bilingual education history politics theory and practice

Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice by James Crawford and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at

bilingual education history politics theory and practice

Bilingual education history politics theory and practice
About this Item: Bilingual Education Serv, 1995. Paperback. Condition: Fair. Seller Inventory # 0890755566-4-15091790
Crawford, James

Bilingual education history politics theory and practice
“A valuable book for any language-minority education professional who yearns for a better understanding of
the political nature and the ongoing debates surrounding language policy in the United States.”
– Harvard Educational Review
“Valuable insights on language policy in the education of immigrant children . A compelling book to read.”
– Theresa Austin, Teachers College Record

EDUCATION (BOTHELL CAMPUS) James Crawford, Bilingual education: History, politics, theory, practice. Los Angeles: Bilingual Education Services (Los Angeles: Bilingual Education Services, Inc., 1999). 16 This was a directive from the Office of Civil Rights (OCR) mandating districts to make accommodations for LEP students. Master of Arts (M.A.) Major in Elementary Education Bilingualism and multilingualism is an interdisciplinary and complex field. As is self-evident from the prefixes (bi- and multi-), bilingualism and multilingualism phenomena are devoted to the study of production, processing, and comprehension of two (and more than two) languages, respectively. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Start by marking “Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice” as Want to Read: Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice by. James Crawford. 3.31 Rating details 13 ratings A solid overview of the history and politics of bilingual education in the United States. History of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in the The Bilingual Education Act was passed in 1968 to address the challenges faced by emerging bilingual students in U.S. schools. Fifty years later, ideologies promoting bilingual education persist with a discourse of “one nation, one territory, one language nationalism.” The bilingual and multiple language repertoires necessary for.
Journals List – ERIC – Education Resources Information Center Jul 06, 2009 Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Bilingual education is a new way of conceiving the entire range of education especially for the non-English child just entering school. Bilingual learning necessitates rethinking the entire curriculum in terms of a child’s best instruments for learning, of his readiness for learning various subjects, and his own identity and potential for.

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Bilingual education history politics theory and practice
Thomas, W. P., & Collier, V. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students long term academic achievement. Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence , Santa Cruz , CA .
Gómez, R. & Gómez, L. (1999). Supporting dual CALP development among second language learners: The two way model revisited. Educational Considerations Journal , 26(2) Spring 1999.


john dewey theory of education

John Dewey’s Theories of Education Written: 1960 Source: International Socialist Review , Vol. 21, No. 1, Winter 1960. Transcription/Editing: 2005 by Daniel Gaido HTML Markup: 2005 by David

john dewey theory of education

[First of a series of two. Next: “What Happened to Dewey’s Theories?”]
The Progressive Education Association, inspired by Dewey’s ideas, later codified his doctrines as follows:

In 1930, Dewey left Columbia and retired from his teaching career with the title of professor emeritus. His wife, Harriet, had died three years earlier.
Dewey’s philosophy also claimed than man behaved out of habit and that change often led to unexpected outcomes. As man struggled to understand the results of change, he was forced to think creatively in order to resume control of his shifting environment. For Dewey, thought was the means through which man came to understand and connect with the world around him. A universal education was the key to teaching people how to abandon their habits and think creatively.

John dewey theory of education
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What do you think? Are you familiar with the explanation of the John Dewey theory? Which elements of his contributions do you recognise in everyday life? Which other great thinkers preceded Dewey in his vision? How do you think the educational system would have developed if thinkers like Dewey hadn’t shared their vision?

Dewey’s proposed method—the experiential starting point—is not just another philosophical “move”, but a radical attempt to philosophize from what Ortega y Gasset calls “the shaken confines of our own life” and what Douglas Browning calls “bedrock” (Ortega y Gasset 1957: 40; Browning 1998: 74). [14] Dewey wrote,
The interactional, organic model Dewey developed in his psychology informed his theories of learning and knowledge. Given this new ecological framework, a range of traditional epistemological proposals and puzzles (premised on metaphysical divisions such as appearance/reality, mind/world) lost credibility. “So far as the question of the relation of the self to known objects is concerned”, Dewey wrote, “knowing is but one special case of the agent-patient, of the behaver-enjoyer-sufferer situation” (“Brief Studies in Realism”, MW6: 120). As we have already seen in psychology, Dewey’s wholesale repudiation of the tradition’s basic metaphysical framework required extensive reconstructions in every other area; one popular name for Dewey’s reconstruction of epistemology (or “theory of inquiry”, as Dewey preferred to call it) was “instrumentalism”. [22]

