the main reason why health education specialists should plan and use programs based upon theory is
Health Professions Education (HPE) programs emerged to train faculty in teaching and learning within the higher education context. HPE programs are motivated by the belief that faculty trained in teaching and learning will ultimately improve patient care through improved preparation of future practitioners and improved test scores that impact the careers of health professionals and the prestige of the institutions.
We followed a modified Delphi method for data collection and analyzed data from two in-person focus groups with faculty who work within the health professions at SRU, a collaborative document where health professions faculty filled out information about class types within HPE, an intensive literature review of over 100 policy and research on health professions education needs and best practices, a review of existing health professions education certificate and graduate degree program curriculum, and a review of promotion and tenure handbooks for Dental, Medical, and Nursing faculty at SRU.
The Department of Health Education and Behavior, with a foundation in the social and biological sciences, offers coursework focused on health information and theory application. Health Education and Behavior students learn techniques to promote healthy lifestyle choices in individual and group settings, with special attention given to diversity and culturally appropriate health education methodologies.
The Bachelor of Science in Health Education degree program allows students maximum flexibility to choose department specialization coursework during the junior and senior years that relates to personal interests in the health field. Students can focus their coursework on interest areas in health education and health promotion in community, clinical or worksite settings or in health studies as they prepare for professional health occupations.
Programmes to decrease risks of these disorders are most effective when they include attention to lifestyle factors in addition to diet, as do programmes such as the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP, 1987) and the National High Blood Pressure Education Programme (NHBPEP, 1988). Innovative, experience-based teaching techniques are also needed. For example, Fletcher and Braner (1994) report that an effective way of teaching children about nutrition is for them to prepare their own foods and to instil awareness of ethnic and cultural influences on food choice.
Plan field experiences to bring training to life
There is a lack of support for a number of previously held assumptions about health behavior change. Socio-demographic characteristics are poor predictors of persons’ likelihood to engage in health behavior change. 47 Imparting factual information alone often does not result in the maintenance of long-term behavior change. 8 , 12 , 45 , 59 , 60 Understanding and enhancing persons’ health beliefs (eg, Health Belief Model, 48 , 61 Health Promotion Model, 62 and Theory of Reasoned Action 63 , 64 ) seem to foster initiation but not long-term maintenance of a health behavior. 65 There is evidence that the trajectory of health behavior change seems to have a common pattern. For example, regardless of the behavior, the highest rate of relapse is seen very early after the change, and this has been seen across dieting, smoking cessation, increasing calcium intake, and others. 12 Social factors affect behavior, but social factors can have either a negative or a positive impact on initiation and maintenance of health behavior change. 12 , 62 , 66 , 67 It is not yet known whether adding a behavior (such as initiating an exercise program) differs from substitution (such as altering food choices), each of which could differ from extinction of a behavior (eg, smoking cessation). 12
Once the woman has determined her goal(s), she is assisted in monitoring her current behaviors related to this goal. For example, when a woman chooses to increase her calcium intake, she is able to choose how frequently she wants to monitor her progress and which assessment tools she wants to use (choice of self-monitoring tool can be changed daily based on individual preference and eating habits). Over time, the woman is provided graphic feedback displaying the extent to which she is meeting her personal goal, comparing her previous behaviors to national recommendations (normative feedback) or to her current behaviors (ipsitative feedback). The computer assists women to reflect on their goals, specific plans, and relative success via journaling exercises. Progress is recognized and the computer program provides built-in suggestions to aid in managing common challenges faced when changing these specific behaviors. Women are encouraged to use the computer program at least 3 to 5 times per week over an 8-week period or until they are able to meet their goals regularly without engaging in the steps of the self-regulation process.
Area VIII: Ethics and Professionalism
8.1 Practice in accordance with established ethical principles.
8.1.1 Apply professional codes of ethics and ethical principles throughout assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation and research, communication, consulting, and advocacy processes.
8.1.2 Demonstrate ethical leadership, management, and behavior.
8.1.3 Comply with legal standards and regulatory guidelines in assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation and research, advocacy, management, communication, and reporting processes.
8.1.4 Promote health equity.
8.1.5 Use evidence-informed theories, models, and strategies.
8.1.6 Apply principles of cultural humility, inclusion, and diversity in all aspects of practice (e.g., Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) standards and culturally responsive pedagogy).
8.2 Serve as an authoritative resource on health education and promotion.
8.2.1 Evaluate personal and organizational capacity to provide consultation.
8.2.2 Provide expert consultation, assistance, and guidance to individuals, groups, and organizations.
8.2.3 Conduct peer reviews (e.g., manuscripts, abstracts, proposals, and tenure folios).