aristotle theory of education

Aristotle theory of education Analyst: Elizabeth Mays I. Theory of Value What knowledge and skills are worthwhile learning? The purpose of the state is to educate the people —

aristotle theory of education

Aristotle theory of education
By what methods? observation
How is it different from belief? an opinion – the beginning of dialectic reasoning

The final difference (of course there are others that I am not considering) between Aristotle and ourselves bears on what I call closure – on the idea that there is a permanent recipe for the best life and that, once we find it, whether in heaven or on Earth, all we have to do is keep to it. (As an aside: on the topic of heaven, I can’t resist quoting a short entry from the wonderful Journal of Jules Renard (1906): ‘I can believe anything, but the justice of this world does not give me a very reassuring idea of the justice of the next. I am very much afraid that God will go on blundering: he will receive the wicked in Paradise and hurl the good into Hell.’)
The most illuminating element in Aristotle’s description of the well-educated person is that he (in Aristotle’s writings it was always a he) knows the defining marks by reference to which we can appraise a science’s way of explaining things, separately from the question of what the truth is, whether thus or otherwise. That is, marks that enable us to determine whether a claimant to the title of the relevant science is the genuine article, without our having to know whether what it tells us is in fact true. The genuine sciences, after all, are our best routes to the truth. So our best route to which sciences are genuine cannot be through our science-independent knowledge of what the truth actually is. (Some religions, of course, deny this in some cases.)

Aristotle theory of education
There are only scraps of his work On Education, however we can get a picture of his ideas from surviving works. Aristotle believed that education was central – the fulfilled person was an educated person. Here I want to focus on those elements of his thought that continue to play a key part in theorizing informal education.
Aristotle The Nicomachean Ethics, London: Penguin. (The most recent edition is 1976 – with an introduction by Barnes).

To them the attainment of knowledge was necessary both for the interest of the individual and the society, hence it was virtue by itself. Aristotle has a different view. To him the aim of education was not only the attainment of knowledge but also the attainment of happiness or goodness in life. He believed that virtue lies in the attainment of happiness or goodness. He has divided ‘goodness’ into two categories ‘goodness’ of intellect and goodness of character. The former can be produced and increased by teaching and is the product of training and experience. The latter is the result of habit, and it can be attained by the formation of good habits.
Aristotelian scheme of education is quite similar to that prescribed by his teacher, Plato, in his “Republic”: He also believes that the education of the early childhood period should be the responsibility of the parents. After this, further education is the responsibility of the state, but it does not mean that parents are free from the responsibility of their children. They are still responsibility for their moral education.

While Aristotle saw “happiness” as the end goal of education, and as the way to build a productive society (Nicomachean Ethics Books I & II), Rousseau emphasised the development of “goodness”. Both of these qualities were reliant on the development of “virtuousness”, or of an upright and solid character. Ultimately, Aristotle hoped to produce philosophers, who could continue the process of logical reasoning and serious contemplation, while Rousseau hoped for a more practical outcome. He was concerned that in many circumstances, “We are supposed to be getting trained for society, but are taught as if each one of us were going to live a life of contemplation in a solitary cell.” (Emile Book IV)
The views each theorist held of the child subsequently influenced their approach to teaching and learning. Aristotle left the responsibility for learning with the teacher, focusing on what the teacher needed to impart to the student, while Rousseau gave the teacher the responsibility for setting up an environment conducive to learning, but the responsibility for what was learnt was open to the child’s own interests and needs. Whereas Aristotle emphasised the need for clearly defined formal instruction, Rousseau was almost the opposite, stating that the child needed to learn by discovery methods with no set expectation.