John dewey theory of education
The Dewey School (1898-1948): The School as a Cooperative Society
Equally important to the philosophy of the Dewey School was that learning occurred within a community setting. Dewey (1900) stated that a school as an embryonic community life that will reflect the life of the larger society. Dewey elaborated on this belief by stating that the embryonic community will in turn produce citizens that can improve the larger society by making it worthy, lively, and harmonious. Thus, in the Dewey School, a major goal of education was its social purpose. This social purpose guided the process of having children learn to work cooperatively together to achieve common goals.


piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education

Rethinking science education: Beyond piagetian constructivism toward a sociocultural model of teaching and learning † Department of Curriculum arid Teaching, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY

piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education

Piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL, April 1991.
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Piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education
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This essay proposes (1) that more than one kind of large-scale developmental change exists; and (2) that more than one kind of developmental change mechanism is needed to explain them. These proposals are supported by work in nonuniversal theory which states that intellectual development should be characterized neither as domain-general nor as domainspecific, but as a spectrum of developmental domains that range from the universal to the unique. The current article extends nonuniversal theory by positing and then describing (1) a sixth region of development—a pancultural region: and (2) five basic change mechanisms (maturation, domain-specific structures, technologies, instruction, and equilibration) that differentially influence developmental change at particular points along the universal-to-unique continuum. The contributions of each of the five change mechanisms is illustrated by an analysis of children’s ability to draw maps. The value of the universal to unique framework is demonstrated by showing how it helps resolve Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s seemingly contradictory views on the relationship between learning and development.

Piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education
Kurt W. Fischer and Daniel Bullock
If the future is not to be a reenactment of the past, it is important to ask why it has been so difficult to avoid drifting toward one or another type of preformism. Why has no well-articulated, compelling alternative to preformism been devised? Any compelling alternative to preformism must describe how child and environment collaborate to produce new structures during development. Constructing such a framework is an immensely difficult task. At the very least, the framework must make reference to cognitive structure, environmental structure, the interaction of the two, and mechanisms for change in structure. The scope of these issues makes such a framework difficult to formulate and difficult to communicate once formulated.

Piagetian theory and vygotsky%e2%80%99s theory in education
30. Gorelick M, Clark A. Effects of nutrition program on knowledge of preschoolchildren. J Nutr Educ. 1985; 17(3):88-92. [ Links ]
In this way, children also learn that there are different types of food, their food schemata are enriched and new food schemata begin to form. This helps children remember the food schemata they learned through social transmission.


Food Photography: 3 Tips to Make it Interesting

Photography is a form of art which allows us to explore, experiment, test, re-invest, and enjoy our creativity. It can be a great hobby or even a profitable business, depending on your aspirations. Regardless of what your goal with photography is, and what the reasons behind your love for it are, you always need to learn new things and improve your photography skills.

In this essay on food, we’ll cover the art of food photography, and help all you food photography enthusiasts make an interesting twist in your photos. Therefore, if you want to learn super-useful tricks about making food photography more interesting, just go ahead and keep reading.

1.      Crop It

With the emergence of social media such as Instagram and the huge amount of images we are being served every day, it’s hard to stand out from the crowd and make your images notable.

However, the first trick we’re about to share with you might just make your food photos recognizable and unique.

It’s really simple: crop it.

source: Pixabay

Instead of showing the entire dish, just go ahead and crop one part of the image. This will make your dish more intriguing, elegantly presented, and interesting.

In addition, it will make your audience crave the meal you’ve presented even more.

Go ahead and try this approach out to see where it takes you.

2.      Choose an Angle

There are two most typical angles when it comes to food photography.

