1970 ; Treiman and Yip 1989 ; Warren, Sheridan and Hauser 2002 ), leading to three channels through which social origin can affect social destinations: access to education, educational returns and direct effects of social origin (see Figure 1).
University of Erlangen‐Nuremberg

Resources:

http://ideas.repec.org/a/eur/ejserj/182.html
http://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9781315141749/chapters/10.4324/9781315141749-5
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.anthro.37.081407.085242
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1468-4446.12655
http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1868/Comenius-Johann-1592-1670.html

conflict theory education inequality

Conflict theory education inequality The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack,

conflict theory education inequality

Conflict theory education inequality
Such tracking does have its advantages; it helps ensure that bright students learn as much as their abilities allow them, and it helps ensure that slower students are not taught over their heads. But conflict theorists say that tracking also helps perpetuate social inequality by locking students into faster and lower tracks. Worse yet, several studies show that students’ social class and race and ethnicity affect the track into which they are placed, even though their intellectual abilities and potential should be the only things that matter: White, middle-class students are more likely to be tracked “up,” while poorer students and students of color are more likely to be tracked “down.” Once they are tracked, students learn more if they are tracked up and less if they are tracked down. The latter tend to lose self-esteem and begin to think they have little academic ability and thus do worse in school because they were tracked down. In this way, tracking is thought to be good for those tracked up and bad for those tracked down. Conflict theorists thus say that tracking perpetuates social inequality based on social class and race and ethnicity (Ansalone, 2010). Ansalone, G. (2010). Tracking: Educational differentiation or defective strategy. Educational Research Quarterly, 34(2), 3–17.
Symbolic interactionist studies of education examine social interaction in the classroom, on the playground, and in other school venues. These studies help us understand what happens in the schools themselves, but they also help us understand how what occurs in school is relevant for the larger society. Some studies, for example, show how children’s playground activities reinforce gender-role socialization. Girls tend to play more cooperative games, while boys play more competitive sports (Thorne, 1993) Thorne, B. (1993). Gender play: Girls and boys in school. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. (see Chapter 4 “Gender Inequality”).

Conflict theory education inequality
Such a situation leads to social class reproduction, extensively studied by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. He researched how cultural capital , or cultural knowledge that serves (metaphorically) as currency that helps us navigate a culture, alters the experiences and opportunities available to French students from different social classes. Members of the upper and middle classes have more cultural capital than do families of lower-class status. As a result, the educational system maintains a cycle in which the dominant culture’s values are rewarded. Instruction and tests cater to the dominant culture and leave others struggling to identify with values and competencies outside their social class. For example, there has been a great deal of discussion over what standardized tests such as the SAT truly measure. Many argue that the tests group students by cultural ability rather than by natural intelligence.
The cycle of rewarding those who possess cultural capital is found in formal educational curricula as well as in the hidden curriculum , which refers to the type of nonacademic knowledge that students learn through informal learning and cultural transmission. This hidden curriculum reinforces the positions of those with higher cultural capital and serves to bestow status unequally.

Conflict theory education inequality
This video explains how cultural capital impacts a hypothetical student.
Conflict theorists do not believe that public schools reduce social inequality through providing equal opportunity. Rather, they believe that the educational system reinforces and perpetuates social inequalities that arise from differences in class, gender, race, and ethnicity. Where functionalists see education as serving a beneficial role, conflict theorists view it more negatively. To them, educational systems preserve the status quo and push people of lower status into obedience, which keeps them socioeconomically disadvantaged.

Conflict theory education inequality

  • While in grades K–3, students in the smaller classes had higher average scores on standardized tests.
  • Students who had been in the smaller classes continued to have higher average test scores in grades 4–7.
  • Students who had been in the smaller classes were more likely to complete high school and also to attend college.
  • Students who had been in the smaller classes were less likely to be arrested during adolescence.
  • Students who had been in the smaller classes were more likely in their twenties to be married and to live in wealthier neighborhoods.
  • White girls who had been in the smaller classes were less likely to have a teenage birth than white girls who had been in the larger classes.

Other research in the symbolic interactionist tradition focuses on how teachers treat girls and boys. Many studies find that teachers call on and praise boys more often (Jones & Dindia, 2004). Teachers do not do this consciously, but their behavior nonetheless sends an implicit message to girls that math and science are not for them and that they are not suited to do well in these subjects. This body of research has stimulated efforts to educate teachers about the ways in which they may unwittingly send these messages and about strategies they could use to promote greater interest and achievement by girls in math and science (Battey, Kafai, Nixon, & Kao, 2007).