Resources:

http://aeon.co/essays/for-aristotle-education-is-what-equips-us-for-a-better-life
http://infed.org/mobi/aristotle-and-education/
http://studylecturenotes.com/aristotle-theory-view-aim-curriculum-method-of-education/
http://www.tirian.com/articles/training-development/aristotle-and-rousseau-on-moral-education/
http://www.earlychildhoodeducation.co.uk/steiner-education-approach.html

cognitive learning theory in education

. GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS OF COGNITIVE THEORIES As outlined in “Human Learning”: “Some learning processes may be unique to human beings. “Learning involves the formation of mental representations or associations that are not necessarily reflected in overt behavior changes.” “People are actively involved in the learning process.” “Knowledge is organized.” “Objective, systematic observations of people’s behavior…

cognitive learning theory in education

“Constructivist-focused, online teaching: interactive learning, collaborative learning, facilitating learning, authentic learning, learner-centered learning, and high quality learning” (“Emerging,” 2002, p. 1).

PROMOTING EFFECTIVE STORAGE (LEARNING)

Cognitive learning theory in education

Questions and comments from those in training should be welcomed and encouraged.
Bruner built on Piaget’s work. He believed that ensuring learners had a conceptual understanding of the topic was more important than the acquisition of information. Interaction is a core component here. Part of what Bruner called the Spiral Process, previously learned material is reviewed frequently even as new material is being introduced. This ensures that it’s fully understood. In a corporate environment, Bruner’s interpretation of Cognitive Learning Theory can be put in place by:

Cognitive learning theory in education
While it may feel like psychology and experiments are extremely regulated and hard to implement, cognitive learning theory and real classroom learning go hand-in-hand. The findings that psychologists make in experiments can have direct impacts on how teacher’s work to help students learn.
Make a game of memorizing poetry or facts

Cognitive learning theory in education
The Cognitive Behavioral Theory says that individuals tend to form self-concepts that affect the behavior they display. These concepts can be positive or negative and can be affected by a person’s environment.
Cognitive Behavioral Theory describes the role of cognition (knowing) to determining and predicting the behavioral pattern of an individual. This theory was developed by Aaron Beck.

Cognitive learning theory in education
Pin me.
If you are just starting out on your journey as a teacher and you are worried that you’ll do it wrong, just remember these basic principles:

Resources:

http://www.learnupon.com/blog/cognitive-learning-theory/
http://www.wgu.edu/blog/what-is-cognitive-learning2003.html
http://explorable.com/cognitive-learning-theory
http://teacherofsci.com/learning-theories-in-education/
http://www.britannica.com/topic/critical-race-theory

conflict theory in social dimension of education

Conflict theory in social dimension of education The conflict theory perspective towards education focuses on the role school systems may play in implementing social control. Learning

conflict theory in social dimension of education

Conflict theory in social dimension of education
Defined tracks often mirror class divisions in society. Thus, traditionally, students were tracked into academic, general, and vocational tracks. Academic tracks prepare students for advanced study and professions such as medicine or law, whereas general and vocational tracks were meant to prepare students for middle or working class life. Students in academically advanced tracks study higher mathematics, more foreign languages, and literature. Students in less academic tracks acquire vocational skills such as welding or cosmetology, or business skills, such as typing or bookkeeping. Students are usually not offered the opportunity to take classes deemed more appropriate for another track, even if the student has a demonstrated interest and ability in the subject. Today, few schools use tracking systems that so overtly differentiate upper, middle, and working class skills. Instead, many secondary schools now base track levels on course difficulty, with tracks such as basic, honors, or college-prep.
Analyze the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of tracking systems for students

Conflict theory in social dimension of education
Salamat sa post mo. A big help in my reviewing of social dimension of education. I will be taking LET this September 2016, thank you!
Walang anuman po. I am happy to help other teachers who are taking there licensure exam this 2016. My friend will also take this same year. I PRAY THAT YOU WILL PASS THE EXAM BY GOD’S GRACE AND PROVIDENCE. I DO BELIEVE PO GOD PROVIDES. Please do update me for the results. I would be glad to hear it from you. GOD BLESS PO!