People either choose to take a picture of the food overhead, placing the camera directly above the dish and taking the shot.

Secondly, people choose the typical straight forward shot of the dish making the shot look more spontaneous and natural.

But, what if you choose a different approach and use a unique angle to shoot all your food photos?

You can try out different things until you find what works for you and the food you’re taking pictures of.

For example, you can make all your food photos vertical.

It will show you have a different approach than your fellow colleagues and will separate you from your competition.

source: Pixabay

In addition, it will allow you to use the space surrounding the main object creatively, and express yourself differently than before.

3.      Go For Minimalism

Many food photographers fear that their pictures just won’t do the trick for their audience, so they start overdoing things.

They tend to use too many props, dishes in different colors and with colorful patterns, and too many additional elements. This only makes the audience lose focus of the main dish in the image and the whole thing is just one big food mess.

To make your photos interesting, you should try going for the minimalistic approach.


source: Pixabay

This means you should:

  • use just a few props
  • leave some empty space on the picture
  • combine only a few colors

This will keep the focus on your dish, and help your audience relate to the image faster.

Final Thoughts

In order for your food photography adventures to be more successful, you need to think and act outside of the box. Be experimental and brave, focusing both on the process and the end result. You’ll be amazed how just a little effort can make a huge difference

Hopefully, the advice above will help you make your food photos more interesting and praise-worthy. Try them out today to see where that takes you.


3 Healthy Snacks Which Make You Forget About Junk Food

Those of you trying to turn your diet around and start creating healthy eating habits might feel like you’ll never be able to enjoy food again. Healthy food can be quite boring and limiting, not allowing you to experience the same amount of pleasure as when you’re eating your favorite junk food. This is why most people fail to succeed in their plans to run a healthier life and simply go back to their old, unhealthy habits.

However, healthy food can be equally as fun, tasty, and enjoyable as junk food. All you have to do is learn how to prepare it. That’s why we’re giving you these 3 healthy snacks which you’ll instantly fall in love with, and which will help you forget all about junk food.

1.     Mozzarella and Cherry Tomatoes

This first snack is definitely a match you can’t go wrong with. Juicy little cherry tomatoes combined with the creamy mozzarella cheese are both delicious and great for your health. Together, they make a great healthy snack.

Cherry tomatoes are a great source of vitamin A, C, K, and potassium. Consuming it on a regular basis decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

On the other hand, mozzarella cheese is high in vitamin B12, calcium, and protein.

This snack is also great because it will help you feel full, refreshed, and energized. It’s light but it’s super-nutritious.

In addition, you can pack it in a small lunch box and take it with you wherever you go. Then, when you have a food craving, just go ahead and enjoy this healthy snack.

2.     Oatmeal Cookies

When you’re looking for a healthy dessert and something to make you feel full, look no further from the good old oatmeal cookies!

This snack is definitely something on everyone’s favorite snacks list, and we’re no exception.

However, if you want to keep your oatmeal cookies healthy, you do need to change the recipe around so as to make it suitable for a healthy diet.

  • instead of butter, you could use applesauce
  • instead of sugar, you could use honey
  • instead of chocolate chips, you could use raisins or dried cranberry

In addition, you could add some healthy nuts to the mixture, to make the cookie even more wholesome.

This way, you’ll make a healthy snack which is good for your body, rich in nutrients, easily digestible, and overall great for you.

Homemade oatmeal cookies are the best way for you to know what you’re consuming, so go ahead and bake your own healthy snacks. You won’t regret it.

3.     Banana and Dark Chocolate

When it comes to snacking, banana is the king.

It’s great for you for numerous reasons:

  • they’re rich in fiber, potassium, and protein
  • they’re kind of sweet, which can help you reduce your sugar cravings
  • they give you the energy you need without making you feel heavy or bloated.

However, every once in a while you deserve a healthy snack which contains chocolate.

Since dark chocolate is the healthiest version of chocolate, you can melt it down, dip some banana slices into it and leave it in the refrigerator for a couple of hours.

This healthy snack will satisfy your needs for chocolate and help you remove junk food from your diet.