In the above example, some of the limited resources which may contribute to conflicts between tenants and the complex owner include the limited space within the complex, the limited number of units, the money which tenants pay to the complex owner for rent, and so on. Ultimately, conflict theorists see this dynamic as one of conflict over these resources. The complex owner, however gracious a landlord he or she may be, is fundamentally focused on getting as many apartment units filled as possible so that he or she can make as much money in rent as possible. This may introduce conflict between housing complexes, among tenant applicants looking to move into an apartment, and so forth. On the other side of the conflict, the tenants themselves are looking to get the best apartment possible for the least amount of money in rent.
Conflict theorists believe that competition is a constant and, at times, an overwhelming factor in nearly every human relationship and interaction. Competition exists as a result of the scarcity of resources, including material resources–money, property, commodities, and more. Beyond material resources, individuals and groups within a society also compete for intangible resources as well. These can include leisure time, dominance, social status, sexual partners, etc. Conflict theorists assume that competition is the default (rather than cooperation).

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-conflict-theory-on-education/
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-introductiontosociology/chapter/conflict-theory-on-education/
http://open.lib.umn.edu/socialproblems/chapter/11-2-sociological-perspectives-on-education/
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conflict-theory.asp
http://rn-journal.com/journal-of-nursing/caring-and-the-professional-practice-of-nursing

cognitive learning theory education

Let’s look at four psychologists who shaped Cognitive Learning Theory and how their learning strategies can be implemented in a corporate learning environment.

cognitive learning theory education

Cognitive learning theory education
For Piaget, learning is the process of relating new information to what we already know. To support this, the trainer or facilitator should create a safe environment for learning. A place where learners’ curiosity is nourished, and their insights are welcomed. For Learning and Development Managers, this means how you structure a course or training session is important:
Learning is cumulative and relative to each individual. When we’re learning, we start with a baseline of knowledge and go from there. Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist and pioneer of Cognitive Learning Theory, favored this learner-centered approach to teaching. He suggested that accommodation, assimilation, and equilibration are all crucial to learning:

Cognitive learning helps students learn effectively and ensures that the concepts learned in class are understood, not just memorized.
At GradePower Learning, our cognitive teaching strategies focus on meaningful learning. We don’t focus on memorization or repetition. Instead, our tutors teach students the fundamentals of lifelong learning. Your child will learn skills and strategies that will help him or her on the way to better grades in school, including how to think critically and how to make lasting connections between topics.

Carroll, R. (2010). Occam’s razor. Retrieved December 16, 2010, from http://skepdic.com/occam.html
GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS OF COGNITIVE THEORIES

Cognitive learning theory education
Asking questions. When students are asked questions it gives them an opportunity to dive deeper into meaning. Questions based on a student’s response can help them dissect their learning and understanding in a certain area, getting deeper into their own thought process and understanding.
Behavioral cognitive theory is the idea that how we think, how we feel, and how we behave are all directly connected together. Simply put, this means that our thoughts determine our feelings and behavior. All of these cognitive elements can directly impact how students learn in a classroom setting. If a student believes they aren’t good at math, that it doesn’t come naturally to them for some reason, that they are dumb and won’t understand, they are likely to feel frustration and anger during a math lesson and perform poorly. The cognitive behavioral theory is closely connected to social cognitive theory—social cognitive theory identifies how external forces AND internal forces, your thoughts, impact your learning. Social cognitive theory utilizes behavior cognitive theory to explain learning.

Cognitive learning theory education
The behaviorist theory is juxtaposed by the CLT as it has a single focus on observable behavior. Whereas the CLT pays attention to what the way of the learner’s mind and how it dictates behavior.

  • Organizing
  • Interpreting
  • Categorizing
  • Attention
  • Observing
  • Forming generalizations.

Resources:

http://gradepowerlearning.com/cognitive-learning-theory/
http://lynnmunoz.wordpress.com/learning-theories/cognitive-learning-theory/
http://www.wgu.edu/blog/what-is-cognitive-learning2003.html
http://www.edapp.com/blog/cognitive-learning-theory/
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/8755722392900532

existentialist theory in education

  The teacher in existentialist education is there to provide pathways for students to explore their own values, meanings, and choices. In order to do this, learners need to be aware of as many options and choices as possible; they need to feel empowered and free to determine their own values and identities; and they…

existentialist theory in education

Existentialist theory in education
Self-expression is a key component of existentialist education.
Freedom, choice, and responsibility form a complex interrelation in existentialist philosophy. The student is free to form and pursue their own values, but that freedom comes includes taking full responsibility for those values. The existentialist student accepts responsibility for their own values, feelings, and actions, because these have been self-generated rather than dictated by an authority.