3 #Interactionist Theory
Sociological Paradigm Micro View #Interactionist Theory Integration of Micro and Macro View #Critical Theory Macro View #Functionalism #Conflict
7 Functional view on society
Essentially, social institutions are needed to unite and collaboratively work toward the satisfaction of the basic societal needs, as this is imperative to establish social order.

Conflict theory, first purported by Karl Marx, is a theory that society is in a state of perpetual conflict because of competition for limited resources. Conflict theory holds that social order is maintained by domination and power (rather than consensus and conformity). According to conflict theory, those with wealth and power try to hold on to it by any means possible, chiefly by suppressing the poor and powerless. A basic premise of conflict theory is that individuals and groups within society will work to maximize their own benefits.
Given conflict theorists’ assumption that conflict occurs between social classes, one outcome of this conflict is a revolutionary event. The idea is that change in a power dynamic between groups does not happen as the result of a gradual adaptation. Rather, it comes about as the symptom of conflict between these groups. In this way, changes to a power dynamic are often abrupt and large in scale, rather than gradual and evolutionary.

Conflict theory in social dimension of education
Särkelä A., (2013), “Ein Drama in Drei Akten,” Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 61 (5-6), 681-696.
54 This notion of the group obtains its full theoretical import in the context of Dewey’s theory of conflict. Particularly in the Lectures in China, where Dewey is concerned with the ambitious task of developing a new pragmatist social philosophy, in order for this notion to fulfill its foundational task, the idea of conflict is endowed with a more general meaning. In particular, Dewey refrains from the usual interest-based conception. Rather, he defines conflict in terms of a contrast taking place not among social groups, but among competing normative principles which impose incompatible injunctions upon reality. In the Ethics Dewey will rely upon the same strategy to define the nature of moral conflict in its most general terms as a conflict among the competing incompatible principles of virtue, the right, and the good rather than as a lower order conflict among competing goods or among competing rights.

Resources:

http://teacherajournal.blogspot.com/2015/04/introduction-to-social-dimensions-of.html?m=1
http://slideplayer.com/slide/13794181/
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/conflict-theory.asp
http://journals.openedition.org/ejpap/410
http://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/economics-of-education

education: public or private good? answer the question and defend using economic theory.

Calling education a public good is potentially dangerous. Learn More…

education: public or private good? answer the question and defend using economic theory.

Education: public or private good? answer the question and defend using economic theory.
But even so, I still think these authors’ arguments don’t stand up, for 3 big reasons.
But what do people even mean when they say education is a public good? In a recent article titled “Education is a Public Good, Not a Private Commodity,” Australian writer Stewart Riddle argues that education creates public, and not purely private, benefits. He doesn’t deny that education produces private benefits (like skills that students can use to get a good job), but points out that education also produces significant public benefits (like gains in public health and robust democratic participation).

Education: public or private good? answer the question and defend using economic theory.
Schooling fails both parts of the definition.
On the other hand, the definition states that nonpayers can be excluded. This is an important distinction because it rids us of the basic free rider problem . In a true public good scenario, everyone knows they can benefit from the good or service by getting others to pay for it, so no one pays.

The two main criteria that distinguish a public good are that it must be non-rivalrous and non-excludable. Non-rivalrous means that the goods do not dwindle in supply as more people consume them; non-excludability means that the good is available to all citizens.
An important issue that is related to public goods is referred to as the free-rider problem. Since public goods are made available to all people–regardless of whether each person individually pays for them–it is possible for some members of society to use the good despite refusing to pay for it. People who do not pay taxes, for example, are essentially taking a “free ride” on revenues provided by those who do pay them, as do turnstile jumpers on a subway system.

Education: public or private good? answer the question and defend using economic theory.
Public good, in economics, a product or service that is non-excludable and nondepletable (or “non-rivalrous”).
Public goods (and bads) are textbook examples of goods that the market typically undersupplies (or oversupplies in the case of public bads). For example, profit-maximizing firms and self-interested individuals can be expected to choose levels of production and consumption such that the aggregate level of pollution resulting from their activities leaves everyone worse off (according to their own preferences) than if each were somehow prevented from producing or consuming as much as is individually optimal. Commonly suggested solutions to such “market failures” include taxes and subsidies or government intervention.