The Bottom Line

Healthy snacks aren’t necessarily celery sticks and kale. You can use your creativity and create the snacks you’ll enjoy even though they’re healthy and beneficial for you.

Go ahead and try something from our list of healthy snacks today.

3 Chocolate Myths Food Companies Made Us BelieveTo

Who doesn’t love chocolate? It’s the ultimate sweet we all enjoy consuming and most of us crave for almost every day. There’s no debate that chocolate is such a loved desert all over the globe and that you’ll rarely run into someone who’s not a chocolate-enthusiast.

In addition to its irreplaceable taste and the pure joy you get out of eating it, what contributes the general adoration of chocolate is some of the myths we’ve been served by the chocolate companies. In other words, not everything you’ve heard about chocolate is completely true.

So, let’s take a look at the three chocolate myths we’ve all believed at some point, but are not exactly the truth.

1.     Chocolate Boosts My Energy

The number one myth we’re about to break together is the myth linking chocolate to increased levels of energy.

When we’re hungry, tired, sleepy, or exhausted, we often get advised to “eat some chocolate”. This is due to popular belief that chocolate can shake us up, and awaken us.

Although chocolate does contain small amounts of caffeine, the amount is rather insignificant.

However, consuming anything containing sugar, including chocolate, can make us feel uplifted and energized, but only for a short period.

It’s like a hit of high followed by a hit of low.

Therefore, instead of eating chocolate when you’re hungry or tired, it’s better to consume whole foods, which will provide proper nutrition for your body.

This myth was imposed on us by the chocolate companies to turn chocolate into our food of choice when it comes to boosting our energy.

2.     Dark Chocolate is Healthy

Wow, it’s so great to hear that something you enjoy eating so much is actually good for you!

Dark chocolate is just one version of chocolate, and it’s still our favorite treat. But, is it actually true that dark chocolate improves your health? Not really.

Let’s start from scratch: most studies dealing with the health benefits of chocolate and cocoa are actually funded by major chocolate companies. And therefore, most studies speak in favor of chocolate.

You’ve probably heard some of the following myths:

  • chocolate lowers your blood pressure
  • chocolate is good for your heart
  • chocolate reduces inflammation

Although there is some truth to these statements, we need to make it clear that it relates to the actual dark chocolate, with 70 percent or more of cocoa solids content.

In addition, even if you only consume the real deal dark chocolate, you still can’t eat all you want. You need to be moderate and careful, or else you might consume too much sugar.

3.     Chocolate is a Great Aphrodisiac

Chocolate is said to be able to do so many things for your body, and increasing your libido is one of those things.

It’s almost like chocolate is a miracle food.

However, numerous studies show that consuming chocolate has nothing to do with, nor can it affect your libido.

Therefore, this myth is definitely a false statement, imposed by chocolate companies, to make you love chocolate even more (if that’s’ even possible).


We all love eating chocolate, there’s no question about it. And we love believing that chocolate is great for our health and should be made a regular part of our diet. However, we mustn’t believe everything we hear or read, especially if it’s from unreliable sources.

Chocolate needs to be consumed in small amounts, and you should always choose the darker, less milky version of it to ensure you’re taking care of your health.

Chronic Gastritis

Symptoms like nausea and loss of appetite, “sensation of fullness” are some of the primary signs of chronic gastritis. Bacteria Helicobacter pylori are a common cause of chronic gastritis. Helicobacter pylori are found in the digestive tract of humans. This bacterium attacks the stomach lining causing ulcers after many years. Consequently, chronic gastritis is very common with senior citizens like Ms. Johnson as it occurs gradually. Bacteria are the most predominant or the most prevalent causes of this disease.

Some of the other conditions that cause chronic gastritis are bile reflux, regular use of medicines such as aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, chronic vomiting, stress, excessive use of alcohol or cocaine. In rare cases, chronic gastritis occurs when the body’s immune system attacks its individual cells by mistake (Tidy, 2015). Ms. Johnson’s chronic digestive problems may be a result of one of the causes mentioned above.