Kierkegaard is considered the ‘father of existentialism’.
The freedom to make choices is a big responsibility.

Existentialist theory in education
In contrast, existentialism’s protagonists see it as the only hope for human survival as in existentialism. Since existentialism is optimistic, the preaches the doctrine of action and emphasizes the concept of freedom, responsibility and choice, it has exerted an increasing appeal to the educator, who has been shown the new horizons
In opposition to this cold impersonal approach to knowledge, the existentialist argues that true knowledge is “choosing, actions, living, and dying.”

The purpose of the article is to contribute to the discussion about the relevance of existential issues in contemporary education. Analysis presented in the paper is related to the problems of self-awareness, becoming oneself and self-development. First, the author begins by depicting the meaning of human existence in the light of philosophy. The following aspects have been analyzed: being true to one’s own beliefs and values, recognizing personal truth, making existential choices and finding one’s own voice. A special attention is paid to the language as an essential, constitutive element of being. Second, the article attempts to consider some educational implications resulting from the existential approach to education. Some of the issues discussed are learning to philosophize and to discover meaning, the concept of encounter in education and the role of language in self-development. While describing them the author indicates that the ignoring of crucial existential questions in education contributes to spiritual vacuity in life of young people and reduces educational thinking merely to instrumental, pragmatic problems concerning qualification and transfer of communicative skills.
The research was financed with the funds from the budget of the city of Płock with regard to the Competition under the auspices of the President of the City of Płock for financing research grands pursued within the task “Cooperation with institutions of higher education”.

Existentialist theory in education
John Dewey (1859-1952) applied pragmatist philosophy in his progressive approaches. He believed that learners must adapt to each other and to their environment. Schools should emphasize the subject matter of social experience. All learning is dependent on the context of place, time, and circumstance. Different cultural and ethnic groups learn to work cooperatively and contribute to a democratic society. The ultimate purpose is the creation of a new social order. Character development is based on making group decisions in light of consequences.
Realism
Realists believe that reality exists independent of the human mind. The ultimate reality is the world of physical objects. The focus is on the body/objects. Truth is objective-what can be observed. Aristotle, a student of Plato who broke with his mentor’s idealist philosophy, is called the father of both Realism and the scientific method. In this metaphysical view, the aim is to understand objective reality through “the diligent and unsparing scrutiny of all observable data.” Aristotle believed that to understand an object, its ultimate form had to be understood, which does not change. For example, a rose exists whether or not a person is aware of it. A rose can exist in the mind without being physically present, but ultimately, the rose shares properties with all other roses and flowers (its form), although one rose may be red and another peach colored. Aristotle also was the first to teach logic as a formal discipline in order to be able to reason about physical events and aspects. The exercise of rational thought is viewed as the ultimate purpose for humankind. The Realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and mathematics. The teacher organizes and presents content systematically within a discipline, demonstrating use of criteria in making decisions. Teaching methods focus on mastery of facts and basic skills through demonstration and recitation. Students must also demonstrate the ability to think critically and scientifically, using observation and experimentation. Curriculum should be scientifically approached, standardized, and distinct-discipline based. Character is developed through training in the rules of conduct.

Resources:

http://helpfulprofessor.com/existentialism-in-education/
http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=283
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00131857.2019.1633915?src=recsys
http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
http://www.tutor2u.net/sociology/reference/parsons-on-education

what is the conflict theory in education

What is the conflict theory in education The major sociological perspectives on education fall nicely into the functional, conflict, and symbolic interactionist approaches (Ballantine & Hammack,

what is the conflict theory in education

What is the conflict theory in education
Sources: Chetty et al., 2011; Schanzenbach, 2006 Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., Hilger, N., Saez, E., Schanzenbach, D. W., & Yagan, D. (2011). How does your kindergarten classroom affect your earnings? Evidence from Project STAR. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126, 1593–1660; Schanzenbach, D. W. (2006). What have researchers learned from Project STAR? (Harris School Working Paper—Series 06.06).
Because education serves so many manifest and latent functions for society, problems in schooling ultimately harm society. For education to serve its many functions, various kinds of reforms are needed to make our schools and the process of education as effective as possible.