Education: public or private good? answer the question and defend using economic theory.
From the above, we would not consider education to be a public good. And thus, we would generally assume the market would be able to provide this service effectively.
These criteria explain why national defense is considered a public good. To see why, it’s helpful to set any foreign policy objections aside and keep things theoretical here.

Resources:

http://fee.org/articles/schooling-is-not-a-public-good/
http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/public-good.asp
http://www.britannica.com/topic/public-good-economics
http://libertarianinstitute.org/articles/education-not-public-good/
http://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-introductiontosociology/chapter/functionalist-theory-on-education/

john amos comenius education theory

Johann Comenius (1592–1670) Contributions, Works A prolific scholar on pedagogical, spiritual, and social reform, Johann Amos Comenius was born in the village of Nivnice in southeast Moravia

john amos comenius education theory

Still, one must remember that these pedagogical innovations derived from Comenius’s urgent desire for the alleviation of human suffering, the mending of political, epistemological, and spiritual divisions, and ultimately, man’s gradual comprehension of God’s will and glory.
COMENIUS, JOHANN AMOS. 1968. The Oribs Pictus of John Amos Comenius. Detroit, MI: Singing Tree.

John amos comenius education theory
Comenius has some exceptional ideas that have been implemented by modern education. Children should learn on a gradual level based on what they can comprehend and remember. Education should be taught in the primary language if possible, which is a leading argument for multiculturalism in America today. Comenius’ theories are interrelated with Christian education since he was a Christian educator himself, but he still advocated for a “public” Christian education. This raises the issue of open-enrollment versus closed-enrollment, a topic of much debate among Christians today.
Comenius revolutionized education in three ways: school systems, educational theories, and educational methods. First, Comenius outlined the school system prominently used in America today: kindergarten, elementary school, secondary school, college, and university. Secondly, he created a general theory of education around the idea of education according to nature whereby children learned at a natural pace from simple concepts to challenging theories (Schwarz & Martin, 46). Thirdly, he wrote a series of textbooks on educational methods and teaching subject matter. His work included applications for and illustrations of how to teach children. He wanted children to learn in their native language with hands-on activities (Schwarz & Martin, 49).

John amos comenius education theory
When the Thirty Years’ War ended in 1648, his homeland was ceded to Rome, and he was forced to go elsewhere to see his ideas accepted. He was invited to Hungary to establish a school by a young prince, but his early attempts at educational reform proved unsuccessful. He returned to Poland with a manuscript for a picture textbook he had written for his students, but for which he had not been able to obtain the necessary woodcuts for the pictures. He sent the manuscript to Germany, where the woodcuts were done, and the resulting book, Orbis Sensualium Pictus (The Visible World in Pictures) was published in 1658.6
His reform of the existing education systems called for a revolution in methods of teaching calling for approaches that would allow learning to be rapid, pleasant, and thorough. The way children naturally learned needed to be carefully considered rather than the mindless memorization of texts without understanding the material taught. Teaching in Latin was seen as necessary, but rather than focusing only on grammar, learning about useful facts was proposed. Comenius wrote Didactica Magna (The Great Didactic), published in 1632, which laid out his educational ideas. He also wrote a textbook, Janua Linguarum Reserata (The Gate of Tongues Unlocked), which compared Latin and Czech and identified learning words with things. This book was well received throughout Europe and was subsequently translated into several languages. Through the success of the book, he became well known throughout Europe.