Bile reflux is caused by the weakening of lower esophageal valve which separates the esophagus and stomach (Tidy, 2015). When this valve becomes weak, there is backflow of bile into the stomach. Bile and stomach acids mix causing inflammation of the stomach lining, gastritis. Ms. Johnson complained of abdominal cramping which is one of the symptoms of bile reflux.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen compromise the mucus on the stomach lining. Acids corrode the now unprotected stomach lining leading to ulcers (Tidy, 2015).

All in all, Helicobacter pylori are a common but not the only cause of chronic gastritis. Ms. Johnson might have experienced a stressful event in her life, used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or her body’s immune system could attack its individual cells. Every possible reason of disease should be checked carefully before starting the treatment.

List of Common Agricultural Items

A transplanter is used to transplant seedlings in the garden. They were invented in regions around Asia which include areas in Japan and Korea.

Plastic mulch layer is used to lay mulch that suppresses weeds and conserve water. It was invented in the mid-1950s by Emery .M. Emmert from the University of Kentucky.

A potato planer is also among the agricultural items that are used to plant potatoes either automatically or manually. Its origin traces back to Peru and regions of Bolivia.

Seed drills are sowing machines that position seeds in the holes and cover them. They were invented by Jethro Tull and again traced back to the Sumerians.

Chisel plough used in cultivation. It traces back to ancient England and Germany during the 1700s.It has been improved though over time.

Harrows are used on farms for smoothening and breaking soils. They were invented by the Babylonians and also are traced back to the 10th century to the Arabs.

Subsoilers are used for deep tillage, breaking of soil and loosening it. Their invention trace back to the USA in the 1950s.

A cultipacker is used in crushing dirt clods, press down stones and remove the air pockets from soils. It was invented in the 1920s by the English.

A roller can be used for breaking up large soils and also flattening land. It was developed in the 20th century in Colombo but earlier was noticed in some parts of France.

Stone pickers remove stones from soils and pick out debris. It was invented by Peter Anderson in the 1940s.

A tractor is amongst these items. It delivers high tractive effort power which can be used in agriculture activities. It originates back to the 19th century the age at which steam engines were invented, and John Dere made them better.

A hoe is one of the most common agricultural items. It serves the most basic of farm work which includes weeding, digging and cultivating (shaping of soil. It’s arguably the most valuable tool in a farm. It has a long handle and a flat blade which is fixed perpendicular to its end. Its origin is traced back to the time a hand stick was used for digging but due to arising complications resulted to its invention. It’s traced back to ancient times in Egypt and some area of California. It exists in various types depending on its use.

Irrigation pipes are also among agricultural items. They transport water through the farm. They trace back to the Romans during the time of ancient civilization from which they were improved over time.

Fertilizers ranging from various varieties are also among these items. They enhance plant growth. Fertilizers go back to the thousands of years ago when Babylonians, Egyptians, Romans and early Germans used manure and minerals to better crop growth.

Packaging bags and sacs are also essential when mentioning these items. They aid in the packaging of farm produce, and their origin is traced back to the U.SA in states like Texas.

Planters are used for sowing seeds on the farm. They were invented by John Dere in ancient times to help man during planting seasons.

A disc harrow cultivates land where crops are to be planted. They were discovered in the high plains of United States in the 20th century.

A tank tread is traced back to 1770 when they were first used and invented by Richard Edgeworth.Better inventions followed in the 1830s by Sir George Cayley.

A drag harrow will smoothen soil and loosen it. This together with the disc harrows was invented in the high plain of United States during the 20th century.

Cultivators are used in secondary tillage. The basic types were designed in 1912 by Arthur Clifford Howard in Australia.

Micronutrient Paper Vitamin B6

The bodies of organisms require various forms of nutrients to operate normally and help an individual in the course of executing multiple tasks. One of the primary nutrients that are fundamental to the proper functioning of the body organs is vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), which scientists often group into categories such as pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal. NIH (2016) opines that pyridoxine is a soluble vitamin, which is prevalent in the foods such as potatoes, fish, and meat from the organs of animals. Also, humans can obtain vitamin B6 from common fruits such as citrus thereby implying that the nutrient mentioned above is readily available for the human consumption.