What is the conflict theory in education
Conflict theorists point to tracking , a formalized sorting system that places students on “tracks” (advanced versus low achievers) that perpetuate inequalities. While educators may believe that students do better in tracked classes because they are with students of similar ability and may have access to more individual attention from teachers, conflict theorists feel that tracking leads to self-fulfilling prophecies in which students live up (or down) to teacher and societal expectations (Education Week 2004).
The fulfillment of one’s education is closely linked to social class. Students of low socioeconomic status are generally not afforded the same opportunities as students of higher status, no matter how great their academic ability or desire to learn. Picture a student from a working-class home who wants to do well in school. On a Monday, he’s assigned a paper that’s due Friday. Monday evening, he has to babysit his younger sister while his divorced mother works. Tuesday and Wednesday, he works stocking shelves after school until 10:00 p.m. By Thursday, the only day he might have available to work on that assignment, he’s so exhausted he can’t bring himself to start the paper. His mother, though she’d like to help him, is so tired herself that she isn’t able to give him the encouragement or support he needs. And since English is her second language, she has difficulty with some of his educational materials. They also lack a computer and printer at home, which most of his classmates have, so they have to rely on the public library or school system for access to technology. As this story shows, many students from working-class families have to contend with helping out at home, contributing financially to the family, poor study environments and a lack of support from their families. This is a difficult match with education systems that adhere to a traditional curriculum that is more easily understood and completed by students of higher social classes.

What is the conflict theory in education
Proponents of tracking say that tracking allows teachers to better direct lessons toward the specific ability level of the students in each class. Research suggests that tracking produces substantial gains for gifted students in tracks specially designed for the gifted and talented, meeting the need for highly gifted students to be with their intellectual peers in order to be appropriately challenged. However, average and low achieving students may benefit more from being in a mixed ability classroom.
From the conflict perspective, tracking’s primary function is not necessarily to promote learning; it is the allocation of students into specific areas of the labor market. Although track assignment is theoretically based on academic ability, other factors often influence placement. When tracking is based not on ability but instead on student background, it becomes a form of segregation and discrimination. Students in lower tracks may receive poorer quality instruction, with less-experienced teachers being assigned to low-track classes. Lessons taught in low-track classes often lack the engagement and comprehensiveness of the high-track lessons, putting low-track students at a disadvantage for college because they do not gain the knowledge and skills of the upper-track students.

Marx’s version of conflict theory focused on the conflict between two primary classes. Each class consists of a group of people bound by mutual interests and a certain degree of property ownership. Marx theorized about the bourgeoisie, a group of people that represented members of society who hold the majority of the wealth and means. The proletariat is the other group: it includes those considered working class or poor.
Conflict theory, first purported by Karl Marx, is a theory that society is in a state of perpetual conflict because of competition for limited resources. Conflict theory holds that social order is maintained by domination and power (rather than consensus and conformity). According to conflict theory, those with wealth and power try to hold on to it by any means possible, chiefly by suppressing the poor and powerless. A basic premise of conflict theory is that individuals and groups within society will work to maximize their own benefits.

The perspective of conflict theory, contrary to the structural functionalist perspective, believes that society is full of vying social groups who have different aspirations, different access to life chances and gain different social rewards [10] . Relations in society, in this view, are mainly based on exploitation, oppression, domination and subordination. [3] This is a considerably more cynical picture of society than the previous idea that most people accept continuing inequality. Some conflict theorists believe education is controlled by the state which is controlled by those with the power, and its purpose is to reproduce the inequalities already existing in society as well as legitimise ‘acceptable’ ideas which actually work to reinforce the privileged positions of the dominant group. [10] Connell and White state that the education system is as much an arbiter of social privilege as a transmitter of knowledge. [11]
Interactionists focus on the interaction between people that takes place through the use of symbols. This process is referred to as Symbolic Interaction. The Interactionist perspective is used to study topics such as child development, relationships within groups, and mate selection. This theoretical perspective has been particularly influential in the United States.

Resources:

http://courses.lumenlearning.com/alamo-sociology/chapter/reading-conflict-theory-on-education/
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-sociology/chapter/the-conflict-perspective-on-education/
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conflict-theory.asp
http://learning.uonbi.ac.ke/courses/TFD301/scormPackages/path_2/2_conflict_theory.html
http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/Education_Theory/Constructivism_and_Social_Constructivism