John amos comenius education theory
He advocated the necessity of three kinds of education: intellectual education, moral education, and religious education. To teach “all things to all men” was the theme of Comenius’ theory of education. Comenius considered that the talent to realize the goals of education is naturally inherent in people, and it is the role of education to bring out this natural gift, that is, “nature.”
This project has been realized in its cognitive aspect nowadays, from 1971 to 1975, by author of the Address as the Universal Ontological Model of Social System and Universal Ontological Model of Culture. This universal Knowledge has been discovered irrespective of the “Pansofiae” by J.A. Komensky – the author was ignorant of it – but as a result of a natural cognition process, by way of searching truth for the sake of truth itself.

With the liberation of Bohemia less certain than before, Comenius turned to an even more ambitious project—the reform of human society through education. Others in Europe shared his vision, among them a German merchant living in London, Samuel Hartlib, who invited Comenius to England to establish a college of pansophic learning. With approval from the Brethren, Comenius went to London in 1641, reporting back that he had been “fitted out with new clothes befitting an English divine.” He met a number of influential men, engaged in much discussion, and wrote essays of which the most notable was The Way of Light, which set out his program. Parliament went so far as to consider setting up a college “for a number of men from all nations.” This prospect was shattered by the outbreak of the English Civil War, however, and Comenius was obliged to leave the country in 1642. He had been invited to France by Cardinal Richelieu; and the American John Winthrop, Jr., who was in Europe looking for an educator-theologian to become president of Harvard College, may have met Comenius. Instead, Comenius accepted an offer from the government of Sweden to help reform its schools by writing a series of textbooks modeled on his Janua.
As a young minister Comenius found life wholly satisfying, but the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War in 1618 and the emperor Ferdinand II’s determination to re-Catholicize Bohemia forced him and other Protestant leaders to flee. While in hiding, he wrote an allegory, The Labyrinth of the World and the Paradise of the Heart, in which he described both his early despair and his sources of consolation. With a band of Brethren he escaped to Poland and in 1628 settled in Leszno. Believing that the Protestants would eventually win and liberate Bohemia, he began to prepare for the day when it would be possible to rebuild society there through a reformed educational system. He wrote a “Brief Proposal” advocating full-time schooling for all the youth of the nation and maintaining that they should be taught both their native culture and the culture of Europe.

Resources:

http://coffeeshopthinking.wordpress.com/2013/10/04/john-comenius-philosophy-of-education/
http://www.pgpedia.com/c/john-amos-comenius
http://www.tresbohemes.com/2016/08/father-of-modern-education/
http://www.britannica.com/biography/John-Amos-Comenius
http://tesl-ej.org/ej16/r7.html

bilingual education history politics theory and practice

Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice by James Crawford and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com.

bilingual education history politics theory and practice

Bilingual education history politics theory and practice
About this Item: Bilingual Education Serv, 1995. Paperback. Condition: Fair. Seller Inventory # 0890755566-4-15091790
Crawford, James

Bilingual education history politics theory and practice
“A valuable book for any language-minority education professional who yearns for a better understanding of
the political nature and the ongoing debates surrounding language policy in the United States.”
– Harvard Educational Review
“Valuable insights on language policy in the education of immigrant children . A compelling book to read.”
– Theresa Austin, Teachers College Record

EDUCATION (BOTHELL CAMPUS) James Crawford, Bilingual education: History, politics, theory, practice. Los Angeles: Bilingual Education Services (Los Angeles: Bilingual Education Services, Inc., 1999). 16 This was a directive from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) mandating districts to make accommodations for LEP students. Master of Arts (M.A.) Major in Elementary Education Bilingualism and multilingualism is an interdisciplinary and complex field. As is self-evident from the prefixes (bi- and multi-), bilingualism and multilingualism phenomena are devoted to the study of production, processing, and comprehension of two (and more than two) languages, respectively. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Start by marking “Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice” as Want to Read: Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice by. James Crawford. 3.31 Rating details 13 ratings A solid overview of the history and politics of bilingual education in the United States. History of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in the The Bilingual Education Act was passed in 1968 to address the challenges faced by emerging bilingual students in U.S. schools. Fifty years later, ideologies promoting bilingual education persist with a discourse of “one nation, one territory, one language nationalism.” The bilingual and multiple language repertoires necessary for.
Journals List – ERIC – Education Resources Information Center Jul 06, 2009 Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Bilingual education is a new way of conceiving the entire range of education especially for the non-English child just entering school. Bilingual learning necessitates rethinking the entire curriculum in terms of a child’s best instruments for learning, of his readiness for learning various subjects, and his own identity and potential for.

