the practice of health education is based upon a single theory. true false
Practice Questions (True or False) for Exam 1
There are, however, 2 categories of speech for which the government might have authority to constrain or compel speech to promote the health and welfare of the community: commercial speech and professional speech. Commercial speech is a category of speech defined as speech that (1) identifies a product for sale, (2) is a form of advertising, and (3) confers economic benefits. 3 Courts can uphold regulation of commercial speech based on a 4-part test articulated in Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation v Public Service Commission of New York. 20 Historically, examples of the regulation of commercial speech include advertisements for tobacco, alcohol, and gambling. 1 However, since Central Hudson, courts have demonstrated increasing reluctance to regulate commercial speech, emphasizing the rights of speakers rather than the state’s interests in the health and welfare of community members. 4 We believe this places an increased burden on physicians to correct inaccurate or false health-related information that can be found in commercial sources, including on the internet.
Medical professionals have a unique responsibility to confront false or misleading beliefs by virtue of their specialized knowledge and professional obligations. First, medical professionals are members of a community that possesses specialized knowledge about and training in health. Second, licensed professionals are the only people in our society who are allowed to practice medicine. The professional obligation to confront false health beliefs and information is more straightforward within a clinical setting: when patients express false or misinformed beliefs, it is professionally and ethically appropriate to attempt to correct and redirect the patients so that they can hopefully use evidence-based information to make an informed decision about their care. But outside an individual patient-clinician relationship, what is the obligation of a health care professional to the broader community to confront false beliefs and information?
A number of dimensions are involved in the coping process as it relates to substance abuse (Donovan, 1996; Hawkins, 1992; Lazarus, 1993; Shiffman, 1987; Wills and Hirky, 1996). The first is the general domain in which the coping response occurs. Coping responses can occur within the affective, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Litman identified a number of behavioral and cognitive strategies that are protective against relapse (Litman, 1986). There are two behavioral classes of coping behavior: (1) basic avoidance of situations that have been previously associated with substance abuse and (2) seeking social support when confronted with the temptation to drink or use drugs.
A major component in cognitive-behavioral therapy is the development of appropriate coping skills. Deficits in coping skills among substance abusers may be the result of a number of possible factors (Carroll, 1998). They may have never developed these skills, possibly because the early onset of substance abuse impaired the development of age-sensitive skills. Previously developed coping skills may have been compromised by an increased reliance on substances use as a primary means of coping. Some clients continue to use skills that are appropriate at an earlier age but are no longer appropriate or effective. Others have appropriate coping skills available to them but are inhibited from using them. Whatever the origin of the deficits, a primary goal of CBT is to help the individual develop and employ coping skills that effectively deal with the demands of high-risk situations without having to resort to substances as an alternative response.
Most (77.7%) were non-Hispanic whites, whereas 14.5% were African American, and 7.8% were Hispanics. Our study included slightly more men than women (50.5% vs 49.5%), and the mean age was 60.39 years. Typical of most case-control studies, most of the healthy control participants had a college degree or had completed at least some college education (72.9%). Approximately 77% of the non-Hispanic white participants, 66% of the African Americans, and 48% of the Hispanics had at least some college education or a college degree. A majority (51.1%) reported household incomes of $50,000 per year or more. Approximately 58% of the non-Hispanic white participants, 40% of the African Americans, and 44% of the Hispanics had a yearly household income of $50,000 or more. On average, most were former smokers (45%). Within each ethnic group, about 47% of the non-Hispanic white participants, 38% of the African Americans, and 43% of the Hispanics were former smokers.
Participants were enrolled from July 1995 to March 2004 as healthy controls from a previously described molecular epidemiological case-control study designed to evaluate genetic susceptibility for lung cancer risk. 16 The control group was composed of people without a previous or current diagnosis of cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer), and controls were matched to cases by age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status (never, former, or current smoker). They were recruited from the Kelsey-Seybold Clinics, Houston’s largest, privately operated, multispecialty physician group. All subjects spoke English. To date, the overall response rate for the control participants has been approximately 75%, and the design is cross-sectional.
Brian A Couch, Joanna K Hubbard, Chad E Brassil, Multiple–True–False Questions Reveal the Limits of the Multiple–Choice Format for Detecting Students with Incomplete Understandings, BioScience, Volume 68, Issue 6, June 2018, Pages 455–463, https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biy037
Apparent mastery was determined for the experimental MC × MTF questions appearing in either the MC or MTF formats. For the MC format, apparent mastery was calculated as the percentage of students who selected the correct option. For the MTF format, apparent mastery was calculated as the percentage of students who provided a fully correct answer in which they answered all four T–F statements correctly (i.e., they answered true for the one true statement and false for the three false statements). Apparent mastery rates were compared at the question level between the MC and MTF formats using a paired Student’s t-test.