Vitamin B6 plays a critical role in boosting the operations of an individual’s body organs and cells thus improving one’s health status. According to NIH (2016), the active form of vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal Phosphate) is essential in the operations of more than a 100 enzymes, which catalyze various chemical reactions in the human body. Notably, the Pyridoxal Phosphate (PLP) is a coenzyme for a catalyst, which initiates the release of glucose from glycogen. Besides, the PLP is crucial for the chemical reactions that lead to the production of glucose from the amino acids in the body.

Scientists have also discovered that PLP is essential in the manufacturing of heme, which is an iron-rich component of hemoglobin that transports oxygen to the various parts of the body (Nutri-Facts, n.d). Specifically, PLP binds the hemoglobin and aids in the efficient transportation of oxygen in the body. Finally, PLP is critical in the reduction of the infections such as prostate and breast cancer. Precisely, PLP binds the steroid receptors in a manner that significantly reduces the binding of steroid hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, which often attaches to the hormone receptors thus changing gene expression. The change in the gene expression is one of the significant occurrences that lead to the development of cancer.

An analysis of the vitamin B6 indicates that it plays a critical role in the improvement of the immunity of the humans (Nutri-Facts, n.d). For instance, scientists attribute the role of vitamin B6 in the metabolism of one-carbon to the improvement of protection of humans thereby increasing the health statuses of various personalities. Apart from the growth in immunity, vitamin B6 acts as a coenzyme in the synthesis of nucleic acids in the body, thus influencing the genetic compositions of an individual.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reports that Pyridoxine is essential for the optimal operation of the nervous systems and the psychological processes of an individual (Nutri-Facts, n.d). Therefore, the adequate intake of vitamin B6 is essential in the normal coordination of the body’s organs and levels of intelligence. Also, the EFSA has discovered that Vitamin B6 is critical to the production of glucose and utilization of the toxic amino acids thus enhancing the energy production. Consequently, the consumption of vitamin b6 is essential in the reduction of fatigue and tiredness in the humankind. Furthermore, the nutrient mentioned above is crucial in the metabolic activities occurring in the body of an individual. The efficient metabolism in an individual is critical for the other bodily functions such as reproduction, movement, and digestion among others. Therefore, it is evident that the consumption of vitamin b6 is essential for the welfare of an individual.

According to the nutritionists, the consumption of proper quantities of Vitamin B6 is critical for the welfare of an individual. In reality, the intake of right amounts of vitamin B6 aids in the efficient execution of the previously described roles hence doctors have recommended the upper limits (UL), the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and the dietary reference intakes (DRI) for various categories of people in the society. A recommendation for the appropriate amounts of Vitamin B6 that individuals need to consume is also important in ensuring that one evenly consumes the various nutrients, which are essential for healthy living. The table below shows the RDA for vitamin B6.

Life stage Recommended amount
Birth to 6 months 0.1 mg
Infants 7-12 months 0.3 mg
Children 1-3 years 0.5 mg
Children 4-8 years 0.6 mg
Children 9-13 years 1.0 mg
Teenagers 14-18 boys 1.3 mg
Teens 14-18 girls 1.2 mg
Adults 19-50 years 1.3 mg
Adults 51+ years(men) 1.7 mg
Adults 51+ years(women) 1.5 mg
Pregnant teens and women 1.9 mg
Breastfeeding teens and women 2.0 mg

Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin B6 (NIH, 2016)

In addition to the RDA, clinicians have recommended the upper limits for the vitamin B6 that individuals need to consume at a given age level. The table below shows the UL for the B6.

Life stage Upper Limit
Birth to 12 months Not established
Children 1-3 years 30 mg
Children 4-8 years 40 mg
Children 9-18 years 60 mg
Teens 14-18 years 80 mg
Adults 100 mg

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for Vitamin B6 (NIH, 2016)

Finally, the DRI for Vitamin B6 is as in the table below

Age Male Female
Birth to 6 months 0.1 mg 0.1 mg
7- 12 months 0.3 mg 0.3 mg

DRI for Vitamin B6 (NIH, 2016)