78 Highly Influenced Citations
Averaged 8 Citations per year from 2018 through 2020

Bilingual education history politics theory and practice
Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students long term academic achievement. Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence , Santa Cruz , CA .
Gómez, R. & Gómez, L. (1999). Supporting dual CALP development among second language learners: The two way model revisited. Educational Considerations Journal , 26(2) Spring 1999.

Resources:

http://www.languagepolicy.net/
http://nforinenbe.gotdns.ch/273.html
http://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Bilingual-Education%3A-History%2C-Politics%2C-Theory%2C-and-Crawford/fdc3aa7b81e2c74f629183ee6898a3ec9cf4128d
http://gomezandgomez.com/research.html
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-20877-0_23

john dewey theory of education

John Dewey’s Theories of Education Written: 1960 Source: International Socialist Review , Vol. 21, No. 1, Winter 1960. Transcription/Editing: 2005 by Daniel Gaido HTML Markup: 2005 by David

john dewey theory of education

[First of a series of two. Next: “What Happened to Dewey’s Theories?”]
The Progressive Education Association, inspired by Dewey’s ideas, later codified his doctrines as follows:

In 1930, Dewey left Columbia and retired from his teaching career with the title of professor emeritus. His wife, Harriet, had died three years earlier.
Dewey’s philosophy also claimed than man behaved out of habit and that change often led to unexpected outcomes. As man struggled to understand the results of change, he was forced to think creatively in order to resume control of his shifting environment. For Dewey, thought was the means through which man came to understand and connect with the world around him. A universal education was the key to teaching people how to abandon their habits and think creatively.

John dewey theory of education
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What do you think? Are you familiar with the explanation of the John Dewey theory? Which elements of his contributions do you recognise in everyday life? Which other great thinkers preceded Dewey in his vision? How do you think the educational system would have developed if thinkers like Dewey hadn’t shared their vision?

Dewey’s proposed method—the experiential starting point—is not just another philosophical “move”, but a radical attempt to philosophize from what Ortega y Gasset calls “the shaken confines of our own life” and what Douglas Browning calls “bedrock” (Ortega y Gasset 1957: 40; Browning 1998: 74). [14] Dewey wrote,
The interactional, organic model Dewey developed in his psychology informed his theories of learning and knowledge. Given this new ecological framework, a range of traditional epistemological proposals and puzzles (premised on metaphysical divisions such as appearance/reality, mind/world) lost credibility. “So far as the question of the relation of the self to known objects is concerned”, Dewey wrote, “knowing is but one special case of the agent-patient, of the behaver-enjoyer-sufferer situation” (“Brief Studies in Realism”, MW6: 120). As we have already seen in psychology, Dewey’s wholesale repudiation of the tradition’s basic metaphysical framework required extensive reconstructions in every other area; one popular name for Dewey’s reconstruction of epistemology (or “theory of inquiry”, as Dewey preferred to call it) was “instrumentalism”. [22]

John dewey theory of education
The Dewey School (1898-1948): The School as a Cooperative Society
Equally important to the philosophy of the Dewey School was that learning occurred within a community setting. Dewey (1900) stated that a school as an embryonic community life that will reflect the life of the larger society. Dewey elaborated on this belief by stating that the embryonic community will in turn produce citizens that can improve the larger society by making it worthy, lively, and harmonious. Thus, in the Dewey School, a major goal of education was its social purpose. This social purpose guided the process of having children learn to work cooperatively together to achieve common goals.

Resources:

http://www.biography.com/scholar/john-dewey
http://www.toolshero.com/change-management/john-dewey-theory/
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/dewey/
http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/pte/theory/dewey.htm
http://www.wiley.com/en-us/Health+Behavior%3A+Theory%2C+Research%2C+and+Practice%2C+5th+Edition-p-9781118628980

piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education

Rethinking science education: Beyond piagetian constructivism toward a sociocultural model of teaching and learning † Department of Curriculum arid Teaching, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY

piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education

Piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL, April 1991.
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Piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education
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This essay proposes (1) that more than one kind of large-scale developmental change exists; and (2) that more than one kind of developmental change mechanism is needed to explain them. These proposals are supported by work in nonuniversal theory which states that intellectual development should be characterized neither as domain-general nor as domainspecific, but as a spectrum of developmental domains that range from the universal to the unique. The current article extends nonuniversal theory by positing and then describing (1) a sixth region of development—a pancultural region: and (2) five basic change mechanisms (maturation, domain-specific structures, technologies, instruction, and equilibration) that differentially influence developmental change at particular points along the universal-to-unique continuum. The contributions of each of the five change mechanisms is illustrated by an analysis of children’s ability to draw maps. The value of the universal to unique framework is demonstrated by showing how it helps resolve Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s seemingly contradictory views on the relationship between learning and development.

Piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education
Kurt W. Fischer and Daniel Bullock
If the future is not to be a reenactment of the past, it is important to ask why it has been so difficult to avoid drifting toward one or another type of preformism. Why has no well-articulated, compelling alternative to preformism been devised? Any compelling alternative to preformism must describe how child and environment collaborate to produce new structures during development. Constructing such a framework is an immensely difficult task. At the very least, the framework must make reference to cognitive structure, environmental structure, the interaction of the two, and mechanisms for change in structure. The scope of these issues makes such a framework difficult to formulate and difficult to communicate once formulated.

Piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education
30. Gorelick M, Clark A. Effects of nutrition program on knowledge of preschoolchildren. J Nutr Educ. 1985; 17(3):88-92. [ Links ]
In this way, children also learn that there are different types of food, their food schemata are enriched and new food schemata begin to form. This helps children remember the food schemata they learned through social transmission.

Resources:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0732118X97100010
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK216774/
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-52732009000600012
http://saylordotorg.github.io/text_social-problems-continuity-and-change/s14-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html

Food Photography: 3 Tips to Make it Interesting

Photography is a form of art which allows us to explore, experiment, test, re-invest, and enjoy our creativity. It can be a great hobby or even a profitable business, depending on your aspirations. Regardless of what your goal with photography is, and what the reasons behind your love for it are, you always need to learn new things and improve your photography skills.

In this essay on food, we’ll cover the art of food photography, and help all you food photography enthusiasts make an interesting twist in your photos. Therefore, if you want to learn super-useful tricks about making food photography more interesting, just go ahead and keep reading.

1.      Crop It

With the emergence of social media such as Instagram and the huge amount of images we are being served every day, it’s hard to stand out from the crowd and make your images notable.

However, the first trick we’re about to share with you might just make your food photos recognizable and unique.

It’s really simple: crop it.

source: Pixabay

Instead of showing the entire dish, just go ahead and crop one part of the image. This will make your dish more intriguing, elegantly presented, and interesting.

In addition, it will make your audience crave the meal you’ve presented even more.

Go ahead and try this approach out to see where it takes you.

2.      Choose an Angle

There are two most typical angles when it comes to food photography.

People either choose to take a picture of the food overhead, placing the camera directly above the dish and taking the shot.

Secondly, people choose the typical straight forward shot of the dish making the shot look more spontaneous and natural.

But, what if you choose a different approach and use a unique angle to shoot all your food photos?

You can try out different things until you find what works for you and the food you’re taking pictures of.

For example, you can make all your food photos vertical.

It will show you have a different approach than your fellow colleagues and will separate you from your competition.

source: Pixabay

In addition, it will allow you to use the space surrounding the main object creatively, and express yourself differently than before.

3.      Go For Minimalism

Many food photographers fear that their pictures just won’t do the trick for their audience, so they start overdoing things.

They tend to use too many props, dishes in different colors and with colorful patterns, and too many additional elements. This only makes the audience lose focus of the main dish in the image and the whole thing is just one big food mess.

To make your photos interesting, you should try going for the minimalistic approach.

 

source: Pixabay

This means you should:

  • use just a few props
  • leave some empty space on the picture
  • combine only a few colors

This will keep the focus on your dish, and help your audience relate to the image faster.

Final Thoughts

In order for your food photography adventures to be more successful, you need to think and act outside of the box. Be experimental and brave, focusing both on the process and the end result. You’ll be amazed how just a little effort can make a huge difference

Hopefully, the advice above will help you make your food photos more interesting and praise-worthy. Try them out today to see where that takes you.

 

3 Healthy Snacks Which Make You Forget About Junk Food

Those of you trying to turn your diet around and start creating healthy eating habits might feel like you’ll never be able to enjoy food again. Healthy food can be quite boring and limiting, not allowing you to experience the same amount of pleasure as when you’re eating your favorite junk food. This is why most people fail to succeed in their plans to run a healthier life and simply go back to their old, unhealthy habits.

However, healthy food can be equally as fun, tasty, and enjoyable as junk food. All you have to do is learn how to prepare it. That’s why we’re giving you these 3 healthy snacks which you’ll instantly fall in love with, and which will help you forget all about junk food.

1.     Mozzarella and Cherry Tomatoes

This first snack is definitely a match you can’t go wrong with. Juicy little cherry tomatoes combined with the creamy mozzarella cheese are both delicious and great for your health. Together, they make a great healthy snack.

Cherry tomatoes are a great source of vitamin A, C, K, and potassium. Consuming it on a regular basis decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

On the other hand, mozzarella cheese is high in vitamin B12, calcium, and protein.

This snack is also great because it will help you feel full, refreshed, and energized. It’s light but it’s super-nutritious.

In addition, you can pack it in a small lunch box and take it with you wherever you go. Then, when you have a food craving, just go ahead and enjoy this healthy snack.

2.     Oatmeal Cookies

When you’re looking for a healthy dessert and something to make you feel full, look no further from the good old oatmeal cookies!

This snack is definitely something on everyone’s favorite snacks list, and we’re no exception.

However, if you want to keep your oatmeal cookies healthy, you do need to change the recipe around so as to make it suitable for a healthy diet.

  • instead of butter, you could use applesauce
  • instead of sugar, you could use honey
  • instead of chocolate chips, you could use raisins or dried cranberry

In addition, you could add some healthy nuts to the mixture, to make the cookie even more wholesome.

This way, you’ll make a healthy snack which is good for your body, rich in nutrients, easily digestible, and overall great for you.

Homemade oatmeal cookies are the best way for you to know what you’re consuming, so go ahead and bake your own healthy snacks. You won’t regret it.

3.     Banana and Dark Chocolate

When it comes to snacking, banana is the king.

It’s great for you for numerous reasons:

  • they’re rich in fiber, potassium, and protein
  • they’re kind of sweet, which can help you reduce your sugar cravings
  • they give you the energy you need without making you feel heavy or bloated.

However, every once in a while you deserve a healthy snack which contains chocolate.

Since dark chocolate is the healthiest version of chocolate, you can melt it down, dip some banana slices into it and leave it in the refrigerator for a couple of hours.

This healthy snack will satisfy your needs for chocolate and help you remove junk food from your diet.

The Bottom Line

Healthy snacks aren’t necessarily celery sticks and kale. You can use your creativity and create the snacks you’ll enjoy even though they’re healthy and beneficial for you.

Go ahead and try something from our list of healthy snacks today.